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THE 



History of Methodism 



IN 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



BY THE REV. ALBERT M.SHIBB.D.D. 

(At the request of the South Carolina Conference.) 



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Suavis laborum ed prceteritorum memoria. 



SOUTHERN . METHODISE' PltBLISHIWG' HOUSE. 



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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, 

By the Book Agent of the Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South, 

in the Office of the Librarian. of Congress, at Washington. 



PREFACE. 



The South Carolina Conference, at its session held 
in Chester, December, 1876, formally requested the 
Kev. Albert M. Shipp, D.D., to write the History of 
Methodism in South Carolina. This he consented 
to do after the expiration of some four or five years 
deemed necessary for a due preparation for the new 
work in Yanderbilt University, upon which he had 
entered the year before. 

In the summer and autumn of the year 1880 ho 
was able to write the History as requested, and m 
December following, presented the manuscript to tka 
South Carolina Conference in session at Marion. A 
committee of six members was appointed by the Con- 
ference to receive it, and, after such examination of 
the work as time allowed, made the following report: 

The committee appointed to receive the History of Methodism 
in the South Carolina Conference, which has been prepared by the 
Rev. A. M. Shipp, D.D., at the request of the Conference, beg leav^ 
to report: 

They have looked over the manuscript as carefully as their lim 
ited time would permit, and they are happy to say, in their judg- 
ment, it is in every way worthy the hearty indorsement of the 
Conference. The plan is comprehensive. It runs back to the set- 
tlement of the State, and takes into its general outline the religious 
and civil histories of those early times; then stretches down to late? 
periods, and weaves into the biographies of the heroes of the Church 
those glorious achievements and thrilling personal adventures which 
make the History of Methodism in South Carolina more marvelous 
than romance. 

Two points strike the committee with force. The work sets forth 
in a strong light the contribution Avhich Methodism has made to 
the civilization of the commonwealth, not only in the lives of her 
great and good men, but also in bringing vast masses of the popu- 



4 Preface. 

lation, especially the colored people, hitherto unreached by other 
Churches, under the enlightening and elevating influences of Chris- 
tianity. The other point presents Methodism as a witness for Christ. 
The baptism of fire which attended the ministry of the early preach- 
ers, the purity and zeal of the Church, sprung into more vital ac- 
tivity the other sister denominations of the State, and have made" 
Methodism a recognized witness for Christ before the Church and 
the world. 

This History will call forth the profound gratitude of every serv- 
ant of the Lord to the great Head of the Church for the glorious 
work wrought by Methodism in spreading scriptural holiness through 
these lands; and the fruit of this labor garnered in this History 
will become a strong appeal to the Church still to advance and oc- 
cupy new fields "in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ." 

The author has spared no industry in collecting materials. He 
has carefully sifted the data, corrected discrepancies, and has kept 
in view his aim to furnish a true, living, inspiring narrative of men 
and things in the origin and progress of Methodism for almost one 
hundred years, down to the period within the memory of men still 
"living. The work has been to him a labor of love, and he has gen- 
erously made it the property of the Conference. 

The committee respectfully suggest the adoption of the following 
resolutions : 

1. Resolved, That the Conference hereby expresses its high appre- 
ciation and hearty thanks to the Rev. A. M. Shipp, D.D., of this 
Conference, for his inestimable labor in committing to permanent 
record the achievement of our fathers, in the History of Methodism 
in South Carolina. 

2. Resolved, That the Conference accept the generous donation of 
the History, and hereby turn over any profit derived from the sale 
of the book to the legal Conference, for a permanent investment, 
the interest on which shall be appropriated to the Conference col- 
lection in aid of the worn-out preachers, and the widows and orphans 
of those w T ho have died while engaged in preaching the gospel in 
the South Carolina Conference. 

3. Resolved, That a committee be appointed, and is hereby em- 
powered, to act for the Conference, in consultation with the author, 
on the publication of the History, at such a time and place as may 
be deemed most expedient. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. T. Wightman, J. A. Porter, 

W. Martin, W. T. Capers, 

S. Leard, E. J. Meynardie. 

Under the third resolution of the report the same 
committee was appointed to make suitable arrange- 
ments for the publication of the work. 

Yanderbilt University, November, 1882. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The author of this volume is entitled to the thanks 
of the whole Church for his careful, thorough, and 
valuable History of Methodism in South Carolina. 
One by one the fathers are passing away, and very 
soon their names will be scarcely known to the gener- 
ation following. Books like this gather up the facts, 
garner the precious memories, and embalm them for 
all time. 

To write a history is a most difficult task. To dis- 
criminate in the distribution of praises ; to administer 
censure where it is deserved; and to connect the 
events of the past into a chain which gives due prom- 
inence to causes and effects alike, are duties of the 
historian which many recognize and few fulfill. Dr. 
Shipp has allowed the actors in the scenes to speak 
for themselves wherever their personal records were 
either essential to the narrative or explanatory of 
circumstances which could only be known to the wit- 
nesses themselves. 

In two respects this book will commend itself to 
the thoughtful reader. The author has not followed 
the order of time so much as the order of his topics. 
The volume, whilst it loses the feature of a book of an- 



6 Introduction. 

nals, gains a far more valuable property in the histor- 
ical development of its subjects. The beginning of an 
enterprise, its difficulties, embarrassments, and results, 
are traced in their connection with each other. 

To this volume the lover of truth, wherever he may 
reside, can turn for a calm, clear, and absolute vindi- 
cation of the Southern people in regard to the moral 
and religious welfare of the African race. In this 
respect the volume is not only a perpetuation of a 
record well known to many, but it will enable the 
present generation to defend the memory of their 
fathers, which has often been wantonly assailed. 

W. P. Harbison. 

Nashville, Term., November, 1882. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

Early Attempts to Colonize Carolina; De Ayllon, 11 — Coligny, 12 — 
Raleigh, 1-1 — Heath, 15 — Lords Proprietors, 1<> — Old Charlestown, 
23 — -First Ministers, 25 — Established ( Ihurch, 26 — French Protest- 
ants, 38 — Presbyterians and Independents, 38- — Baptists, 43 — 
Quakers and German Protestants, 4-1 — Catholics and Jews, 45 — 
Religious Freedom under Constitution, 46. 

CHAPTEE IF 

Holy Club, 49; four Missionaries from, 50 — Settlement of Georgia, 
51; Oglethorpe Secures the Wesleys for, 54 — Dr. Burton's Advice 
to Mr. Wesley, 56 — Ingham, 57 — Delamotte; The Voyage, 01 — 
The Storm, 63 — Arrival; Portraits of Wesleys, 04. 

CHAPTER III. 

Plan of Operation and Scheme of Doctrine, 07 — Visit of Indians, 69 
— Appointments for Savannah and Frederica, 70 — Class-meetings, 
70 — Mr. Wesley at Frederica, 77 — His Fortitude and Courage, 79 — 
The Wesleys Visit Charleston. 82— St Philip's Church, 83— Inter- 
est in the Negroes, 85 — Second Visit to Charleston, 80 — Last Visit, 
89— Whitefield's Testimony, 91. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Whitefield's Conversion, 92 — First Sermon, 94 — Offers to go to Geor- 
gia, 97 — Arrival and Valedictory Sermon, 99 — Pastoral Letter, 102 
— Trip from Philadelphia to Charleston on Horseback, 104 — Ste- 
vens's Account of Flis Preaching, 100 — Orphan House, 108 — Me- 
morial Service, 114 — Cited to Trial by Commissarv Garden, 118 — 
Results, 120. 

CHAPTER V. 

Pilmoor, 122 — His Appointment by Mr. Wesley, 123— Full Account 
of His Visit and Preaching in South Carolina and Georgia, 125. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Francis Asbury, 136— Embarks for America, 138— Mr. Rankin, 139 
— Organization of Church, 141 — Pioneer Preachers for South Car- 
olina; Mr. Tunnell, 142— Mr. Willis, 146— Mr. Allen, 147— Mr. 
Hickson, 148— Mr. Lee, 150— First Visit to South Carolina, 151. 

(7) 






8 Contents. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Progress of the Work, 156 — Pedee and Santee Circuits, 158 — Mr. 
Asburv's Second Visit, 159 — Appointments for 1786, 161 — Isaac 
Smith, 162— Edisto Circuit, 161— Mr. Mastin and Mr. Hull, 165— 
Foster and Johnston; Dr. Coke in Charleston, 168 — Mr. Asburv's 
Third Visit and First Conference, 169 — Appointments for 1787, 170 
— Green and Ellis, 171 — Ivey and Mason, 173 — Mrs. Wofibrd, 174. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Early Conferences, 177 — Mr. Asbury Holds Second South Carolina 
Conference, 179 — First Georgia Conference, 182 — Appointments 
1788; Mr. Partridge, 185— Ellis and Smith, 186— Burdge, 187 — 
Major and Humphreys, 188 — Moore and Herbert, 190 — Gassaway, 
191. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Mr. Asbury and Dr. Coke Visit Georgia, 199 — Third South Carolina 
Conference, 201— Fourth, 202— Sunday-schools, 203— Fifth Con- 
ference, 207 — Asbury and Coke Visit Catawba Indians, 209 — Ham- 
mett in Charleston, 210 — Sixth Conference, 212 — Seventh, 214 — 
Eighth, 215. 

CHAPTER X. 

Sketches: Bruce, 217— George, 219— Randle, 230— Moore, 231— 
Jenkins, 232— McKendree, 239— Waters and Gibson, 241— Tolle- 
son, Fulwood, Cannon, Risher, and Clark, 243 — Henley, Russell, 
Posey, George Clarke, King, Tarrant, Douthet, and Carlisle, 244: — 
Jackson, 245. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Bladen Circuit, 246 — James O. Andrew, 252 — Address to Deacons, 
256— Lincoln Circuit, 259— Daniel Asbury, 263— Richardson, 267 
— McGee and Camp-meetings, 272 — John Fore, 276. 

CHAPTER XII. 

From Ninth Conference to the Nineteenth, in 1805, 278. 

CHAPTER XIII 

George Dougherty, 325 — James Russell, 333 — Lewis Myers, 340 — 
Reddick Pierce, 345. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

From Twentieth Conference to Thirtieth, in 1815, 352. 
CHAPTER XV. 

William Capers, 397 — Methodism in Fayetteville, N. C, 404; in 
Charleston and Vicinity, 409; in Wilmington, N. C, 413; in Co- 
lumbia, 419; in Savannah, Ga., 426 — Southern Christian Advocate, 
431 — Missionary Secretary, 433 — Bishop, 434. 



Contents. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Missions, 436 — Society Formed in New York and {South Carolina, 
439 — Original Constitution, 441 — First Report, 443 — Mission to 
Indians, 445— Mission to Blacks, 449— Report of 1832, 450; of 
1845, 453; of 1854, 458; of 1866, 403. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Legislation on Slavery, 468 — Action of General Conference in 1836, 
475; inl840, 477; in 1844; Speech of Dr. Capers, 479 — Report on 
Division, 493 — Declaration of Opinions in 1836,497 — Last Pas- 
toral Address on this Subject in 1865, 498. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Conference Institutions, 517 — Constitution of Trust Fund, 519; of 
Society for Relief of Children of Members, 520; of Fund of Spe- 
cial Relief, 522; of Joint Board of Finance, 524 — Act of Incorpo- 
ration, 529; of Tract Society, 532; of Book and Tract Society, 
535; of Historical Society, 540; o-' Tithe Society, 544 — Orphan 
Home, 545. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Education; Mr. Wesley's Views on, 547 — Seminary for Laborers, 
55(i; Mr. Asbury's Views on, 553 — Mt. Bethel Academy, 556 — 
Cokesbury School and Conference Address, 561 — Wofford College, 
563. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Purity of Methodism; Doctrine and Early Mode of Worship, 580 — 
Essence of Methodism, how to he Preserved, 583; Purity of in 
South Carolina Conference, 584 — Resolution of 1834, 587 — First 
Pastoral Address, 588 — Preachers Held to Rigid Account, 594 — 
Change in Later Years, 595. 

APPEXDIX. 

Conference Boundaries, 599. 

List of Delegates to each General Conference, 600. 
Table of Sessions of South Carolina Conferences, 603. 
Biographical Sketches of Deceased Members, 606. 
Omissions in Original List Supplied, 649. 



To tfie 

Members of tlie Sontli Carolina Conference 
Of tlie Metliodist Episcopal Cliurcli, Soutli, 

In grateful remembrance of the many tokens of confi- 
dence AND AFFECTION SHOWN HIM DURING THE WHOLE ■ 
PERIOD OF HIS MINISTERIAL LIFE AND ASSOCIATION 
WITH THEM IN THE WORK OF CHRIST, 

This History of Methodism, 

IN THE FIELD ALLOTTED THEM BY PROVIDENCE FOR CULTIVATION, 
IS AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED BY 

The Authoe. 



HISTORY 



OF 



Methodism in South Carolina, 



CHAPTER I. 



I hear the tread of pioneers, 

Of nations yet to be, 

The first low 'wash of waves where soon 

Shall roll a human sea. 

(Whittier.) 

EIGHTY -THEEE years before the settlement 
was made at Jamestown, in Virginia (1607), and 
ninety-six years before the landing of the Pilgrim Fa- 
thers at Plymouth, in Massachusetts (1620), the first 
attempt was made, under the auspices of Charles V., to 
plant a colony within the present limits of South Caro- 
lina. Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, having obtained from 
the Spanish monarch, in 1524, the title of Adelantado, 
or Governor, of Chicora (as Carolina was then called), 
embarked with a band of emigrants from St. Domingo 
in three vessels, under the command of Miruelo, to 
conquer and occupy the country for the crown. After 
various misfortunes by sea, the largest vessel was 
stranded in the Combahee River (then called Jordan), 
which they first entered; and the other two, sailing 
round to a capacious bay at the entrance of a magnifi-* 
cent river, affording one of the fairest and greatest 
havens in the world (afterward called Port Royal), De 
Ayllon resolved to found here the capital of Chicora, 
and selected for a site the ground now occupied b>- 

(11) 



12 History of Methodism 

the town of Beaufort. The enterprise, however, was 
brought to a speedy and disastrous termination; for 
the Indians, at first feigning friendship with the new 
settlers, and thus throwing them off their guard, rose 
up suddenly against them, and putting more than two 
hundred to a cruel death, chased the rest in bloody 
strife to their ships, in terrible revenge of the perfidy 
of De Ayllon, who five years before had entered the 
Combahee with two vessels, and enticing a large num- 
ber of Indians on board, quickly weighed anchor, and 
bore them away into slavery in St. Domingo. 

If this first attempt to colonize Carolina under the 
auspices of Spain had been successful, it would have 
fastened upon the province the paralyzing influence 
of the Church of Kome. 

After the expiration of thirty-eight years, another 
attempt was made to found a colony in Carolina, under 
the auspices of France. Admiral de Coligny, having 
long desired to establish a place of refuge in America 
to which his brother Protestants, the Huguenots, 
might repair from the growing persecutions of their 
mother-country, and having failed in planting a set- 
tlement in 1555 on the present site of Eio Janeiro, in 
South America, planned a new expedition in 1562, and 
placed it under the command of Jean Ribault, of 
Dieppe. Sailing along the coast in search of the 
Combahee (Jordan), he entered the same magnificent 
harbor which had attracted the Spanish colony, and 
to which he gave the name of Port Royal; and choos- 
ing for his settlement a site near the one which had 
been selected by De Ayllon, he erected a monumental- 
stone engraved with the arms of France, and built 
Fort Charles, the Carolina, in honor of Charles IX. of 
France, thus giving name to the country a hundred 



In South Carolina. 13 

years before it was occupied by the English, and called 
by theni Carolina in honor of Charles II. of England. 

The situation of this second colony also soon be- 
came precarious, and, the love of their native land 
reviving in the midst of a distressing want of sup- 
plies and a growing dissension among the settlers, 
they constructed a rough brigantine — the first vessel 
that was ever built by Europeans on the American 
continent — in which, through untold sufferings and 
perils of the deep, they made their way back to the 
shores of beloved France. 

If this enterprise of Coligny had been successful, 
and the colony had been protected and cherished by 
the King of France, soon settlers of another faith 
would have been added to the Huguenots, and Caro- 
lina would have witnessed the same scenes of perse- 
cution as those which cursed the mother -country. 
But Charles IX. desired not the preservation of the 
colony, but its destruction rather; for when Don Pedro 
Menendez captured the Huguenots whom Coligny sent 
out three years afterward to plant a settlement in Flor- 
ida (1565), and hanged them on trees, with the inscrip- 
tion, " I do not do this as. to Frenchmen, but as to 
Lutherans," it was not only without a word of rebuke 
or remonstrance from the king, but there is good rea- 
son to believe it was with the sanction and connivance 
of the royal court. And when Chevalier de Gourgues 
fitted out an expedition at his own expense, and capt- 
uring these cruel Spaniards, hanged them in terrible 
revenge to the same trees, with the counter-inscrip- 
tion, " I did not do this as to Spaniards, nor as to infi- 
dels, but as to traitors, thieves, and murderers," instead 
of being rewarded and honored by his own govern- 
ment, he was even persecuted and left to be pursued 



14 History of Methodism 

with bitter malice by the authorities of Spain. He 
had indeed avenged the wrongs done to Frenchmen, 
bnt in doing so he had at the same time avenged the 
wrongs done to Huguenots, and Huguenots the Gov- 
ernment of France meant to destroy. 

It was the design of Providence that Carolina should 
be permanently colonized under better auspices, and 
that the foundations of her institutions should be laid 
under influences more favorable to freedom of religion 
than any that might emanate from the royal courts 
either of France or of Spain. 

The third attempt to plant a colony in Carolina was 
made under a patent granted by Queen Elizabeth of 
England to Sir Humphrey Gilbert, which at his death 
in 1583 was transferred to his half-brother, Sir Walter 
Raleigh. Under his direction a voyage of exploration 
was made in 1584 by Philip Amiclas and Arthur Bar- 
low, who landed in July on the island of Wocoken, 
in Ocracock inlet, on the coast of North Carolina; and 
taking back with them two natives of America, Man- 
teo and Wanchese, they gave such a glowing account 
of the new-discovered land that no name was deemed 
so appropriate as that of. Virginia, in honor of the 
virgin queen. 

In the following year (1585) Raleigh fitted out a 
second expedition, under the command of Sir Richard 
Grenville, who left a colony of one hundred and eight 
persons on Roanoke Island with Ralph Lane as its 
governor; but such were the hardships which they 
encountered that the colonists were only too well 
satisfied to be taken home by Sir Francis Drake, who 
in June of the following year visited the island with 
a fleet of twenty-three vessels. Scarcely had they taken 
their departure when Grenville returned with supplies. 



In South Carolina. 15 

Having made a vain search for the colonists, and be- 
ing unwilling to abandon the enterprise, he left (1586) 
fifteen of his mariners to keep possession until they 
could be reinforced. This little band had disappeared, 
murdered it was believed by the Indians, when in the 
next year (1587) a fresh party of one hundred and 
seventeen arrived. Here soon afterward were laid, in 
honor of the proprietor, the foundations of the " City of 
Raleigh," and here the first English child destined 
to see the light in America was born. She was the 
daughter of Ananias Dare, and the granddaughter of 
John White, governor of the colony, who gave her 
the name of Virginia. The one hundred and eighteen 
disappeared like the fifteen mariners of Grenville, and, 
though sought for at various times, were never heard 
of more. Raleigh lost heart, as well as means, having 
expended about two hundred thousand dollars in 
efforts to plant his colony, and made over his patent 
to a number of persons (1589), who, with less enter- 
prise than he, met with still less success ; and Carolina 
continued but a waste as far as English settlements 
were concerned, and Virginia but a name. 

In 1630 a patent for the territory between the thirty- 
first and thirty-sixth parallels of latitude was granted 
to Robert Heath, and in 1639 permanent settlements 
were planned and attempted, but without success. 
Some New Englanders, "in 1661, or thereabouts," 
entered the Cape Fear River, and, purchasing from 
the Indians a title to the soil, planted an infant settle- 
ment on Oldtown Creek, near the south side of the 
Cape Fear, but returning home after a few years, 
"spread a reproach on the harbor and the soil." 

In the third year after the restoration of the royal 
government in England, all previous patents having 



16 History of Methodism 

been declared void, the Province of Carolina, extending 
from the thirty-first to the thirty-sixth degree of north 
latitude, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean 
was granted by charter of Charles II., bearing date of 
March 24, 1663, to Edward, Earl of Clarendon; George, 
Duke of Albemarle ; William Lord Craven, John Lord 
Berkeley, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carteret, 
Sir William Berkeley, and Sir John Colleton. At 
their first meeting, held in May, 1663, in order to 
agree on measures for executing the chief objects of 
the patent, the proprietaries formed a joint-stock by 
general contribution for the transporting of colonists, 
and at the desire of the New England people — some 
of whom had settled on the south bank of the Cape 
Fear Biver — published proposals to all who would 
plant in Carolina. It was declared that emigrants 
would be allowed to nominate their governor and 
council, to have an assembly composed of the gover- 
nor and council, and delegates of freemen chosen by 
themselves to make the laws, and in particular every 
one should enjoy the most perfect freedom in religion. 
(Chalmers.) In subsequent instructions it was espe- 
cially enjoined to make every thing easy " to the people 
of New England, from which the greatest emigrations 
were expected, as the southern colonies were already 
drained." 

In 1662 George Durant obtained from the Yeopin 
Indians the neck of land to which he gave name in 
North Carolina, and in the following year George 
Cathmaid obtained a large grant of land upon the 
Sound, as a reward from Sir William Berkeley, who 
was Governor of Virginia, and joint proprietary of 
Carolina, for having established sixty-seven persons 
chiefly on the north-east bank of the Chowan Biver. 



In South Carolina. 17 

This oldest considerable settlement, in honor of Monk, 
received the name of Albemarle. 

In letters of instruction to Sir William Berkeley, 
under date of September 8, 1663, the proprietaries 
say: "We are informed that there are some people 
settled on the north-east part of the River Chowan, 
and that others have inclination to plant there, as 
also the larboard side entering of the same river, so 
that we hold it convenient that a government be forth- 
with appointed for that colony, and for that end we 
have by Captain Whittey sent you a power to consti- 
tute one or two governors, and councils, and other 
officers, unto which power we refer ourselves; we 
having only reserved the nomination of a surveyor 
and secretary, as officers that will be fit to take care of 
your and our interests, the one by faithfully laying out 
all lands, the other by justly recording the same. The 
reason of giving you power to settle two governors— 
that is, of either side of the river — one is, because some 
persons that are for liberty of conscience may desire 
a governor of their own proposing, which those on the 
other side of the river may not so well like, and our 
desire being to encourage those people to plant abroad, 
and to stock well those parts with planters, incites us 
to comply always with all sorts of people as far as 
we possibly can." By virtue of the full powers thus 
conferred, Sir William Berkeley appointed William 
Druraniond, a Dissenter from Scotland, first governor 
of Albemarle, and, instituting a Carolina assembly, 
left the infant people in freedom of conscience to take 
care of themselves. 

In October, 1667, Samuel Stevens succeeded Govern- 
or Drummond, and was commanded to act altogether 
by the advice of a council of twelve, six of whom were 



18 History of Methodism 

to be chosen by the assembly, and six to be appointed 
by himself. The assembly was composed of the gov- 
ernor, the council, and twelve delegates chosen annu- 
ally by the freeholders, and was invested with power 
not only to make the laws, but also with a large portion 
of the executive authority, with the right of appoint- 
ing officers, and presenting to churches the proprie- 
taries, thus transferring to the infant colony the right 
of "patronage and advowson of all the churches " with 
which they were invested by the charter. (Chalmers.) 

In August, 1663, several gentlemen of Barbadoes 
proposed to establish a colony south of the Cape Fear, 
and receiving from the proprietaries the greatest en- 
couragement, and in particular the pledge of " freedom 
and liberty of conscience in all religious or spiritual 
things, and to be kept inviolable," they fitted out a 
vessel under the conduct of Hilton, an able navigator 
(the same that gave name to Hilton Head in the neigh- 
borhood of Beaufort), to explore the country. 

In January, 1665, Sir John Yeamans was appointed 
governor of the territory then called Clarendon, 
stretching from the Cape Fear to the Saint Matheo 
(Saint Johns in Florida), and in the autumn of the 
same year, conducting a band of emigrants from Bar- 
badoes, began to lay the foundations of a new settle- 
ment near that of the New Englanders. The same 
constitution was established, and the same powers 
conferred on this colony as those which had made 
Albemarle happy. 

In good truth it may be said that in Carolina " the 
child of ecclesiastical oppression was swathed in inde- 
pendence," since three separate and distinct colonies 
were established upon the broad foundation of a regu- 
lar system of freedom of every kind, which it was 



In South Carolina. 19 

deemed necessary by the proprietaries to offer to em- 
igrants to induce them to encounter the difficulties of 
planting in a foreign land. 

In 1669 the proprietaries turned their attention to 
the settlement of a fourth colony in the southern part 
of the province. The limits of the province had been 
enlarged by a second charter, granted June 13, 1665, 
so as to embrace all the land lying between twenty- 
nine degrees and thirty-six degrees thirty minutes, 
north latitude — a territory extending seven and one- 
half degrees from north to south, and more than forty 
degrees from east to west — comprising the whole of 
North and South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Alaba- 
ma, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, much of Florida 
and Missouri, nearly all of Texas, and a large portion 
of Mexico ; to which immense domain were added, by 
a third charter in 1667, the Bermuda Islands. 

More than six years had elapsed since the royal sig- 
nature had been given to the charter, and it was now 
deemed proper to establish a form of government com- 
mensurate in its dignity with the vastness of the em- 
pire which the germs of existing colonies encouraged 
their imagination to anticipate in the future. It must 
be agreeable to monarchy, free from too numerous a 
democracy, and pleasing to Dissenters. The Earl of 
Shaftesbury, who in the year 1662 was found battling 
in the British Parliament in opposition to the Bill of 
Uniformity, was deputed by his associates to frame a 
system of laws suitable for the province. He sum- 
moned to his aid, in this most difficult and delicate 
work, the celebrated philosopher John Locke, whose 
friendship he valued, and whose distinguished abili- 
ties he held in profound admiration. 

Mr. Locke was a man of piety as well as of learning. 



20 History of Methodism 

He chose the word of God as the book of his study and 
the rule of his life. He was the well-known friend 
and avowed advocate of religious freedom, and was 
accustomed to say that "at the day of judgment it 
would not be asked whether he was a follower of Xai- 
ther or of Calvin, but whether he embraced the truth 
in the love of it." In the Fundamental Constitutions 
which he framed, the perplexing problem of a union 
between Church and State was solved not by giving 
a legal preference to one sect or denomination over 
another, but by making the national religion of the 
province broad enough to embrace in the enjoyment 
of equal rights and privileges each and every Church 
of seven or more persons agreeing in any religion, and 
subscribing to the three following terms of communion: 

"1. That there is* a God. 

" 2. That God is to be publicly worshiped. 

" 3. That it is lawful, and the duty of every man 
being thereunto called by those that govern, to bear 
witness to the truth." 

In his view, Jews, heathens, and other dissenters 
from the purity of the Christian religion, if not kept 
at a distance from it by legal discriminations against 
them, " would have better opportunity of acquainting 
themselves with the truth and reasonableness of its 
doctrines and the peaceableness and inoffensiveness 
of its professors, and by good usage, and persuasion, 
and all those convincing methods of gentleness and 
meekness suitable to the rules and designs of the gos- 
pel, would be won over to embrace and unfeignedly 
receive the truth." 

The proprietaries approved and signed, July 21, 
1669, the Fundamental Constitutions, as drawn by Mr. 
Locke, and the original copy, which was given by 



In South Carolina. 21 

them to the first band of emigrants, is still preserved 
— in the handwriting, it is believed, of Mr. Locke — in 
the Charleston Library (Rivers). Thus these states- 
men, who successfully advocated in England the pas- 
sage of the Act of Uniformity in 16G2, and of the 
Five-mile Act in 1665, and were enforcing these laws 
with relentless cruelty in the parent country, gave 
their signatures in 1669 to a document that pledged 
to Dissenters perfect freedom of religion and worship, 
as an inducement to plant a fourth colony in Carolina. 
While they silenced men like John Owen, and filled 
the prisons of England with such victims as Baxter, 
Bunyan, Alleine, and John Wesley of Whitchurch 
(the grandfather of the founder of Methodism), they 
offered full liberty of conscience and ample protection 
to every variety of religious opinion in their province. 
Thus they impeached the wisdom and good faith of 
their home administration by the implied avowal that 
diversities of opinion and worship may peaceably co- 
exist in the same society, and that freedom of religion 
is the surest means of making a commonwealth flour- 
ish and a country appear desirable to its inhabitants. 
In a subsequent revision of these Constitutions, Arti- 
cle XCVI. was interpolated (the authorship of which 
Mr. Locke disavowed), granting toleration to Dissent- 
ers, and making the Church of England the national 
religion of Carolina, and alone entitled to receive pub- 
lic maintenance from the Colonial Assembly. This 
change was a vital one to Dissenters, and the new Con- 
stitutions, because they violated original stipulations 
with the colonists, were promptly and resolutely re- 
jected throughout the province. Four successive 
modifications of these Constitutions were made to 
render them acceptable to the people; but, claiming 



22 History of Methodism 

that the original copy was genuine and of binding 
force, they perseveringly refused to recognize the au- 
thority of any of them, till at length, in April, 1693, 
the proprietaries resolved, " That as the people have 
declared they would rather be governed by the powers 
granted by the charter, without regard to the Funda- 
mental Constitutions, it will be for their quiet and the 
protection of the well-disposed to grant their request." 

Attracted by the natural advantages of a land dis- 
tinguished as " the beauty and envy of North America," 
the Cavaliers of England began to emigrate, in order 
that they might repair fortunes wasted by the wars 
of Cromwell; and drawn by the security given in the 
fundamental laws, and under the sanction of the char- 
ter, for perfect freedom and equality in matters of re- 
ligion, the persecuted of all countries flocked to it as 
an asylum from the evils of intolerance. 

Under the conduct of William Sayle, a Dissenter, 
who was appointed by the proprietaries the first gov- 
ernor of the colony, July 26, 1669, and of Joseph VV est, 
wdio was sent out as their commercial agent, the first 
band of emigrants — composed for the most part of 
English Dissenters and a few Huguenots, provided 
with every thing thought necessary for a new settle- 
ment — set sail for Carolina in January, 1670. Touch- 
ing at Kinsale in Ireland, to obtain from twenty-five 
to thirty servants for a plantation to be opened for 
the proprietaries, under, the direction of Mr. West, 
and also at Barbadoes to procure suitable seeds and 
plants for the new colony, they reached Port Royal 
harbor on the 17th of March, and landed on Beau- 
fort Island, where about one hundred years before, 
in the like search for a cover f jom the storms of per- 
secution, the Huguenots had engraved the lilies of 



In South Carolina. 23 

France and erected the Fortress of Carolina. After a 
delay of a few days, they sailed round into Ashley 
River, in April, 1G70, and on the west bank of the 
river, at the month of Wappoo Creek, at a point " con- 
venient for tillage and pasturing," they selected their 
resting-place, and began to lay the foundations of Old 
Charlestown. 

As early as 1672 the neck of land between the two 
rivers, to which the names of Shaftesbury (Ashley 
Cooper) had been given, contained a few settlements, 
and Governor Yeamans had a site for a new town 
marked off, which took the name of Oyster Point 
Town; and as this location afforded better advantages 
for commerce than the site originally chosen, it sup- 
planted it in 1680, and losing its former name was at 
first called New Charlestown, then, in 1682, Charles- 
town, and in after-years Charleston; though it was 
recognized by act of incorporation only in 1783, after 
the lapse of more than a century. "The town," says 
Thomas Ash, in 1682, " is regularly laid out into large 
and caj)acious streets. In it they have reserved con- 
venient places for the building of a church, town- 
house, and other public structures, an artillery-ground 
for the exercise of their militia, and wharfs for the 
convenience of their trade and shipping." "At this 
town, in November, 1680," says Samuel Wilson, " there 
rode at one time sixteen sail of vessels, some of which 
were upward of two hundred tons, that came from vari- 
ous parts of the king's kingdom to trade there." 

In August, 1671, the ship Blessing, under the com- 
mand of Captain Matthias Halsted, brought over a 
second band of emigrants, for whom Newtown was 
laid out, on Stono River, westward of Charleston; 
and in December of the same year the Blessing and 



24 History of Methodism 

Phenix brought a number of Dutch emigrants from 
New York, who first built and occupied Jamestown 
on James Island, but afterward spread themselves 
through the other settlements. 

Sir John Yeamans, having left his colony on the 
Cape Fear and returned to Barbadoes, soon after (1671) 
joined the colony established by William Sayle, and 
brought with him the first negro slaves who were ever 
seen in Carolina. He was appointed governor of the 
province April 19, 1672; and the colonists whom he 
had planted on the Cape Fear, following him to the 
Ashley, the old settlement was deserted and relapsed 
again into a wilderness. Small parties of emigrants 
continued to come into the new colony by almost every 
vessel, and the proprietaries sought by every means 
in their power to add to their number, so that in 1682 
the population amounted to about twenty-five hun- 
dred. "At our being there (1680)," says Thomas Ash, 
two years afterward, "there was judged to be one 
thousand or twelve hundred souls; but the great num- 
ber of families from England, Ireland, Barbadoes, 
Jamaica, and the Caribbees, which daily transport 
themselves thither, have more than doubled that 
number." 

The plan of co-extending settlements and religious 
instruction, by making the Church and minister ap- 
j)endages to every town and place newly occupied, 
was not common in Carolina, and for more than 
twenty years from the planting of the colony divine 
service was but irregularly performed, and almost en- 
tirely confined to the city of Charleston. "Without 
the advantages of public worship, and of schools for 
the education of their children., the people, scattered 
through a forest, were in great danger of sinking soon 



In South Carolina. 25 

by degrees into the same state of ignorance and bar- 
barism with the natural inhabitants of the wilderness, 
which they came to occupy and reclaim. The first 
minister in the colony was the Rev. Atkin William- 
son, whose arrival was about 1680, and Originall Jack- 
son and his wife Meliscent executed to him a deed of 
gift, January 14, 1682, of four acres of land for a house 
of worship to be erected, in which he might conduct wor- 
ship according to the form and liturgy of the Church 
of England. The first church erected — according to 
Rivers and Dr. Dalcho in 1682, but according to Dr. 
Ramsay in 1690, and occupying the site reserved for 
that purpose when Oyster Point Town was laid out by 
Governor Yeamans in 1672, and which was the same 
as that on which St. Michael's now stands — was built 
of black cypress, on a brick foundation, and had for 
its distinctive name St. Philip's, though it was com- 
monly called the English Church. After Mr. Will- 
iamson, " one Mr. Warmel was sent over " (Oldmixon), 
of whose ministerial labors nothing is known. Tho 
third Church of England minister in the colony was 
the Rev. Samuel Marshall, whose amiable character 
and great merit are attested by the readiness with 
which the Dissenters voted him an annual salary as 
rector of St. Philip's. He died in 1696, and was soon 
succeeded by the Rev. Edward Marston, a man of 
ability and liberal feelings toward Dissenters, and 
who, for his spirited opposition to the oppressive acts 
of Assembly against them in 1704, was arraigned be- 
fore the Board of Lay Commissioners in 1705, and de- 
prived of his living. 

More than twenty years had passed away in the en- 
joyment by the colonists of that equality among all 
religious denominations contemplated in the scheme 



2fi History of Methodism 

of Shaftesbury and Locke, when the Dissenters, in no 
fear of having the Church of England made the na- 
tional religion of the province, since no motion to that 
end had at any time been brought forward in the As- 
sembly, and in particular with no thought of opening 
the way to so vital a change in the fundamental law, 
granted, in 1694, by legislative act, with the approval 
of the Governor, Joseph Blake, who was also a Dis- 
senter, to Samuel Marshall, the rector of St. Philip's 
Church, and to his successors, a salary of one hundred 
and fifty pounds sterling per annum, with a house and 
glebe and two servants. This act of Christian recog- 
nition and generous liberality on the part of the 
Dissenters " being notoriously known to be above two- 
thirds of the people, and the richest and soberest 
among them," was duly appreciated not only by Mr. 
Marshall and his successor, Edward Marston, but also 
by the better class of Episcopalians in general, and 
had the happy effect of diffusing for a time feelings 
of harmony and mutual good- will throughout the 
province. 

Bat in 1703, Sir Nathaniel Johnson, a bigoted prel- 
atist, was appointed Governor, and conspired with 
ex-Governor James Moore, whom he made attorney- 
general, and Nicholas Trott, to whom he gave the office 
of chief -justice, by means of " undue elections," and 
the blending of religious controversy with political 
questions, to make the Church of England the estab- 
lished religion of the colony. James Moore, oppressed 
with poverty, had sought the office of Governor in 
1700 to enrich himself, and had procured a bill to be 
introduced in the Assembly of that year, regulating 
the Indian trade, which, if it had, passed, would have 
secured to him the benefit of that lucrative com- 



In South Carolina. 27 

nierce. The bill, however, was promptly rejected, and 
he forthwith prorogued the Assembly. A new one 
was called in the autumn of 1701, and though the right 
of electing was in the freeholders only, he influenced 
the sheriff to return the votes of strangers, servants, 
aliens, and even mulattoes and negroes. Having by 
this means obtained an Assembly composed of men 
" of no sense and credit," who would vote as he would 
have them, he procured the passage of an act for fit- 
ting out an expedition against St. Augustine, the ob- 
ject of which was " no other than catching and making 
slaves of Indians for private advantage." The expe- 
dition, however, was involved in disaster, and entailed 
a debt of six thousand pounds sterling upon the col- 
ony. The Assembly, which during his absence had 
been prorogued, was again called together on his re- 
turn, and, taking into consideration the questions of 
the public debt and irregularity in the elections, great 
debates and divisions arose, which, like a flame, grew 
greater and greater, and at length terminated in a riot 
in which divers members of the body, and others who 
sympathized with them, were assaulted and had their 
lives put in peril. At this juncture Sir Nathaniel 
Johnson was appointed Governor (1703), and "by 
chemical wit, zeal, and art, he transmuted and turned 
this civil difference into a religious controversy; and 
so, setting up a standard for those called High-church, 
ventured to exclude all the Dissenters out of the As- 
sembly as being those principally that were for a strict 
examination into the grounds and causes of the mis- 
carriage of the St. Augustine expedition." When the 
time of a new election came "the conspirators" re- 
solved to procure an Assembly of the same complexion 
as that of Governor Moore's time; and all his illegal 



28 History of Methodism 

practices were with more violence repeated and openly 
avowed by Governor Johnson and his friends. "Jews, 
strangers, sailors, servants, negroes, and almost every 
Frenchman in Craven and Berkeley comities, came 
down [to Charleston] to elect, and their votes wer<3 
taken, and the persons by them voted for were re- 
turned by the sheriffs." The Assembly, being thus 
illegally constituted, proceeded, under the influence 
and direction of the conspirators, to exclude all Dis- 
senters from any Assembly that should be chosen for 
the time to come by the passage of an act, May 6, 
1704, requiring as an antecedent qualification to their 
becoming members that they should conform to the 
religious worship, and take the sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper according to the rites and usages of the Church 
of England. As a majority of the members en- 
gaged in this work of legislation, according to the 
statement of Edward Marston, were constant absentees 
from Church, and about one-third of them had never 
taken the sacrament at all, and did not wish to exclude 
themselves, they declared by the same act all High- 
churchmen eligible to seats in any future Assembly, 
if for twelve months next preceding they had not taken 
the sacrament in any dissenting congregation. This 
act evoked the just condemnation and criticism of the 
rector of St. Philip's: " I cannot think it will be much 
for the credit and service of the Church of England 
here that such provisions should be made for admit- 
ting the most loose and profligate persons to sit and 
vote in the making of the laws." This Assembly 
stopped not here, but arrogating to itself a supreme 
regard for the interests of religion, although, accord- 
ing to the testimony of ex-Governor Thomas Smith, 
its members " were some of the most profanest in the 



In South Carolina. 29 

country themselves," passed an act against blasphemy 
and profaneness, with the view of bringing reproach 
upon Dissenters, and declared, Nov. 4, 1704, the 
Church of England the established religion of the 
province, and appointed twenty lay commissioners — 
eleven of whom had never been known to take the 
sacrament — with full powers to exercise ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, and deprive at pleasure ministers of their 
livings. "It is stupendous to consider," said John 
Archdale, the Quaker Governor of 1695, in review of 
this work of legislation, " how passionate and prepos- 
terous zeal not only veils but stupefies oftentimes the 
rational powers." 

From these illegal and oppressive acts the Dissent- 
ers appealed to the Parliament of England. The 
grounds of their appeal were duly considered by the 
House of Lords. The acts in question were adjudged 
to be in violation of the charter, and therefore illegal 
and arbitrary, and they voted an address to the " good 
Queen Anne," humbly beseeching her majesty "to 
use the most effectual methods to deliver the said 
province from the arbitrary oppressions under which 
it now lies," to which the queen graciously responded, 
signifying her readiness "to do all in her power to 
relieve her subjects," and accordingly declared, June 
10, 1706, the acts to be null and void, and even di- 
rected the crown lawyers to inform themselves fully 
concerning the necessary measures for revoking the 
charter. 

When the Assembly, which had been chosen for 
1706, under the qualifying act which excluded Dis- 
senters, had learned the action of the home govern- 
ment, they repealed the oppressive acts of 1701, but 
passed a new Church Act (Statutes, Yol. II., p. 282), 



30 History of Methodism 

which remained the law of the colony till the Ameri- 
can Revolution. "Now as the civil power doth en- 
danger itself by grasping at more than its essential 
right can justly and reasonably claim, so the High- 
church, by overtopping its power in too great a sever- 
ity, in forsaking the golden rule of doing as they 
would be done by, may so weaken the foundation of 
the ecclesiastical and civil state of that country (Car- 
olina), that so they may both sink into a ruinous con- 
dition by losing their main sinews and strength, which, 
as Solomon saith, lies in the multitude of its inhabit- 
ants ; and this I am satisfied in, and have some exper- 
imental reason for what I say, that if the extraordi- 
nary fertility and pleasantness of the country had not 
been an alluring and binding obligation to most Dis- 
senters there settled, they had left the High-church 
to have been a prey to the wolves and bears, Indians 
and foreign enemies." (Archdale.) 

During the first thirty years of its history " there 
was scarce any face of the Church of England in this 
province" (Humphrey), and, for any success it may 
have had for the thirty years following, it was chiefly 
indebted to the assistance furnished by the Society for 
Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, chartered 
June 16, 1700, by William III. of England. The 
Rev. Samuel Thomas was sent out to the colony by 
this society, in 1702, as a missionary to the Yamassee 
Indians, but was appointed by Governor Nathaniel 
Johnson to succeed the Rev. Mr. Corbin in minister- 
ing to the families settled on the three branches of 
the Cooper River, and to make Goose Creek the chief 
place of his residence. If we accept, however, the 
statements of Oldmixon and the Rev. Mr. Marston, 
this first selection of a missionary was by no means 



In South Carolina. 31 

fortunate, for he was the occasion of the ill usage 
which resulted in the derangement of the Rev. Mr. 
Warmel and of the Rev. Mr. Kendal, who came into 
the colony a few years before him. The Rev. Mr. 
Marston, in his letter to the Rev. Dr. Stanhope, says 
of him: "The best service your society can do this 
young man, Mr. Thomas, is to maintain him a few 
years at one of our universities, where he may better 
learn the principles and government of the Church of 
England, and some other useful learning which I am 
afraid he wants." This society, besides founding two 
free schools in 1710 — viz., one in Charleston and one, 
at Goose Creek, and maintaining them at their own 
expense — sent out ministers to each of the parishes 
into which the province had been divided by acts of 
"Assembly. In addition t< > j >aying in part the salary of 
the rector of St. Philip's, they supported these minis- 
ters and their successors for about fifty years — viz., 
the Rev. Mr. Dunn to St. Paul's, in 1705; the Rev. Dr. 
Le Jeau to Goose Creek, in 1706; the Rev. Mr. Maule 
to St. John's, and the Rev. Mr. Wood to St. Andrew's, 
in 1707; the Rev. Mr. Hasell to St. Thomas's, in 1709; 
the Rev. Mr. Lapiere to St. Denis's (taken by divis- 
ion from St. Thomas's), in 1711; the Rev. Mr. Jones 
to Christ Church, in 1712; the Rev. Mr. Guy to St. 
Helen's, and the Rev. Mr. Osborn to St. Bartholo- 
mew's, in 1713; the Rev. Mr. Tustian to St. Georg £s 
(taken by division from St. Andrew's), in 1719; the 
Rev. Mr. Pouderous to St. James's, Santee, in 1720, 
and the Rev. Mr. Morritt to Prince George's, in 1728. 
The first house of worship, according to the forms 
of the Church of England, out of Charleston, was 
built in 1703, on Pompion Hill, in the parish of St. 
Thomas and St. Denis. Charleston continued one 



32 History of Methodism 

parish till 1751, when, by division, St. Michael's was 
formed. In 169-1 Mrs. Af ra Coming gave to the Church 
seventeen acres of land then adjoining Charleston, 
and afterward included in it, which constituted the 
glebe of St. Philip's and St. Michael's. 

In 1707 the Bishop of London (Dr. Compton) be- 
ing anxious to appoint to St. Philip's a man of pru- 
dence and experience, to serve both as rector of the 
parish and his commissary, to have the inspection and 
control of Church matters in the province, selected 
for that place and office the Bev. Gideon Johnston, on 
the recommendation of the Archbishop of Dublin, the 
Bishop of Killaloe and the Bishop of Elphin also 
concurring, in which "his grace assured him that he 
had known Mr. Johnston from a child, and did testify 
he had maintained a fair reputation and was the 
son of a worthy clergyman in Ireland; that he dared 
answer for his sobriety, diligence, and ability, and 
doubted not but he would execute his duty so as to 
merit the approbation of all with whom he should be 
concerned." Mr. Johnston, the first commissary, con- 
tinued to officiate at St. Philip's, in Charleston, till 
April, 1716, when, on going down in a sloop to take 
leave of Governor Craven, then leaving for England 
in a British man-of-war, the sloop was capsized, and 
by a remarkable coincidence he lost his life at the 
very spot where, on his first arrival in Carolina, it was 
placed in imminent peril. He was succeeded by the 
Bev. Alexander Garden, who continued to act as rec- 
tor of St. Philip's and commissary of the Bishop of 
London till 1753. 

The whole number of Episcopal ministers who set- 
tled in Carolina prior to 1731 is .not accurately known, 
but from that year till 1775, when the American Bev- 



In South Carolina. 33 

olutiou commenced, the aggregate number was one 
hundred and two. 

The French Protestant Church in Charleston was 
an offshoot of the Church of Pons in France, and was 
founded in 1686 by the Kev. Elias Priolau in conjunc- 
tion with the Kev. Florente Philippe Trouillart, who 
were its first ministers, and served the Church as col- 
leagues. The ruin of the Protestants had been some 
years before resolved on in France. " If God spares 
him " [Louis XIV.], said Madame de Maintenon, " there 
will be only one religion in his kingdom; " and in pur- 
suance of this determination, the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes was signed at Fontainebleau October 
22, 1685, all churches of the Protestants were ordered 
to be demolished, their religious worship was pro- 
hibited, and their ministers required to leave the 
country in fourteen days on pain of the galleys. 
About six months afterward, on the 15th of April, 
while their enemies were demolishing the church, 
Priolau, having assembled the Protestants who had 
resisted all the ordeals of persecution, addressed them 
in touching words of valedictory, and amidst the tears 
of the people left Pons for Carolina with a consider- 
able portion of his congregation. Isaac Mazyck, who 
is reckoned as one of the founders of the Huguenot 
Church in Charleston, to which he left by will one 
hundred pounds sterling for the support of its minis- 
ters, makes in his family Bible, under date of 1685, 
this record: " God gave me the blessing of coming out 
of France, and of escaping the cruel persecution carried 
on there against the Protestants; and to express my 
thanksgiving for so great a blessing, I promise, please 
God, to observe the anniversary of that day by a fast." 
The correctness of this early date assigned for its or- 



34 History of Methodism 

ganizatiou is attested by tlie fact that Caesar Moze be- 
queathed, June 20, 1687, to this Church of Protestant 
French refugees thirty-seven livres (trente sept lieures) 
to assist in building a house of worship in the neigh- 
borhood of his plantation on the eastern branch of 
Cooper River. 

Prior to this date many Huguenots had entered the 
colony. At the redistribution of lots in old Charles- 
town, July 22, 1672, their names appear among the 
freeholders ; from year to year grants continued to be 
made to Huguenots, and in 1680, Charles II., in re- 
sponse to a petition from Rene Petit for transporting 
French Protestant families to Carolina, sent out forty- 
five refugees at his own expense, in the frigate Rich- 
mond, and a yet larger number in another vessel at 
the expense of the government. These French refu- 
gees planted on the east side of Cooper River a settle- 
ment which was called Orange Quarter, from the 
principality of that name in Avignon in France, and 
afterward the Parish of St. Denis, from the battle- 
field in the vicinity of Paris, where Admiral Coligny 
and the Prince of Condi met the Catholic forces in 
hostile array and slew their commander, Montmorency. 
In the course of five years some thirty-two families 
had gathered in this quarter, and in continuance of 
their former occupation, and in compliance with the 
wishes of the proprietaries, engaged in the culture of 
the vine and the olive, and the manufacture of wine, 
oil, and silk. They had the advantages of public 
worship only as occasionally performed by the Rev. 
Mr. Priolau, of Charleston, who owned a plantation in 
the neighborhood, till they came under the pastoral 
care of the Rev. Mr. Lapiere. The settlement at the 
first division of the country into parishes was in St. 



In South Carolina. 35 

Thomas, and as the first Episcopal church built out of 
Charleston in 1703, on Pompion Hill, and the new 
parish church, completed in 1709, were both convenient, 
the young men of French parentage who understood 
English constantly attended on the ministry of the 
Rev. Mr. Hasell. " The books the society sent out to 
be distributed by him were of great use, especially the 
Common Prayer books, given to the young people of 
the French and to Dissenters' children." (Humphrey.) 
The greater part, however, continued to meet together 
in a church of their own, built in 1708, whenever they 
had a French minister among them ; but finding them- 
selves unable to support a regular pastor, they made 
application to the Assembly to be made a separate 
parish, and to have a minister episcopally ordained 
who should use the liturgy of the Church of England, 
and preach to them in French. Thus this Huguenot 
Church of Orange Quarter was absorbed by the Church 
of England. 

There was another small settlement of Huguenots 
on Goose Creek, which was perhaps older than the 
one in Orange Quarter, but they never formed — as far 
as is known — any Church organization. 

The third settlement of Huguenots, out of Charles- 
ton, was planted on the western branch of Cooper 
Kiver, by Anthony Cordes, M.D., who landed in 
Charleston in 1686. It was composed of ten families, 
which, though much scattered, were organized into a 
Church under the pastoral care of the Rev. Florente 
Philippe Trouillart, who had been the colleague of the 
Kev. Mr. Priolau in the pastorship of the Church in 
Charleston. "A good number of Churchmen had set- 
tled there, but they had no house of worship till 1711. 
The Rev. Robert Maule, a missionary from the S^c-i- 



36 History of Methodism 

ety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, arrived in Charleston in 1707, and was appointed 
to the parish of St. John's, which included this settle- 
ment of the French. By the courtesy of the French 
pastor, Mr. Trouillart, Mr. Maule frequently performed 
service in this church; at other times in the houses of 
the planters in the different neighborhoods. Few of 
the French attended the service of the English Church, 
partly for want of the language." (Humphrey.) The 
courtesy of Mr. Trouillart was continued till 1711, 
when Mr. Maule began to occupy the parish church, 
and to carry forward the means so successfully em- 
ployed by Mr. Hasell on the other side of the river 
in Orange Quarter. The Eev. Mr. Trouillart died in 
1712, and this second Huguenot Church was absorbed 
by the Church of England. 

The fourth and most considerable settlement of Hu- 
guenots was planted on the Santee in 1686, under 
the pastoral care of the Kev. Pierre Robert, of the 
Waldensians of Piedmont. The infirmities of age 
creeping upon him, he resigned his charge, and was 
succeeded in 1715 by the Eev. Claude Philippe de 
Eichebourg, who removed from Trent Eiver, in North 
Carolina, to Jamestown, on the Santee, in 1712. This 
third Huguenot Church was also absorbed by the 
Church of England on the arrival of the Eev. Mr. 
Pouderous as rector of the parish in 1720. 

The number of French Protestants in these several 
settlements in 1700 was as follows: Of the French 
Church of Charleston, one hundred and ninety-five; 
of Goose Creek, thirty-one ; of the eastern branch of 
Cooper Eiver, one hundred and one; of the French 
Church on the Santee one hundred and eleven — being 
in all four hundred and thirty-eight, to which must 



In South Carolina, 37 

still be added ten families on the western branch of 
Cooper Biver. 

Thus, in 1720, all the Churches of the Huguenots, 
out of Charleston, had gone over to the Church 
Establishment; and in 1724 the French Protestant 
Church of Charleston was on the point of following 
their example. " I have read," says Daniel Kavenel, 
of Charleston, "in the letter-book of Isaac Mazyck, 
the immigrant [one of the founders of this Church], 
two letters addressed by him to Mr. Gordin, a refugee 
to South Carolina, then in Europe. The first was 
dated in 1721, the second in 1725. The first is a reply 
to a letter of Mr. Gordin, who must have been re- 
quested to make eiibrts to procure a minister, and who 
had stated that, having occasion to leave London, he 
had committed the matter to his brother. Mr. Mazyck 
complains that he had transferred so important a com- 
mission to one known to favor 'the union of your 
Church with the Episcopal.' His second letter is de- 
spondent. He says: ' Efforts will now be too late; the 
Church is going over to the Church Establishment.' 
His apprehensions, we know, were not formally real- 
ized; but they show how nearly this Church had then 
lost its distinctive character. It had no doubt been 
deeply agitated and divided. Their brethren in the 
country parishes had relinquished their original wor- 
ship by accepting incorporation under the Church Act 
of 1706. The same method had been adopted by the 
refugees in the other colonies. Men with families 
were anxious to provide for them a worship less liable 
to interruption than their own. While we may lament 
the diversion, for which there were so many just rea- 
sons, and which in process of time all had to yield, 
we must admire the constancy of those who under so 



38 History of Methodism 

many discouragements preserved and transmitted the 
original character of this Church." 

The mixed Presbyterian and Independent Church 
in Charleston was composed of Presbyterians chiefly 
from Scotland and Ireland, Congregationalists from 
Old and New England, and a few French Huguenots, 
and was known by divers names — the Presbyterian 
Church, the Independent Church, the New England 
Meeting, the White Meeting, and the Circular Church. 
The Presbyterians and the Independents, or Congre- 
gationalists, had been drawn closely together in En- 
gland by the persecutions to which, in consequence of 
the Act of Uniformity, they were in common subject- 
ed. They had constituted a board, composed of the 
most influential men of their respective denominations, 
to watch over their general interests as Dissenters 
from the Church of England, and had adopted, in 
1690, "heads of agreement" for the maintenance of 
a friendly intercourse between their ministers and 
Churches. It is not surprising, therefore, that they 
united in one Church organization in the colony. 
These two denominations, moreover, agreed in doc- 
trine and mode of worship, and differed only on a 
question of Church polity, which, in the circumstances 
in which they were placed, was of no practical impor- 
tance. In a province where there was no presbytery, 
the willingness to submit to its authority became 
necessarily inoperative, and the Presbyterian was a 
Congregationalist for the time being, and the Congre- 
gationalist was a Presbyterian; and the distinctive 
peculiarity of each being thus abolished, there was 
nothing to prevent, but every thing to invite to, the 
formation of the mixed Presbyterian and Independ- 
ent Church in Charleston. By their constitution they 



Ix South Carolina. 39 

were at liberty to elect their pastors indifferently from 
either of the two denominations, and accordingly 
the six ministers who served them for half a century 
were thus chosen — two from the Presbyterian and 
four from the Independent Church. Their first regu- 
lar minister was the Rev. Benjamin Pierpont, a Con- 
gregationalist, a native of Massachusetts, who was 
graduated at Harvard University in 1681), and emi- 
grated from near Boston in 1691, with a select company, 
to found an Independent Church in Carolina. He 
died, near Charleston, in 1698, aged about thirty 
Of his successor, the Rev. Mr. Adams, a Congrega- 
tionalist, most probably from the same region of coun-* 
try, nothing is known. The Rev. John Cotton, who 
succeeded him, Nov. 15, 1698, was the son of the cele- 
brated John Cotton, of Boston, a graduate of Harvard 
College in the class of 1657, and a Congregationalist. 
He was eminent for his acquaintance with the Indian 
language and for his revision of Eliot's Indian Bible, 
the whole labor of which fell on him. During his 
brief ministry of nine months in this Church, he la- 
bored with great diligence and success. He died Sep- 
tember 18, 1699, of yellow fever, " the horrible plague 
of Barbadoes, which was brought into Charleston by 
an infected vessel." 

In 1700 the Rev. Archibald Stobo was returning in 
the Rising Sun, under the command of Captain Gib- 
son, wuth the miserable remnants of the colony wdiich 
had been sent out from Scotland two years before to 
plant a New Caledonia on the Isthmus of Darien, and 
which had been well-nigh destroyed by the Spaniards, 
when the vessel, having encountered a severe gale off 
the coast of Florida, was brought into great distress, 
and was forced, under a jury-mast, to make for the 



40 History of Methodism 

port of Charleston. While lying off the bar, waiting 
to lighten the ship that she might enter the port, a 
hurricane arose in which she went to pieces, and Cap- 
tain Gibson, with all on board, perished in the waters 
by a just retribution from Heaven upon him, as it was 
interpreted in Scotland, for his cruelty toward the 
prisoners whom, for their persistent non-conformity, 
he had by order of the government transported as 
exiles to this same Carolina in 1684. Mr. Stobo, how- 
ever, had been waited on the day before this catas- 
trophe by a deputation from the Independent Church 
of Charleston, and invited to occupy the pulpit made 
vacant by the death of Mr. Cotton, and had gone up 
to the town with Mrs. Stobo and a party of friends, 
all of whom thus escaped with their lives. 

The Rev. Mr. Stobo, who bore a specific commis- 
sion from the General Assembly of Scotland, under 
date of July 21, 1699, as a minister of the Presbytery 
of Caledonia, became by election the fourth pastor of 
the Independent Church of Charleston. On his res- 
ignation, in 1704, the Rev. William Livingston, a 
Presbyterian minister from Ireland, was chosen pas- 
tor, and continued in office till death, after which the 
Rev. Nathan Bassett, a graduate of Harvard College 
in the class of 1692, and a Congregationalist, was 
elected his successor; and beginning his ministry in 
this Church in 1724 r continued it till his death in 
1738. The -original edifice in which the congregation 
worshiped was a wooden structure forty feet square, 
and slightly built. A second church-building was 
erected' in 1732, which was also a wooden structure, 
and the circumstance of its being painted white fur- 
nished the occasion of a new designation, as did also 
the form of a third building, erected in 1787, give 



In South Carolina. 41 

origin to the name of the Circular Church. The Rev. 
William Dunlop, "whom," says Woodrow, "I can 
never name without the greatest regard to his memory, 
transported himself, and voluntarily withdrew from 
the iniquity of this time; and, if I mistake not, the 
excellent and truly noble Lord Cardross left his native 
country at the same time." Cardross determined, in 
1683, to seek the freedom of conscience in America 
which was denied him in Scotland, and conducting a 
colony of ten families, and a considerable number of 
persecuted men, who were exiled from their native 
land, planted a settlement on Port Royal Island, where 
the first colony of William Sayle had landed, and built 
Stuart's Town, so called in honor of the family of Lady 
Cardross. The settlement was broken up by a com- 
bined attack of Indians and Spaniards in 1686, and of 
the miserable remnant some returned to Scotland, and 
others scattered themselves through the province. 
During its continuance, the Rev. Mr. Dunlop regu- 
larly conducted worship at Stuart's Town according to 
the forms of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, 
and afterward, returning home, became, in 1690, the 
principal of the University of Glasgow. The Rev. 
Mr. Stobo continued to labor with diligence and suc- 
cess through a period of about forty years, and after his 
retirement from the Independent Church in Charles- 
ton, was occupied in founding Presbyterian Churches 
through the colony. He was instrumental in forming 
the first presbytery of the province about 1728, which 
was the third in priority of time in the whole country, 
and was composed of the following members, viz.: 
the Rev. Archibald Stobo, of Poirpon Church (Walter- 
boro); the Rev. Hugh Fisher (Congregationalist), of 
Dorchester; the Rev. Nathan Bassett (Congregation- 



42 History of Methodism 

alist), of Charleston; the Rev. Josiah Smith, of Cain- 
hoy; the Rev. John "Witlierspoon, of James's Island, 
with perhaps the Rev. Mr. Turnbull, of John's Island; 
and the Rev. William Porter (Congregationalist), of 
Wappetaw. Other Presbyterian Churches were or- 
ganized at Wiltown, on Edisto Island, Beaufort, Wad- 
malaw, and at JacEsonborough. 

In 1731 twelve families, chiefly natives of Scotland, 
left the ministry of the Rev. Mr. Bassett to form the 
Scotch Church, or the first Presbyterian Church of 
Charleston. The separation was not fully effected 
until their house, which was a wooden building, and 
stood near the site of the present church, was finished, 
in 1734. Their first minister was the Rev. Hugh 
Stewart. The Rev. Josiah Smith, the grandson of 
Landgrave Thomas Smith, who was governor of the 
colony in 1693, was called from the Church at Cain- 
hoy May 14, 1734, and settled in Charleston as the 
colleague of the Rev. Mr. Bassett, in the pastorship 
of the Independent Church. He was a man of active 
character and ardent piety, and became the warm 
friend and able defender of George Whitefield. 

On the 22d of October, 1695, the Rev. Joseph Lord, 
a native of Massachusetts, and a graduate of Harvard 
College in the class of 1691, was duly set apart and 
ordained to the gospel ministry; and a Congregational 
Church was organized, with him for its pastor, as a mis- 
sionary church for Carolina. They set sail on the 14th 
of December, in two vessels, and about the middle of 
January, 1696, threading their way up the Ashley in 
search of a convenient place for settlement, they se- 
lected a spot in the midst of an unbroken wilderness, 
twenty miles from the dwellings pf any whites, which 
they called Dorchester, after the nan e of the town in 



Ix South Carolina. 43 

Massachusetts from which they came. The Kev. Mr. 
Lord returned to Massachusetts in 1720, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Hugh Fisher, at whose death, Oc- 
tober 7, 1734, the Rev. John Osg ood, a native of Dor- y 
Chester in South Carolina, and a graduate of Harvard 
College in the class of 1733, was ordained, and became 
pastor of the Church March 24, 1735. The entire 
congregation removed to Midway, in Georgia; and 
having erected a house of worship built of logs, the 
first sermon was preached in it by the Rev. Mr. Osgood,/ 
June 7, 1754. ' 

The Scotch-Irish Presbyterians setted in Williams- 
burg — so called from William III., Prince of Orange — 
in 1732, and laid out a town, which they called Kings- 
tree, " from a large white, or short-leaved, pine, which 
grew on the bank of Black River, near the bridge: 
which species of trees, with all gold and silver mines, 
were reserved for the king in all royal grants." They 
founded here a large and prosperous Church. 

In 1632 a colony from Switzerland, under the con- 
duct of Colonel John Peter Pury, of Neufchatel, set- 
tled on the north-east side of the Savannah River, 
about thirty miles from its mouth, at a place which 
they called Purysburg after their leader, and had for 
their minister the Rev. Joseph Biguion, who received, 
before coming over, ordination at the hands of the 
Bishop of London. 

In 1764 two hundred and eleven emigrants from 
France, under the guidance of the Rev. Jean Louis 
Gibert, an able and popular minister, founded New* 
Bordeaux on the west bank of Little River, in Abbe- 
ville District. 

The Baptists formed a Church in Charleston in 
1685, under the pastoral care of the Rev. William 



44 History of Methodism 

Scriven, who began his ministerial labors in the prov- 
ince as early as 1683, and continued them till his death 
in 1713. The Rev. Mr. Scriven was succeeded by the 
Rev. Mr. Peart, after whom the Rev. Thomas Simmons 
took charge of the Church till his death, January 31, 
1749. The Rev. Isaac Chandler, a native of Bristol in 
England, gathered a Church on Ashley River in 1736. 
The Baptist Church on Welch Neck was founded in 
1738, and the pastor of the Baptist Church on Edisto 
Island, the Rev. Mr. Tilly, died there in 1744. Other 
Churches were formed by the Baptists in George- 
town, Colleton, and some of the maritime islands, and 
in 1776 their number amounted to about thirty. A 
subdivision of the Baptists, known as the Arian, or 
General Baptists, was formed into a Church in Charles- 
ton in 1735, but the society became extinct about the 
year 1787. 

The Quakers, or Friends, emigrated at an early date 
to this province, and in 1696 had a small meeting- 
house in Charleston. In 1750 a colony of them from 
Ireland, under the guidance of Robert Milhouse and 
Samuel Wiley, located themselves on the spot where 
Camden now stands — called at first Pine-tree — and 
erected a house of worship, which remained until the 
Revolution. 

The German Protestants associated for worship un- 
der the Rev. Mr. Luft, in 1752, and built St. John's 
Church in Charleston in 1759. A considerable colony 
from Germany and Switzerland settled in 1735, in sev- 
eral parts of Orangeburg — so called in honor of the 
Prince of Orange — and had for their minister the Rev. 
John Ulrich Giessendanner, who died in 1738. He was 
succeeded by his nephew, John, Giessendanner, who 
after a season accepted ordination from the Bishop of 



Ix South Carolina. 45 

London. His labors in the colony extended over a 
period of about twenty years. About the same time a 
number of Switzers settled in New Windsor — a town- 
ship which commenced on the Savannah River above 
Hamburg, and extended nearly to Silver Bluff — and 
had for their minister the Rev. Bartholomew Zauber- 
buhler. 

The Roman Catholics were organized into a Church 
in 1791, with the Rev. Dr. Keating as their minister, 
and put themselves under the care of Bishop Carroll, 
of Baltimore. 

The Jews had erected their first synagogue in 
Charleston as early as 1759. 

At the royal purchase of the colony in 1729, the set- 
tlements did not extend beyond a line eighty miles dis- 
tant from the coast, and parallel with it, and the whole 
population did not exceed thirty thousand. After this 
event, vigorous measures were adopted for filling the 
province with inhabitants : bounties were offered, lands 
were assigned without cost, and the door of entrance 
was opened wide to Protestants of all countries. The 
distressed subjects of England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
of Germany, Holland, and Switzerland, accepted the 
liberal offers, and emigrated in large numbers between 
the years 1730 and 1760. 

Charleston at this period contained between five 
and six hundred houses, "most of which were very 
costly," and the surrounding country is described as 
"beautified with odoriferous and fragrant woods, 
pleasantly green all the year — as the pine, cedar, and 
cypress — insomuch that out of Charleston for three or 
four miles, called the Broadway [now Meeting street], 
is so delightful a road and walk of great breadth, so 
pleasantly green, that I believe no prince in Europe, 



40 History of Methodism 

by all liis art, can make so pleasant a sight for the 
whole year." The manners of the town are pictured 
as simple and unsophisticated: "The young girls re- 
ceived their beaux at three o'clock, having dined at 
twelve, expecting them to withdraw about six o'clock, 
as many families retired to bed at seven in the winter, 
and seldom extended their sitting in summer beyond 
eight o'clock— some of their fathers having learned to 
obey the curfew toll in England. In those days — one 
hundred and fifty years ago— their rooms were all un- 
carpeted; the rough sides of the apartments remained 
of their natural color, or complexion, of whatever wood 
the house chanced to be built. Rush-bottomed chairs 
were furnished, instead of the hair-seating or crim- 
son velvet of our day, and without which, and a hand- 
some sofa to match, many do not think it would be 
possible to exist." 

At the Revolution, Carolina, in dissolving the bonds 
of her allegiance to the mother-country, severed for- 
ever within her borders the union between Church and 
State. The Constitution adopted March 26, 1776, being 
temporary, and looking to a possible accommodation 
of the unhappy differences between the two countries, 
ordained nothing on the subject of religion. Reviving 
the old distinction between toleration and establish- 
ment, the Constitution of 1778 granted the former to 
all who acknowledged " that there was one God, that 
there was a state of future rewards and punishments, 
and that God was to be publicly worshiped," and de- 
clared " that the Christian Protestant religion was the 
established religion of the State," and should embrace 
every Church of fifteen persons who would associate 
for public worship, give themselves a name, and sub- 
scribe to the following terms of communion — viz.: 



In South Carolina. 47 

"1. That there is one eternal God, and a state of 
future rewards and punishments. 

" 2. That God is publicly to be worshiped. 

" 3. That the Christian religion is the true religion. 

" 4. That the holy Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments are of divine inspiration, and are the rule 
of faith and practice. 

" 5. That it is lawful, and the duty of every man 
being thereunto called by those that govern, to bear 
witness to the truth." 

Finally, the Constitution of 1790 abolished all dis- 
tinction between Christian Protestants and others, and 
granted to ail alike freedom of religion, in the words 
following: " The free exercise and enjoyment of relig- 
ious profession and worship, without discrimination 
or preference, shall forever hereafter be allowed in this 
State to all mankind: provided, that the liberty of con- 
science thereby declared shall not be so construed as to 
excuse acts of licentiousness, or justify practices in- 
consistent with the peace or safety of the State." 

And now, if all Christian rulers and ministers shall 
grow in due degree tolerant of the speculative and 
oftentimes barren opinions of others, and seek to mu- 
tually encourage one another, as they properly may, 
in the active dissemination of substantial, practical 
truths; if they shall strive to build up and establish 
the Churches to which they severally belong, only by 
making the systems of doctrine which they hold con- 
vincing and attractive from the greater purity and 
loveliness of character which they develop, they shall 
reap, in the wide world of people allotted to them by 
Providence as the field of their active labors, such a 
rich harvest both of temporal and spiritual blessings 
as shall bring more honor and real advantage to their 



48 History of Methodism. 

respective Churches- than all the unchristian quarrels 
and acts of intolerance toward one another, which 
have proved indeed not a blessing, but a curse, and are 
fairly reckoned to have shed more Christian blood 
than all the ten persecutions of heathen Rome. 



CHAPTER II. 



Methodist — one who lives according to the method laid down in 
the Bible. (Dictionary of J. Wesley, 17.5:3.) 

A man's heart deviseth his way, but the Lord directetli his steps. 

(Prov. xvi.9.) 

IN November, 1729, four young men at Oxford Uni- 
versity, in England, formed a society for their 
mutual improvement in learning and religion. As the 
name of Methodists was given to the members of this 
society by the college wits, as well from the regularity 
of their lives as from the systematic mode of their 
studies, so also from their earnest attention to the 
duties of religion was their society itself called, in 
the way both of ridicule and censure, the Holy Club. 
"I cannot but heartily approve of that serious and 
religious turn of mind that prompts you and your 
associates to those pious and charitable offices," said 
a clergyman of known wisdom and integrity, in full ac- 
cord with the Hector of Epworth, in a letter of encour- 
agement to John Wesley, the President of the Society; 
" and I can have no notion of that man's religion or 
concern for the honor of the university that opposes 
you as far as your design respects the colleges. I 
should be loath to send a son of mine to any seminary 
where his conversation with young men whose pro- 
fessed design of meeting together at proper times was 
to assist each other in forming good resolutions, and 
encouraging one another to execute them with con- 
4 (49) 



50 History of Methodism 

stancy and steadiness, was inconsistent with any re- 
ceived maxims or rules of life among the members." 
The opposition which began thus to manifest itself in 
raillery grew much more serious in process of time, 
and culminated at length, in 1767, in the expulsion 
from the university of six students of St. Edmund's 
Hall, " for holding Methodistic tenets, and taking upon 
them to pray, read, and expound the Scriptures, and 
sing lrymns in a private house." The principal of 
the college to which they belonged (Dr. Dixon), when 
the motion for their discharge was overruled by the 
authorities, at the close of an able defense — in which 
it was clearly set forth that their piety was unques- 
tionable, their lives exemplary, and their doctrines in 
full accord with the Thirty-nine Articles of the Estab- 
lished Church — indicated his judgment of- the real 
grounds of the proceedings against them, as well as 
his sense of the deep wrong done to them, by suggest- 
ing that as these young men were now expelled from 
the university for having too much religion, it would 
be eminently proper to proceed at once to inquire into 
the conduct of some of those who had too little. Eour 
members of the Holy Club, viz., John Yfesley and 
his brother Charles (who founded it), Benjamin In- 
gham (who joined it in 1732), and George Whitefield 
(who was admitted to membership in 1735), became 
missionaries to America, and in person made known 
from the beginning the principles and mode of life of 
the Oxford Methodists in the infant colony of South 
Carolina. 

At the time the two Wesleys and their associates 
were enduring, persecutions in part for visiting men 
imprisoned for debt in Oxford' Castle, and ministering 
to their spiritual wants, James Oglethorpe, a man of 



In South Carolina. 51 

benevolent disposition and enterprising spirit, who 
liad been educated in the same university, and served 
afterward as a member of the British Parliament for 
thirty-two years, was becoming distinguished in the 
annals of legislative philanthropy by the activity of 
his efforts to alleviate .the physical sufferings of this 
same class of men, who, for one indiscreet contract, 
were doomed by the laws of their country to a life- 
long confinement. For them, and for persecuted men 
like the Wesleys, he planned an asylum and a new 
destiny in America, where former poverty would be 
no reproach, and where the sinijnicity of piety could 
indulge the spirit of devotion without fear of perse- 
cution from men who hated the rebuke of its exam- 
ple. . Twenty-one men of the like benevolent spirit 
associated themselves together, and having been in- 
corporated as Trustees of the Colony of Georgia, by 
charter of George II., bearing date of June 9, 1732, 
adopted as the motto of their common seal, Non 
sibi, serf aliis — not for themselves, but for others — ■ 
and electing one of their number (James Oglethorpe) 
governor of the colony, commissioned him to carry 
out their disinterested and praiseworthy purposes. 
In November, 1732, with a motley band of released 
debtors, one hundred and twenty-two in number, he 
embarked for Georgia, and was welcomed, January 13, 
1733, to the warm hospitalities of Charleston, in South 
Carolina. After enjoying the rest of a few days, he 
went forward under the guidance of William Bull, 
and selected for the settlement of the colony the high 
bluff on which the city of Savannah now stands. In 
laying the foundations of this great enterprise, Gov- 
ernor Oglethorpe was not unmindful of the chief con- 
ditions of success; and while laboring to promote the 



52 History of Methodism 

physical welfare and comfort of the emigrants, he was 
also meditating the proper measures to he taken to 
secure as early as practicable suitable missionaries to 
instruct them and the neighboring Indians in the 
great duties of religion. He had been for a long 
time the warm friend of the Wesley family, and per- 
haps knew from the Hector of Epworth that his fa- 
ther, the Rev. John Wesley, of Whitchurch, as early 
as 1665, felt a strong desire to visit the Western Con- 
tinent, and actually formed the purpose of embarking 
as a missionary, first to Guiana in South America, and 
afterward to Maryland, in North America, but was 
providentially hindered. Governor Oglethorpe was 
certainly well acquainted with the broad and compre- 
hensive scheme of the Rev. Samuel Wesley, for the 
evangelization of the entire Eastern Continent, and 
his noble offer to the British Government, in the 
spirit of an apostle, to undertake the task, and to de- 
vote his life to the prosecution of the enterprise — a 
scheme which was not attempted only because he lived 
before the age which could sympathize with his spirit, 
or respond to his aspirations. He knew that both the 
grandfather and father of John Wesley held that the 
call of God to preach the gospel was a missionary 
call, and they who had it knew that they were not 
their own, and must do the Master's work in the Mas- 
ter's own way, place, and time. He therefore kept 
the Rector of Epworth well informed by letters, from 
time to time, with respect to colonial affairs in Geor- 
gia — not without the reasonable expectation that one 
whose soul was capacious enough to embrace the 
whole of the Eastern could not prove indifferent to 
the wants of the Western Continent. "I had always 
so dear a love for your colony," wrote he under date 



In South Carolina. 53 

of November 7, 1734, in answer to a letter from Gov- 
ernor Oglethorpe, "that if it had been ten years ago 
I would gladly have devoted the remainder of my life 
and labors to that place, and think I might before this 
time have conquered the language, without which lit- 
tle can be done among the natives, if the Bishop of 
London would have done me the honor to have sent 
me thither, as perhaps he then might; but that is 
now over. However, I can still reach them with my 
prayers, which I am sure will never be wanting." 
This response of the Rev. Samuel Wesley was all that 
Governor Oglethorpe could have desired. His plans 
did not embrace the old and infirm, but the young, 
the active, the vigorous; and the spirit of the father, 
he made no doubt, pervaded and animated the bosoms 
of the sons. Already was his mind made up to induce, 
if possible, some of the Oxford Methodists, and in 
particular the two brothers, John and Charles Wesley, 
whose sterling worth was well known to him, to settle 
as missionaries in the infant colony of Georgia. At 
the expiration of fifteen months he returned to England 
to make arrangements for conducting out a fresh 
company of emigrants to Georgia, and found the 
Rev. John Burton, one of the trustees of the colony, 
who had stood as a friend of the Wesleys, at Oxford, 
full of their praises and enthusiastic for their appoint- 
ment as missionaries to Savannah. 

John Wesley visited London, August 28, 1735, in 
order to make due preparation for fulfilling the re- 
quest of his father made just before his death, on the 
25th of April preceding; for as Samuel Wesley had 
dedicated his " Life of Christ "to Queen Mary, and 
his "History of the Old and New Testaments" to 
Queen Anne, so he particularly enjoined upon his son 



54 History of Methodism 

that a copy of his last and crowning work, the " Dis- 
sertations on the Book of Job," should be presented 
to Queen Caroline, to whom, by permission, it was in- 
scribed. Governor Oglethorpe and Dr. Burton seized 
the opportunity offered by this visit and arranged for 
an interview with him on the next day, August 29, 
when, in behalf of the trustees of the colony, they 
tendered to him the appointment of missionary at 
Savannah, in Georgia, presenting at the same time 
such considerations as were thought most likely to 
dispose his mind to accept. They were the more ur- 
gent in the matter, " since in our inquiries," said they, 
'* there appears such an unfitness in the generality of 
people. That state of ease, luxury, levity, and inad- 
vertency observable in most of the plausible and pop- 
ular doctors are disqualifications in a Christian teach- 
er, and would lead us to look for a different set of 
people. The more men are inured to contempt of or- 
naments and conveniences of life, to serious thoughts 
and bodily austerities, the fitter they are for a state 
which more properly represents our Christian pil- 
grimage. And if, upon consideration of the matter, 
you think yourselves (as you must do, at least amidst 
such scarcity of proper persons) the fit instruments 
for so good a work, you will be ready to embrace this 
opportunity of doing good, which is not in vain offered 
to you." Mr. "Wesley took the matter into due con- 
sideration, and without delay wrote to get the opinion 
of his brother Samuel, and went to consult in person 
the Bev. William Law, author of the "Serious Call 
to a Holy Life," Dr. John Byrom, the poet, the Bev. 
John Clayton, a fellow-member of the Holy Club, and 
several others, in whose judgments he had confidence. 
These all concurring in urging his acceptance of the 



lA r South Carolina. 55 

appointment, he proceeded to Epworth to ask the ad- 
vice of his mother; "for," said he, "I am the staff of 
her age, her chief support and comfort " — and secretly 
determined in his mind to receive her answer as the 
call of Providence. " If I had twenty sons, I should 
rejoice that they were all so employed, though I 
should never see them again," was the response of 
the noble woman, as soon as the matter was presented 
and her counsel desired. He made known at once his 
acceptance, with the understanding that his appoint- 
ment as missionary to Savannah should serve as a 
door of entrance to the heathen, and also signified at 
the same time the willingness of his brother Charles 
to accompany him. A commission for the office of 
Secretary for Indian Affairs in Georgia, bearing date 
of September 14, 1735, was transmitted to Charles 
Wesley, and the great satisfaction of the trustees with 
their decision was conveyed to John "Wesley by letter, 
under date of September 18: "Your undertaking adds 
greater credit to our proceedings; and the propaga- 
tion of religion will be the distinguishing honor of 
our colony. This has ever, in the like cases, been the 
desideratum ; a defect seemingly lamented but scarcely 
ever remedied. With greater satisfaction, therefore, 
we enjoy your readiness to undertake the work." 
That he might be able to officiate in a regular manner 
as a clergyman in the colony, Charles Wesley was or- 
dained deacon, by Dr. Potter, Bishop of Oxford, on 
Sunday, October 5, and on the following Sunday, Oc- 
tober 12, priest, by Dr. Gibson, Bishop of London. 
( John Wesley had before been ordained deacon by\ 
Bishop Potter, September 19, 1725, and priest by the/ 
same, September 22, 1728. As Charles was born De- 
cember 18, 1708, and John, June 17, 1703, they were 



56 His why of Methodism 

now respectively about twenty-seven and thirty- two 
years of age. His ardent friend and admirer, Dr. 
Burton, addressed to John Wesley the following letter 
of advice, dated September 28, 1735, containing valu- 
able suggestions respecting the work upon which he 
was about to enter as missionary in America, viz. : 

The apostolic manner of preaching from house to house will, 
through God's grace, be effectual to turn many to righteousness. The 
people are babes in the progress of their Christian life, to be fed 
with milk instead of strong meat ; and the wise householder will 
bring out of his stores food proportioned to the necessities of his 
family. The circumstances of your present Christian pilgrimage 
will furnish the most affecting subjects of discourse; and what arises 
pro re nata will have greater influence than a labored discourse on 
a subject in which men think themselves not so immediately con- 
cerned. You will keep in view the pattern of that gospel preacher 
St. Paul, who became all things to all men that he might gain some. 
Here is a nice trial of Christian prudence. Accordingly you will dis- 
tinguish between what is essential and what is merely circumstantial 
to Christianity ; between what is indispensable and what is variable; 
between what is of divine and what is of human authority. I mention 
this because men are apt to deceive themselves in such cases, and 
we see the traditions and ordinances of men frequently insisted on 
with more rigor than the commandments of God, to which they are 
subordinate. Singularities of less importance are often espoused 
with more zeal than the weighty matters of God's law. As in all 
points we love ourselves, so especially in our hypotheses. "Where a 
man has, as it were, a property in a notion, he is most industrious 
to improve it, and that in proportion to the labor of thought he has 
bestowed upon it; and as its value rises in imagination, we are in 
proportion more unwilling to give it up, and dwell upon it more 
pertinaciously than upon considerations of general necessity and 
use. This is a flattering mistake, against which Ave should guard 
ourselves. I w r rite in haste what occurs to my thoughts — disce do- 
cendus adhuc, quce censet amiculus. May God prosper your endeavors 
for the propagation of his gospel ! 

"Fast and pray; and then send me word whether 
you dare go with me to the Indians," wrote Mr. Wesley 



In South Carolina. 57 

to Benjamin Ingham a few weeks before the time ap- 
pointed for his departure to America. 

Like the Wesleys, Mr. Ingham was descended from 
a minister who was ejected from the Church of En- 
gland by the black Bartholomew Act of 1662. He 
Avas born at Osset in Yorkshire, June 11, 1712, entered 
Queen's College, Oxford, at eighteen years of age, and 
at twenty joined the Holy Club. He was ordained 
deacon by Bishop Potter, June 1st, 1735, preaching the 
same day to the prisoners in Oxford Castle; and when 
he received Mr. Wesley's challenge to accompany him 
to America, he was engaged as the reader of public 
prayers at Christ Church and St. Sepulcher's Church, 
London. He was a sort of ecclesiastical itinerant, going 
often far beyond the precincts of London proper, and 
preaching in many of the surrounding villages with 
such singular success that great numbers of the people 
were powerfully impressed, and had lasting cause to 
be grateful for his youthful and earnest ministry. He 
observed strictly the directions of his letter, and in 
about three days sent the following answer: "lam 
satisfied that God's providence has placed me in my 
present station. Whether he would have me go to the 
Indians or not, I am not as yet informed. I dare not 
go without being called." In a private interview 
shortly after this, Mr. Wesley told him in substance 
that if he required a voice or a sign from heaven, as 
in the case of St. Paul, that was now not to be expected, 
and a man had no other way of knowing God's will but 
by consulting his own reason, and his friends, and by 
observing the order of God's providence. He thought, 
therefore, that it was a sufficient call to choose that 
mode of life which one had reason to believe would 
most promote his Christian welfare, setting forth at 



58 History of Methodism 

the same time the particular advantages which one 
might reasonably expect would further his spiritual 
progress by going among the Indians — leaving with 
him at the end of the conversation several letters of 
Governor Oglethorpe relating to that race of people, 
their manner of living, their customs, and their great 
expectation of having a white man to come among them 
to teach them wisdom. Mr. Ingham began now to 
pray more frequently and fervently that God would 
be pleased to direct him to do his will. With Mr. 
Wesley there came to London his brother Charles, his 
brother-in-law Wesley Hall, and Matthew Salmon, 
in person, in natural temper, and in piety one of the 
loveliest young men of the Holy Club, to receive ordi- 
nation from the Bishop of London, and to be in readi- 
ness to embark with him on the 14th of October. 
With these Mr. Ingham frequently conversed, and in 
a second interview with Mr. Wesley alone one night, he 
found his heart so moved that almost involuntarily he 
said to him, " If neither Mr. Hall nor Mr. Salmon go 
along with you, I will go." It is remarkable that the 
Psalms, the lessons, and all that he then read or heard, 
suggested to him that he ought to go. At morning 
prayers in Westminister Abbey, on Tuesday, October 
7, 1735, the reading of the tenth chapter of St. Mark 
made so strong an impression upon him that at the 
hearing of these words, "And Jesus answered and said, 
Verily 1 say unto you, There is no man that hath left 
house, or brethren, or sister, or father, or mother, or 
wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's, 
but he shall receive a hundred-fold now in this time, 
houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and 
children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the 
world to come eternal life," he determined in his 



In South Carolina, 59 

heart that he wo aid go. His resolution was not a little 
strengthened by the circumstance that on the next 
day, without any intention or design on his part, he 
read the same chapter as the lesson at St. Sepulcher's 
Church. It would not be lawful, however, for him to 
leave without the knowledge and consent of Mr. Nicol- 
son, because that would be to leave the parish of which 
he was curate unprovided. Mr. Nicolson, who had 
been some weeks at Matching, in Essex, came unex- 
pectedly to London at this juncture, and calling on 
Mr. Ingham, Wednesday, October 8 V said to him that 
he was sorry to part with him ; his warning was short, 
yet, as he was going about a good work he would not 
oppose him; and provided he could preach the Sun- 
day following he Avould give him his consent. Mr. 
Ingham accordingly preached the following Sunday, 
October 12, at St. Mary Somerset in the morning, and 
St. Sepulcher's in the afternoon; and then went to 
Mr. Button's in Westminister, where he spent the 
next day with the Wesleys. Mr. Salmon had been 
seized by his relations in town, and sent down post- 
haste to his parents in Cheshire, where he was 
detained; and Mr. Hall, who had made great prepa- 
rations for the voyage, and had that very morning 
hired a coach to carry himself and wife down to Graves- 
end, where the ship lay, changed his mind at the very 
last moment and drew back. These strange occurrences 
greatly confirmed Mr. Ingham in the belief that it was 
God's will that he should go, because he had put the 
matter upon these issues: "If Mr. Nicolson consented 
I might go; if not, then there was a reasonable hin- 
derance against my going at this time;" and he had 
said to Mr. Wesley some time before, " If neither Mr. 
Hall nor Mr. Salmon go along with you, I will go." 



60 History of Methodism 

Mr. Ingham afterward became distinguished as the 
Yorkshire Evangelist, who, in connection with John 
Nelson, William Grimshaw, and George Whitefield, 
effected under the blessing of God a complete religious 
revolution in the northern part of England. He mar- 
ried Lady Margaret Hastings, whose brother — the 
ninth Earl of Huntingdon— was the husband of Lady 
Selina Shirley, who was the second daughter of Earl 
Ferrers, and founder of a denomination of Christians 
that took her name. In some aristocratic circles this 
marriage was considered a mesalliance^ and furnished 
food for scandal in the fashionable world. "The 
Methodists," said the Countess of Hertford, "have 
had the honor to convert my Lord and Lady Hunting- 
don both to their doctrine and practice; and the town 
now says that Lady Margaret Hastings is certainly to 
marry one of their teachers, whose name is Ingham." 
" The news I hear from London," wrote Lady Wortley 
Montague, from Home, " is that Lady Margaret Hast- 
ings has disposed of herself to a poor wandering 
Methodist preacher." The higher classes of society 
indulged in ridicule, but the poor Moravians gave 
thanks to God, and prayed for the newly-wedded 
couple — singing for them the stanza, 

Take their poor hearts, and let them be 
Forever closed to all but thee : 
Seal thou their breasts, and let them wear 
That pledge of love forever there. 

In person, Ingham is said to have been extremely 
handsome — too handsome for a man— and the habitual 
expression of his countenance was most prepossessing. 
He was polished in his manners, -animated and agree- 
able in discourse, studious of the good conversation of 



In South Carolina. Gl 

his people, and delicately fearful of reproach, to the 
cause of Christ. 

John Wesley received his commission as missionary 
to Savannah, bearing date of October 10, 1735; on 
the following Sunday, the 12th, presented his father's 
Latin " Dissertations on the Book of Job " to the 
queen, receiving in return "many good words and 
smiles;" and on Tuesday, the 14th, in company with 
his brother Charles, Mr. Ingham, and Charles Dela- 
motte, the son of a London merchant, who, impressed 
by the preaching of Mr. Wesley, and resolving to con- 
secrate his life to God, volunteered to go with him and 
serve him as a dutiful son in the gospel, left London 
for Gravesend to embark for America on board the 
Simmonds. They had assigned to them by Governor 
Oglethorpe, as being most convenient for privacy, two 
cabins in the forecastle — Messrs. Ingham and Dela- 
motte occupying the one, and Messrs. John and 
Charles Wesley the other, which was large enough 
to accommodate all the brethren when they chose to 
meet together for reading and prayer. After the usual 
method of the Holy Club, the following schedule of 
hours was adopted, so as to derive the greatest benefit 
to themselves, and to accomplish the largest amount 
of good to the passengers, viz. : From four to five a.m., 
private prayer; from five to six, study of the Bible; 
from six to seven, History of the Primitive Church; 
from seven to eight, breakfast; from eight to nine, pub- 
lic prayers, with explanation of second lesson; from 
nine to twelve, study of German by John Wesley, homi- 
letics by Charles Wesley, Greek or navigation by Dela- 
motte, and antiquities or instruction of the children 
by Ingham. From twelve to one p.m., mutual consulta- 
tion and prayer; from one to two, dinner; from two to 



G2 History of Methodism 

four, reading to and conversing religiously with the 
passengers, and teaching of the children, by Ingham; 
from four to five, public prayers, with explanation of 
the second lesson, or catechising the children before 
the congregation; from five to six, private prayer; from 
six to seven, supper, reading by each of the brethren 
to two or more passengers in cabins; from seven to 
eight, John Wesley to join in public service of Mora- 
vians, and Mr. Ingham to read and give Christian in- 
struction between decks to as many as would hear; 
from eight to nine, reports for the day, mutual con- 
sultation and prayer; from nine to ten, retire for the 
night. "The angel of the Lord encampeth round 
about them that fear him." (Ps. xxxiv. 7.) Mr. John 
Wesley preached on Sundays during the passage, go- 
ing over the Lord's Sermon on the Mount, explaining 
the second lesson, or catechising the children, and ad- 
ministering the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; Mr. 
Charles Wesley and Mr. Ingham preached as oppor- 
tunity w r as afforded. Here are the elements of relig- 
ious life then characteristic of all the Oxford Method- 
ists: Intense conscientiousness, concern on account 
of surrounding wickedness, religious employment of 
every hour, devout study, care of neglected children, 
and strict observance of the sacraments of the Church, 
but no clear apprehension as yet of the great truth 
that sinners are saved by the merits of Jesus Christ 
alone, and by a penitential trust in his all-sufficient 
atonement. They were most conscientious, earnest 
Pharisees, seeking to be saved by works of righteous- 
ness, rather than by faith in Christ. 

On the 17th of October, Mr. John Wesley began to 
learn the German tongue, in order to converse with 
the Moravians — a good, devout, peaceable, and heav- 



In South Carolina. 03 

eiily-minded people, who were persecuted by the Pa- 
pists, and driven from their native country on account 
of their religion. They were protected by Count Zin- 
zendorf, who sent them over to Georgia, in the care of 
their bishop, David Nitschman, where lands were to 
be given them. The Oxford Methodists were charmed 
with their Christian deportment, and familiar ac- 
quaintance and conversation with them during the 
passage gave rise to important changes in their after- 
lives — in particular their calm trust and confidence in 
contrast with the paroxysms of fear and anxiety that 
seized the rest of the ship's company during the storm 
that struck the vessel on Sunday, January 25, 1736, 
made a lasting impression on Mr. Wesley and his as- 
sociates. The storm is thus described by Mr. Ingham : 

The sea sparkled and smoked as if it had been on fire. The air 
darted forth lightning, and the wind blew so fiercely that yon could 
scarcely look it in the face and draw your breath. The waves did 
not swell so high as at other times, being pressed down by the im- 
petuosity of the blast; neither did the ship roll much, but it quiv- 
ered, jarred, and shook. About half an hour past seven a great sea 
broke in upon us, which split the main-sail, carried away the com- 
panion, filled between decks, and rushed into the great cabin. This 
made most of the people tremble, and I believe they would then have 
been glad to have been Christians, how light soever they made of re- 
ligion before. I myself was made sensible that nothing will enable 
us to smile in the face of death but a life of extraordinary holiness. 
Toward three the wind abated. In the morning we returned thanks 
for our deliverance ; and before night most of the people had for- 
gotten that they were in a storm. " If they hear not Moses and the 
prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the 
dead." (Luke xvi. 31.) 

They sailed into the Savannah River on Thursday, 
February 5, 1736, and cast anchor near Tybee Island, 
where the groves of pine running along the shore 
made an agreeable prospect, showing the bloom of 



G4 History of Methodism 

spring in the depth of winter. On the next day, Fri- 
day, the 6th, about eight in the morning, they landed 
on a small uninhabited island over against Tybee, and 
first set foot on American soil. Led by Governor 
Oglethorpe, they went to a rising ground where all 
knelt down and gave thanks to God for the safety of 
their voyage. At the first more regular service they 
were greatly comforted by parts of the second lesson 
(Mark vi.) ; in particular the account of the courage 
and sufferings of John the Baptist; our Lord's direc- 
tions to the first preachers of his gospel, and their 
toiling at sea and deliverance; and with these com- 
fortable words, " It is I, be not afraid." 

And now, as they stand in readiness to sow the first 
seeds of Methodism in territory allotted by Provi- 
dence for cultivation to the South Carolina Confer- 
ence, let us look for a moment at the portraits of John 
and Charles Wesley, drawn by a master's hand, and 
suspended in the halls of grateful memory: 

About the middle of March, 1730, I became acquainted with Mr. 
Charles Wesley, of Christ Church. I had a weight upon toy heart 
which only prayer could in some degree remove. I prepared my- 
self to make trial of the value and comfort of society, being a little 
recovered. One day an old acquaintance entertained me with some 
reflections on the whimsical Mr. Y> T esley, his preciseness and pious • 
extravagances. Though I had lived with him four years in the 
same college, yet so unable was I to take notice of any thing that 
passed, that I knew nothing of his character ; but upon hearing this 
I suspected he might be a good Christian. I therefore went to his 
room, and without any ceremony desired the benefit of his conver- 
sation. I had so large a share of it henceforth that hardly a day 
passed while I was at college but we were together once, if not oft- 
ener. After some time he introduced me to his brother John, of 
Lincoln College. "For,'' said he, "he is somewhat older than I, 
and can resolve your doubts better." This, as I found afterward, 
was a thing which he was duly sensible of; for I never observed any 
one have more real deference for another than he constantly had for 



In South Cabolixa. 65 

his brother. Indeed, he followed his brother entirely. Could I de- 
scribe one of them, I should describe both ; and therefore I shall 
say no more of Charles, but that he was a man made for friendship; 
who, by his cheerfulness and vivacity, would refresh his friend's 
heart; with attentive consideration would enter into and settle all 
his concerns ; so far as he was able, would do any thing for him, 
great or small; and, by a habit of openness and freedom, leave no 
room for misunderstanding. The Wesley s were already talked of 
for some religious practices which were first occasioned by Mr. Mor- 
gan, of Christ Church. From these combined friends began a little 
society, for several others from time to time fell in — most of them 
only to be improved by their serious and useful discourse, and some 
few espousing all their resolutions and their whole way of life. Mr. 
John Wesley was always the chief manager, for which he was very 
fit ; for he not only had more learning and experience than the rest, 
but he was blessed with such activity as to be always gaining ground, 
and such steadiness that he lost none. What proposals he made to 
any were sure to charm them, because he was so much in earnest ; 
nor could they afterward slight them, because they saw him always 
the same. What supported this uniform vigor was the care he took 
to consider well of every affair before he engaged in it, making all 
his decisions in the fear of God, without passion, humor, or self-con- 
fidence ; for though he had naturally a clear apprehension, yet his 
exact prudence depended more on humanity and singleness of heart. 
To this I may add that he had, I think, something of authority in 
his countenance ; though, as he did not want address, he could soften 
his manner and point it as occasion recpiired. Yet he never as- 
sumed any thing to himself above his companions. Any of them 
might speak their mind, and their words Avere as strictly regarded 
by him as his were by them. What I would chiefly remark upon is 
the manner in which he directed his friends. Because he required 
such regulation of our studies as might devote them all to God, he 
has been cried out upon as one that discouraged learning. Far from 
that ; the first thing he struck at in young men was that indolence 
which would not submit to close thinking. ISor was he against read- 
ing much, especially at first ; for then the mind ought to fill itself 
with materials, and try every thing that looks bright and perfect. 
He earnestly recommended to them a method and order in all their 
actions. After their morning devotions, he advised them to deter- 
mine with themselves what they were to do all parts of the day. By 
such foresight they would at every hour's end not be in doubt how 
5 



6C> History of Methodism. 

to dispose of themselves ; and by bringing themselves under the ne- 
cessity of such a plan, they might correct the impotence of a mind 
that had been used to live by humor and chance, and prepare it by 
degrees to bear the other restraints of a holy life. The next thing 
was to put them upon keeping the fasts, visiting the poor, and com- 
ing to the weekly sacrament: not only to subdue the body, increase 
charity, and obtain divine grace, but (as he expressed it) to cut oft' 
their retreat to the world. He judged that if they did these things, 
men would cast out their name as evil, and, by the impossibility of 
keeping fair any longer With the world, oblige them to take their 
whole refuge in Christianity. But those whose resolutions he thought 
would not bear this test he left to gather strength by their secret 
exercises. It was his earnest care to introduce them to the treas- 
ures of wisdom and hope in the Holy Scriptures ; to teach them not 
only to endure that book, but to form themselves by it, and to fly to 
it as the great antidote against the darkness of this world. For 
some years he and his friends read the New Testament together at 
evening. He laid much stress upon self-examination. He taught 
them to take account of their actions in a very exact manner by 
writing a constant diary ; then, to keep in their minds an awful 
sense of God's presence, with a constant dependence on his will, he 
advised them to ejaculatory prayers. The last means he recom- 
mended was meditation. Their usual time for this was the hour 
next before dinner. After this he committed them to God. What 
remained for him to do was to discourage them in the discomforts 
and temptations they might feel, and to guard them against all spir- 
itual delusions. In this spiritual care of his acquaintance Mr. 
Wesley persisted amidst all discouragements. I could say a great 
deal of his private piety — how it was nourished by continual re- 
course to God, and preserved by a strict watchfulness in beating 
down pride and reducing the craftiness and impetuosity of nature 
to a child-like simplicity, and in a good degree crowned with divine 
love and victory over the whole set of earthly passions. He thought 
prayer to be more his business than anything else; and I have seen 
him come out of his closet with a serenity of countenance that was 
next to shining — it discovered what he had been doing, and gave 
me double hope of receiving wise directions in the matter about 
which I came to consult him. He is now gone to Georgia as a mis- 
sionary, where there is ignorance that aspires after divine wisdom, 
but no false learning that is got above it. (Gambold.) 



CHAPTER III. 



Our end in leaving our native country is not to gain riches and 
honor, but singly this: to live wholly to the glory of God. 

(J. Wesley.) 

IN the Isle of Wight the four missionaries adopted, 
November 3, 1735, the following constitution for 
the ordering of their affairs in America, viz. : 

In the name of God. A nu n. 

We, whose names are here underwritten — being fully convinced 
that it is impossible either to promote the work of God among the 
heathen without an entire union among ourselves, or that such a 
union should subsist unless each one will give up his single judg- 
ment to that of the majority — do agree, by the help of God: 

First, That none of us will undertake any thing of importance 
without proposing first to the other three. 

Second, That whenever our judgments or inclinations differ, any 
one shall give up his single judgment or inclination to the others. 

TJdrd, That in case of an equality, after begging God's direction, 
the matter shall be decided by lot. 

John Wesley, 
Charles Wesley, 
Bexjamix Ingham, 
Charles Delamotte. 

The scheme of Christian duty which it was their 
aim to inculcate was set forth by John Wesley (1733) 
in the following w r ords, viz. : 

Whoever follows the direction of our excellent Church in the in- 
terpretation of the holy Scriptures, by keeping close to that sense of 
them which the Catholic fathers and ancient bishops have delivered 
to succeeding generations, will easily see that the whole system of 
Christian duty is reducible to these five heads: 

First, the renouncing of ourselves. " If any man will come aftei 

(07) 



68 History of Methodism 

me, let him renounce himself, and follow me." This implies, first, 
a thorough conviction that we are not our own; that we are not the 
proprietors of ourselves or any thing we enjoy ; that we have no right 
to dispose of our goods, bodies, souls, or any of the actions or passions 
of them; secondly, a solemn resolution to act suitably to this convic- 
tion — not to live to ourselves, nor to pursue our own desires, nor to 
phase ourselves, nor to suffer our own will to be any principle of 
action to us. 

Secondly. Such a renunciation of ourselves naturally leads us to 
the devoting of ourselves to God, as this implies, first, a thorough 
conviction that we are God's; that he is the Proprietor of all we are 
and all we have, and that not only by right of creation, but of pur- 
chase ; for he died for all, and therefore died for all that they which 
live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto Him that 
died for them; secondly, a solemn resolution to live suitably to this 
conviction : to live unto God ; to render unto God the things that 
are God's, even all we are and all we have; to glorify him in our 
bodies and in our spirits, with all our powers and all the strength of 
each, and to make his will our sole principle of action. 

Thirdly. Self-denial is the immediate consequence of this; for 
whosoever has determined to live no longer to the desires of men, 
but to the will of God, will soon find that he cannot be true to his 
purpose without denying himself and taking up his cross daily; he 
will daily feel some desire which his one principle of action — the 
will of God — does not require him to indulge. In this, therefore, 
he must either deny himself or so far deny the faith. He will daily 
meet with some means of drawing nearer to God which are unpleas- 
ing to flesh and blood. In these, therefore, he must either take up 
his cross or so far renounce his Master. 

Fourthly. By a constant exercise of self-denial the true follower of 
Christ continually advances in mortification; he is more and more 
dead to the world and the things of the world, till at length he can 
say, with that perfect disciple of his Lord, "I desire nothing more 
but God," or, with St. Paul, " I am crucified unto the world ; I am 
dead with Christ; I live not,' but Christ liveth in me." 

Fifthly. Christ liveth in me. This is the fulfilling of the law — 
the last stage of Christian holiness. This maketh the man of God 
perfect; he, being dead to the world, is alive to God. The man the 
desire of whose soul is unto his Name, who has given him his whole 
heart, who delights in him and in nothing else but what tends to 
him, who for his sake burns with love to all mankind, who neither 



In South Carolina. 69 

thinks, speaks, nor acts but to fulfill his will, is on the last round 
of the ladder to heaven. Grace hath had its full work upon his 
soul; the next step he takes is into glory. 

Soon after the arrival of the missionaries at Savan- 
nah, word was sent them from the Indians of an in- 
tended visit, to be made on the 14th of February. At 
the appointed time they put on their gowns and cas- 
socks, and went into the great cabin of the ship to re- 
ceive them, when Tomo-Chiche, their king, made the 
following speech: 

Ye are welcome. I am glad to see you here. I have a desire to 
hear the great word, for I am ignorant. When I was in England, I 
desired that some might speak the great word to me. Our nation 
was then willing to hear. Since that time we have been in trouble. 
The French on one hand, the Spaniards on the other, and the traders 
that are amongst us, have caused great confusion, and have set our 
people against hearing the great word. Their tongues are useless ; 
some say one thing and some another. But I am glad ye are come. 
I will assemble the great men of our nation, and I hope by degrees 
to compose our differences ; for without their consent I cannot hear 
the great word. However, in the meantime, I shall be glad to see 
you at my town, and I would have you teach our children. But we 
would not have them made Christians as the Spaniards make Chris- 
tians — for they baptize without instruction — but we would hear and 
be well instructed, and then be baptized when we understand. 

To this address Mr. Wesley made this short answer: 
" God only can teach you wisdom, and if you be sin- 
cere, perhaps he will do it by us." The queen, Sinou- 
ki, also made them a present of a jar of milk and of 
honey, that they might feed tliem, she said, with milk— 
for they were but children — and that they might be 
sweet to them. 

Not finding as yet any door open for pursuing their 
main design — the conversion of the Indians — they 
considered in what manner they might be most useful 
to the colonists. Mr. John Wesley and Delamotte 



70 History of Methodism 

were appointed to Savannah, and Mr. Charles Wesley 
and Ingham, to Frederica, in the Island of St. Simon, 
where Governor Oglethorpe had fixed his residence. 
Mr. Ingham, in company with the governor, set out 
for his appointment in advance of Charles Wesley, 
who was to have spiritual oversight of the people, 
and although leaving Savannah on Monday, the 16th 
of February, did not reach Frederica, in consequence 
of a stormy and perilous voyage, until Sunday morn- 
ing, February 22, 1736. He found the people engaged 
in shooting, walking up and down through the woods, 
and turning the day into one for sporting. By his 
request the governor immediately put a stop to this 
desecration of the Sabbath, and after he had break- 
fasted they joined in the litany. On the next Sun- 
day, February 29, he discoursed to the people on the 
proper observance of the Lord's-day, and reproved 
them, in a friendly manner, for their immoralities, set- 
ting forth the heinousness of the sin of Sabbath - 
breaking and the dreadful consequences that would 
necessarily follow. A few received his admonitions 
kindly; but one man answered him openly, that these 
were new laws in America, and the greater part being 
hardened, instead of reforming raised heavy com- 
plaints and accusations against the preacher. His 
parsonage was a small circular space of ground in- 
closed with myrtles, bays, and laurels, in the midst of 
which a fire was kept up by night, before which he 
slept in the open air, with two blankets for his bed. 
His daily employment consisted in holding public 
prayers early in the morning, before the people began 
their work, and at night after they had finished it; in 
visiting the families and taking care of those who were 
sick. For awhile he had the good word of everybody, but 



In Socth Carolina. 71 

when they found that he watched narrowly over them, 
and reproved them boldly for their faults, immediate- 
ly the scene changed. Instead of blessing came curs- 
ing, and the preacher's kindness and love were repaid 
with hatred and ill-will. " Tuesday, March 9, 1736, 
about three in the afternoon," says Mr. Charles Wes- 
ley, " I first set foot on St. Simon's Island, and imme- 
diately my spirit revived. The first who saluted me 
on my landing was honest Mr. Ingham, and that with 
his usual heartiness. Never did I more rejoice at 
sight of him, especially when he told me the treat- 
ment he has met with for vindicating the Lord's-day — - 
such as every minister of Christ must meet with. The 
people seemed overjoyed, to see me. I spent the aft- 
ernoon in conference with my parishioners. "With 
what trembling ought I to call them mine. At seven 
we had evening prayers, in the open air, at which Mr. 
Oglethorpe was present." He entered upon the dis- 
charge of his ministerial duties with great assiduity 
and a fixed purpose to promote the spiritual good of 
the people. He conducted four religious services 
every day, for the benefit of those who chose to at- 
tend; and he was in the habit of giving an exposition 
of the daily lessons at the morning and evening prayer. 
These services were held in the open air when the 
weather would permit, in the store-house when it 
rained, and as the people had no " church-going bell " 
to summon them to their devotions, they were accus- 
tomed to assemble at the sound of the drum. Not- 
withstanding this earnest application to the religious 
work of the mission, his life at Frederica was little 
more than one continued course of vexation and sor- 
row. He labored with all his might, by private ad- 
monition as well as public instruction, to make the 



72 History of Methodism 

people holy, yet few were inclined to attend divine 
service at all, and fewer still came to the Lord's Sup- 
per, or were indeed prepared to receive that holy sac- 
rament. The upright among them respected him for 
his disinterestedness and fidelity, but others formed 
conspiracies to ruin him, and attempts were even 
made to take him off by assassination. "Mr. Charles 
Wesley and I," said Mr. Ingham, on leaving Frederica, 
March 28, " had the happiness of undergoing for the 
truth's sake the most glorious trial of our whole lives, 
wherein God enabled us exceedingly to rejoice, and 
also to behave ourselves throughout with undaunted 
courage and constancy; for which may we ever love 
and adore him! The Book of God Avas our support, 
wherein, as our necessities required, we always met 
with direction, exhortation, and comfort. Thy word 
is a lantern to my feet, and a light unto my paths. In 
God's word will I comfort me." 

On the 15th of May, duties connected with his office 
of Secretary for Indian Affairs called him to Savannah, 
and from thence he was sent with important dispatches 
to England, so that he never again visited Frederica 
where he had met with such unworthy treatment. 
"At four," says he, "I set out for Savannah, whither 
the Indian traders were coming down to meet me and 
take out licenses. I was overjoyed at my deliverance 
out of this furnace, and not a little ashamed of myself 
for being so." 

If while at Frederica the life of Charles Wesley was 
endangered by attempted assassination, and by fever, 
at Savannah it was once or twice in equal peril from 
other causes. July 7, says he: "Between four and 
five this morning, Mr. Delamotte and I went to the 
Savannah. We chose this hour for bathing, both for 



In South Carolina. 73 

the coolness and because the alligators were not 
stirring so soon. We heard them, indeed, snoring all 
around us, and one very early riser swam by within a 
few yards of us. On Friday morning we had hardly 
left our usual place of swimming when we saw an 
alligator in possession of it. Once afterward Mr. 
Delamotte was in great danger, for an alligator rose 
just behind him, and pursued him to the land, whither 
he narrowly escaped." 

The house in which Mr. John Wesley and Delamotte 
were to reside at Savannah not being yet ready, they 
took up their lodging, on Wednesday, the 25th of Feb- 
ruary, with the Moravians, and had an opportunity 
day by day of observing their whole behavior. " They 
were always employed, always cheerful themselves, 
and in good humor with one another; they had put 
away all anger, and strife, and wrath, and bitterness, 
and clamor, and evil-speaking; they walked worthy of 
the vocation wherewith they were called, and adorned 
the gospel of our Lord in all things. They met Sat- 
urday, the 28th, to consult concerning the affairs of 
their Church — Mr. Spangenburg being shortly to go 
to Pennsylvania, and Bishop Nitschman to return to 
Germany. After several hours spent in conference 
and prayer, they proceeded to the election and ordina- 
tion of a bishop. The great simplicity as well as 
solemnity of the whole almost made me forget the 
seventeen hundred years between, and imagine myself 
in one of those assemblies where form and state were 
not; but Paul the tent-maker or Peter the fisherman 
presided, yet with the demonstration of the spirit and 
of power." 

Mr. Wesley entered regularly upon the duties of 
his ministry at Savannah, March 7, 1736, by preaching 



74 History of Methodism 

on the epistle for the day (1 Cor. xiii.), reading for 
the second lesson Luke xviii., in which is our Lord's 
prediction of the treatment which he himself and, 
consequently, his followers were to meet with from 
the world. " Yet," says he, describing this first service, 
" notwithstanding these plain declarations of our Lord; 
notwithstanding my own repeated experience; not- 
withstanding the experience of all the sincere followers 
of Christ whom I have ever talked with, read or heard 
of — nay, and the reason of the thing, evincing to a 
demonstration that all who love not the light must 
hate him who is continually laboring to pour it in 
upon them — I do here bear witness against myself, 
that when I saw the number of people crowding into 
the church, the deep attention with which they re- 
ceived the word, and the seriousness that afterward 
sat on all their faces, I could scarce refrain from 
giving the lie to experience, and reason, and Scripture, 
all together. I could hardly believe that the greater, 
the far greater part of this attentive, serious people 
would hereafter trample under foot that word, and say 
all manner of evil falsely of him that spake it." 

No men ever labored with greater diligence in the 
discharge of their duties as ministers to the people 
than did Mr. Wesley and Delamotte at Savannah. 
They agreed (1) to advise the more serious among 
them to form themselves into a sort of little society, 
and to meet once or twice a week in order to reprove, 
instruct, and exhort one another; (2) to select out of 
these a smaller number for a more intimate union with 
each other, which might be forwarded partly by their 
conversing singly with each and partly by inviting 
them altogether to their house;- and this accordingly 
they determined to do every Sunday in the afternoon. 



In South Carolina. 75 

Their general method of private instruction was as 
follows: Mr. Delamotte taught between thirty and 
forty children to read, write, and cast accounts. Before 
school in the morning, and after school in the afternoon, 
he catechised the lowest class, and endeavored to fix 
something of what was said in their understandings 
as well as their memories. In the evening he in- 
structed the larger children. On Saturday afternoon 
Mr. Wesley catechised them all. He visited his par- 
ishioners in order from house to house, from twelve 
to three in the afternoon, and brought the people to 
prayers morning and night of each day. On the Lord's- 
day the English service lasted from five to half past 
six. The Italian began at nine. The second service 
for the English, including the sermon and the holy 
communion, continued from half past ten till about 
half past twelve. The French service began at one. 
At two he catechised the children. About three began 
the English service, during which — immediately after 
the second lesson — a select number of children having 
repeated the catechism, and been examined in some 
part of it, he endeavored to explain at large and en- 
force that part both on them and the congregation. 
After this was ended he joined with as many as his 
largest room would hold in reading, prayer, and sing- 
ing praise. About six the service of the Germans 
began, at which he was glad to be present, not as a 
teacher, but as a learner. What immense labor was 
this, and how grievous the burden to be borne by a 
people having little or no sense of divine things ! He 
soon began to experience more fully than ever the 
truth of that scripture, " If any man will live godly in 
Christ Jesus, he shall suffer persecution." Dislike 
and opposition began to appear in persons, for reasons 



76 History of Methodism 

which, as brought forward by them, were most incon- 
sistent and untenable. His parishioners complained 
of his too rigid adherence to all parts of the rubric 
of the Church of England: instances of which were 
his declining to baptize healthy children except by 
immersion, and his refusing to admit John Martin 
Bolzius, one of the holiest men in the province, to the 
Lord's Supper because he was a Dissenter, unless he 
would submit to be rebaptized. But he then thought 
this to be his duty, and it was vain to attempt to move 
him. Afterward, when God taught him better, he 
confessed his mistaken zeal, and remarked, " Have I 
not been finely beaten with my own staff? " 

The society or class-meeting introduced at Savannah, 
in April, 1736, was not new in the Church of England. 
It had its origin, as early as 1667, in the successful 
ministrations of Dr. Horneck, a pious clergyman in 
London, and Mr. Smithies, Lord's - day morning lect- 
urer at Cornhill; and when Mr. Wesley was born there 
were forty of these societies in the metropolis, and 
not a few elsewhere, both in England and Ireland. 
Persons feeling the burden of their sins, and seeking 
counsel as to the best means of securing the blessings 
of salvation, were advised by their ministers to meet 
together weekly for pious conversation, and rales were 
drawn up for the better regulation of these meetings. 
By the rules they were required to discourse only on 
such subjects as tended to practical holiness, and to 
avoid controversy. It was, indeed, through these so- 
cieties still existing, though not in the state of former 
vigor and activity, that the Wesleys gained access to 
the masses of the people, since they did not fall into 
condemnation under the Conventicle Act. 

When Mr. Ingham came to Savannah from Frederica, 



In South Carolina. 11 

on the 30th of March, it was to enable Mr. "Wesley by 
exchange of appointments to visit his brother Charles 
in his sickness, which it was thought might prove 
fatal. After Mr. Wesley's return from Frederica to 
Savannah, on the 20th of April, it was thought best, in 
view of the missionary work contemplated among the 
Indians, that Mr. Ingham should remain at Savannah 
and learn their language. He accordingly arranged 
to spend three days a week in taking lessons from a 
half-caste woman (Mrs. Musgrave), and the other 
three in teaching what he had learned to Mr. "Wesley 
and to Mr. Nitschman, the Moravian bishop. He 
agreed to teach Mrs. Musgrave's children to read, and 
to make her whatever additional recompense she might 
require for her trouble. The Creek chief, Tomo-Chiche, 
and his queen, Sinouki, desired him also to teach the 
young prince, and to check and keep him in, but not 
to strike him; for the Indians never strike their chil- 
dren, neither will they suffer it to be done by others. 
They gave Mr. Ingham a plot of fruitful ground in the 
midst of which was a small cone-shaped hill, on the 
top of which a house was built for an Indian school 
called Irene. 

When Charles Wesley came from Frederica to 
Savannah, on the 16th of May, Mr. Wesley left at once 
to take his place, and reaching Frederica Sunday 
morning, the 23d of May, remained till the 23d of 
June. He began at once to execute at Frederica the 
plan of usefulness which had been adopted at Savan- 
nah. When Governor Oglethorpe gave orders on Sun- 
day, the 20th, that none should profane the day by fish- 
ing and fowling, and Mr. Wesley summed up what he 
had seen in Frederica inconsistent with Christianity, 
and consequently with the prosperity of the place, 



78 History of Methodism 

some of the hearers were profited, but the most were 
deeply offended. Observing much coolness in the 
behavior of a friend, on the following Tuesday, he 
asked him the reason of it. " I like nothing you do," 
he answered. "All your sermons are satires upon 
particular persons, therefore I will never hear you 
more; and all the people are of my mind, for we won't 
hear ourselves abused. Besides, they say they are 
Protestants. But as for you, they cannot tell what 
religion you are of. They never heard of such a religion 
before.' They do not know what to make of it. And 
then your private behavior — all the quarrels that have 
been here since you came have been owing to you. 
Indeed, there is neither man nor woman in the town 
who minds a word you say. And so you may preach 
long enough, but nobody will come to hear you." 
Mr. Wesley thanked him for his openness. Three 
additional visits were made to Frederica, with less and 
less prospect of doing good ; till finally, having beaten 
the air for some time in this unhappy place, Mr. 
Wesley took his leave of it, January 26, 1737, content 
with the thought of seeing it no more. 

His labors, as well as those of his colleagues, were 
not confined to Frederica and Savannah, but extended 
to the Saltzburghers at Ebenezer, to the Highlanders 
at Darien, to the smaller settlements at Highgate, at 
Hampstead, Thunderbolt, and Skidoway, and wher- 
ever an emigrant had pitched his tent. The hardships 
and dangers which he embraced, that he might preach 
the gospel and do good of every kind to this people, 
were such as few but himself would have undertaken, 
or could have endured. For so small a person, he 
possessed great muscular strength, a sound and vig- 
orous constitution, with a most ardent and indefatiga- 



In South Carolina. 79 

ble mind. He exposed himself with the utmost indif- 
ference to every change of season and inclemency of 
weather. Snow and hail, storm and tempest, seemed 
to have no effect on his iron body. He would fre- 
quently lie down and sleep at night with his hair 
frozen to the earth. He would swim over rivers with 
his clothes on, and then travel on till they were dry, 
and all without apparent injury to his health. He 
possessed great presence of mind and intrepidity in 
danger. Going from Savannah to Frederica, on one 
occasion, he wrapped himself up in a cloak and went 
to sleep upon deck of the boat, but in the course of 
the night he rolled out of his cloak and fell into the 
sea, so fast asleep that he did not j)erceive where he 
was till his mouth was full of water, when he swam 
round the boat and made his escape. When he made 
his first visit from Savannah to Charleston, South 
Carolina, the wind was so contrary and violent that 
he did not reach Port Boyal, a distance of forty miles, 
till the evening of the third day. The wind was still 
so high on the afternoon of the next day that when 
crossing the neck of St. Helena's Sound, the oldest 
sailor cried out, " Now, every one must take care for 
himself!" Mr. Wesley said to him, "God will take 
care for us all!" As soon as the words were spoken 
the mast fell; all expected every moment the boat to 
sink, with little prospect of swimming ashore against 
such wind and sea. "How is it that thou hadst not 
faith? " God gave command to the wind and seas, and 
in an hour the party were safe on land. 

It would hardly be expected, perhaps, that a man 
so abundant in labors and in the midst of privations 
and perils, as was Mr. W 7 esley, would entertain such 
an opinion of himself as he expresses in a letter to a 



80 History of Methodism 

friend, July 23, 17:37: "How to attain to the being 
crucified with Christ I find not, being in a condition I 
neither desired nor expected in America — in ease, and 
honor, and abundance. A strange school for him who 
has but one business, to exercise himself unto godli- 
ness." 

It was agreed, February 24, 1737, that Mr. Ingham 
should leave for England, and endeavor to bring over, 
if it should please God, some more of the Oxford 
Methodists to strengthen their hands in this work. 
He accordingly left Savannah, February 26, after hav- 
ing spent thirteen months in Georgia. Before his 
departure, and under date of February 16, 1737, Mr. 
Wesley wrote to a friend in Oxford, England, describ- 
ing particularly the sort of men he wished to come 
over as missionaries to America: 

I should not desire any to come unless on the same views and 
conditions with us — without any temporal wages, other than food 
and raiment, and the plain conveniences of life. And for one or more 
in whom was this mind, there would be full employment in the 
province, either in assisting Mr. Delamotte or me, while we were 
present here, or in supplying our places when abroad, or in visiting 
the poor people, in the smaller settlements as well as at Frederica, 
all of whom are as sheep without a shepherd. By these labors of 
love might any that desired it he trained up for the harder task of 
preaching the gospel to the heathen. The difficulties he must then 
encounter God only knows; probably martyrdom would conclude 
them. But those we have hitherto met with have been small and 
only terrible at a distance. Persecution, you know, is the portion 
of every follower of Christ, wherever his lot is cast. But it has 
hitherto extended no farther than words with regard to us, unless 
in one or two inconsiderable instances. Yet it is sure every man 
ought, if he would come hither, be willing and ready to embrace 
(if God should see them good) the severer kinds of it. He ought 
to be determined not only to leave parents, sisters, friends, houses, 
and lands for his Master's sake, but to take up his cross too, cheer- 
fully to submit to the fatigue and danger of (it may be) a long 



In South Carolina, 81 

voyage, and patiently to endure the continual contradiction of sin- 
ners and all the inconveniences which it often occasions. Would 
any one have a trial of himself, how he can bear this? If he has 
felt what reproach is, and can bear that but a few weeks, as he ought, 
I shall believe he need fear nothing. Other trials shall afterward 
be no heavier than that little one was at first, so that he may then 
have a well-grounded hope that he will be enabled to do all things 
through Christ strengthening him. 

After the departure of his brother Charles and Mr. 
Ingham, Mr. Wesley and Delamotte were more abun- 
dant in labors at Savannah than before, but amid 
growing dislike and opposition on the part of many 
of his parishioners. Finally the excitement and pro- 
ceedings growing out of an unfortunate courtship 
which, it is now universally conceded, did not at all 
involve his moral or religious character, caused him 
to shake off the dust of his feet and to leave Georgia 
December 2, 1737, after having preached the gospel 
there (not as he ought, but as he was able) about one 
year and nine months. The results of his labors he 
sums up as follows: "All in Georgia have heard the 
word of God. Some have believed and begun to run 
well. A few steps have been taken toward publishing 
the glad tidings, both to the African and American 
heathens. Many children have learned how they ought 
to serve God, and to be useful to their neighbor. And 
those whom it most concerns have an opportunity of 
knowing the true state of their infant colony, and 
laying a firmer foundation of peace and happiness to 
many generations/' 

When Mr. Wesley left Georgia he had a more ac- 
curate knowledge of its territory and a better ac- 
quaintance with its settlers than did Governor Ogle- 
thorpe, and he came to know more of the geography 
and people of South Carolina than did Governor 



82 History of Methodism 

Broughton. He left Savannah, Monday, 26th, and 
came, for the first time, to Charleston, Saturday, July 
31, 1736, in company with his brother Charles, who 
was to embark for England on the 11th of August. 
They were not strangers in the city, for they had 
made the acquaintance of many whom the dealings 
of commerce and the public interests of the colony 
had drawn to Savannah, and they were both well 
known by character throughout the province. Three 
days before leaving Savannah they had twice been in 
company with Mr. Johnson, brother of Governor 
Robert Johnson, at Governor Oglethorpe's, and ex- 
pressed the hope, July 23, that many such gentlemen, 
like him, were to be found in Carolina — " men of good 
nature, good manners and understanding." 

There existed at this time a dispute between the 
two colonies respecting the right of trading with the 
Indians, which was at last carried into Westminster 
Hall and agitated with great animosity. Mr. Wesley, 
besides attending on his brother on the eve of his de- 
parture, was the bearer of important letters from 
Governor Oglethorpe to Governor Broughton, on the 
subject of this dispute. 

The two Wesleys attended St. Philip's Church 
August 1, the day after their arrival, and found about 
three hundred present at the morning service, and 
about fifty at the holy communion. Mr. John Wes- 
ley was invited to preach to the congregation, but 
either through desire to hear Commissary Alexander 
Garden, or because of the official character of his 
visit, which was one of difficulty and delicacy, he de- 
clined the invitation. He was glad to see several 
negroes at church, and in his quickness to ascertain 
the religious status of every one with whom he came 



In South Carolina. 83 

in contact, he was told by one of them, in reply to his 
questions, that she was there constantly, and that her 
old mistress had many times instructed her in the 
Christian religion. 

St. Philip's Church was one of the most ancient 
and imposing public buildings in Charleston. It 
was founded in 1711, and divine service performed in 
it in 1723. The main body of the church was founded 
in 1728, and the steeple in 1733. It was built of brick 
and stuccoed to resemble stone, exhibiting more of de- 
sign in its arrangement than any other ancient build- 
ing erected here. The site was a little above Queen 
street, and looking directly down Church street. The 
general outline of the plan presented the form of a 
cross, the foot of which constituting the nave, was 
seventy-four feet long and sixty-two feet wide. The 
arms formed the vestibule, tower, and porticoes, at 
each end, projecting twelve feet beyond the sides, and 
surmounted by a pediment. The head of the cross 
was a portico of four massy square pillars, interco- 
lumniated with arches, surmounted with their regular 
entablature, and crowned with a pediment. Over this 
portico, and behind it, rose two sections of an octagon 
tower — the lower containing the bell, the upper the 
clock — crowned with a dome, and quadrangular lan- 
tern, and vane. The height of the tower, entire, with 
its basement, was one hundred and thirteen feet. The 
sides of the edifice were ornamented with a series of 
pilasters of the same Tuscan order with the portico 
columns, each of the spaces being pierced with a sin- 
gle lofty aperture as a window. The roof was par- 
tially hid by a balustrade which ran round it. The 
interior of this church, in its whole length, presented 
an elevation of a lofty double arcade supporting upon 



84 History of Methodism 

an entablature a vaulted ceiling in the middle. The 
piers were ornamented with fluted Corinthian pilasters 
rising to the top of the arches, the keystones of which 
were sculptured with cherubim in relief. Over the 
center arch, on the south side, were some figures in 
heraldic form, representing the infant colony implor- 
ing the protection of the king. Beneath the figures 
was the inscription, Proprius res a spice nostras, which 
was adopted as the motto of the seal of the Church. 
Over the middle arch, on the north side, was the in- 
scription, Deus mihi Sol, with armorial bearings. The 
pillars were ornamented on their face with beautiful 
pieces of monumental sculpture, some of them in 
bass-relief, and some with full figures finely executed 
by the first artists in England and America. At the 
end of the nave, and within the body of the church, 
was the chancel, and at the west end the organ, which 
was an ancient piece of furniture imported from En- 
gland, and which had been used at the coronation of 
George II. Galleries were added some time subse- 
quent to the building of the church. The effect pro- 
duced upon the mind in viewing this edifice was that 
of solemnity and awe, from its massy character. When 
you entered under its roof, the lofty arches, porticoes, 
arcades, and pillars which supported it, cast a somber 
shade over the whole interior, and induced the mind 
to serious contemplation and religious reverence. In 
every direction the monuments of departed worth and 
excellence gleamed upon the sight, every object tended 
to point to the final state of all worldly grandeur, and 
impelled the mind to look beyond the tomb for that 
permanency of being and happiness which in the 
natural constitution of things- cannot here exist. 
On Monday, the 2d of August, Mr. Wesley set out 



In South Carolina. 85 

to visit Governor Thomas Broughton, and to deliver 
the official letters sent by Governor Oglethorpe. Gov- 
ernor Broughton lived in the parish of St. Johns, a 
pleasant and healthy part of the country on the west- 
ern branch of Cooper River. He was a worthy gentle- 
man and serious Christian, and, coming to reside in 
the parish soon after the church-building was com- 
pleted, in 1711, very generously adorned it with a pul- 
pit, reading-desk, pews, communion-table, and railing 
round the chancel — all made of cedar. His residence 
was about thirty miles from Charleston, and stood very 
pleasantly on a little hill, with a vale on either side, in 
one of which was a thick wood; the other was planted 
with rice and Indian corn. Mr. Wesley utilized this 
visit by gaining all the information in his power re- 
specting the Churches. He learned that particular 
interest had been shown in giving Christian instruc- 
tion to the negroes in the parish of Goose Creek, 
where a few years before the Rev. Mr. Ludlam had 
admitted a number to baptism, and said, if their mas- 
ters would heartily concur to forward so good a work, 
all that were born in the country might, without much 
difficulty, be instructed and received into the Church ; 
and also in the parish of St. George, where the Rev. 
Mr. Yarnod had baptized fifty negroes belonging to 
Alexander Skeene. Mr. Wesley conceived at once a 
desire to see this work in person, and set out the next 
day to visit Mr. Skeene, who resided on his plantation 
west of the Ashley River, and about twenty-eight miles 
from Charleston ; but his horse breaking down, he was 
obliged to forego the pleasure of the visit, and return 
by the most direct route to the city. 

Charles Wesley, after spending eleven days in 
Charleston, in agreeable and profitable Christian in- 



86 History of Methodism 

tercourse with the people, but in a state of health too 
feeble to allow of his preaching, went on board, Au- 
gust 11, 1736, to commence his voyage to England. 
He was detained in Boston, waiting for the ship to 
undergo repairs, for more than a month. During this 
time he was treated with great kindness by several re- 
spectable residents, whose spiritual welfare he labored 
to promote; preached in several of the churches, and 
once in a private company ; and on the return of his 
sickness, so as to cause great suffering and even to en- 
danger his life, three or four physicians watched over 
his case with tender solicitude. He was sufficiently 
recovered to reembark on the 5th of October, and, 
after a perilous voyage, landed at Deal, on the 3d of 
December, 1736. On reaching London he was wel- 
comed to the home of Mr. Charles Rivington, the 
book-seller, who gave him great cause to rejoice by his 
account of their Oxford friends. 

Mr. Wesley took leave of his brother on Thursday, 
the 5th of August, and being disappointed in getting 
passage to return by the expected time, in the boat of 
Colonel William Bull, he went out to Ashley Ferry, 
intending to walk to Port Royal; but Edmund Belin- 
ger not only provided him a horse, but rode with him 
ten miles, and sent his son twenty miles farther to 
Combahee Ferry; whence, having hired horses and a 
guide, he went to Beaufort, or Port Boyal, the next 
evening. He took boat Saturday morning, but, the 
wind being contrary and very high, he did not reach 
Savannah till Sunday in the afternoon. 

The second visit was made by Mr. Wesley to Charles- 
ton in order to lay before the Rev. Alexander Garden 
■ — who, as commissary of the Bishop of London, had 
spiritual jurisdiction over the two Carolinas and 



In South Carolina. 87 

Georgia— the case of a clergyman in South Carolina 
who had married several of his parishioners without 
either banns or license, and declared he would do so 
still. He left Savannah on Tuesday, April 12, 1737, 
and landed in Charleston on Thursday, the 14th. Mr. 
Garden gave him assurances that no such irregularity 
should take place in the future, and treated him with 
great kindness and consideration. By his invitation 
Mr. Wesley preached on Sunday, the 17th of April, 
his first sermon in St. Philip's Church, on these words 
from the epistle for the day: " Whatsoever is born of 
God overcometh the world " (1 John v. 4) — setting 
forth (1) the unlimited universality implied in the 
term "whatsoever;" (2) the spiritual state implied in 
the expression, "is born of God; " (3) the privilege of 
every one that is in that state, viz., courage and strength 
to face and subdue whatever the world can lay in the 
way either to allure or to fright him from keeping 
God's commandments. To that plain account of the 
Christian state which these words naturally led him 
to give, a man of education and character, at the end 
of the discourse, seriously objected — what indeed is a 
great truth — "Why, if this be Christianity, a Chris- 
tian must have more courage than Alexander the 
Great." On the following Friday, the 22d, he had the 
pleasure of meeting with the clergy of South Caro- 
lina at their annual visitation, and assisted in the aft- 
ernoon at a conversation for several hours on "Christ 
our [Righteousness," such as he had not heard at any 
visitation in England, or hardly on any other occasion. 
The Rev. Thomas Thompson, minister of St. Bar- 
tholomew's, near Ponpon, learning on Saturday, the 
23d, that Mr. Wesley had been disappointed of a pas- 
sage home by water, kindly offered him one of his 



88 History of Methodism 

horses, if lie would go by land, which he gladly ac- 
cepted. He went with him twenty miles, and sent his 
servant to guide him the other twenty to his house. 
Here he found a young negro of unusual intelligence, 
to whom he gave Christian instruction, which was re- 
ceived with fixed attention, so that the next day all was 
accurately remembered. On Sunday he preached at 
Ponpon Chapel twice, on 1 Cor. xiii., describing at 
large Christian charity, or love, to a congregation that 
came from eight to twelve miles to hear his discourses. 
On Wednesday he visited Mr. Belinger's plantation, 
at Chulifinny, where he was detained by rain till Fri- 
day, and was sent forward on that day by Mr. Belin- 
ger, under the guidance of a negro lad, to Purysburg, 
from whence he went to Savannah on Saturday, the 
30th. By conversation with the lad that went with 
him, who was both capable of instruction and anxious 
to learn, and with the negroes on Mr. Belinger's plan- 
tation—one of whom told him that when he was at 
Ashley Ferry he went to church every Sunday, and 
that if there was any church within five or six miles 
of him, buried as he then was in the woods, although 
he was lame and could not walk, yet he would crawl 
thither — Mr. Wesley's interest in the religious welfare 
of this race was greatly intensified, and he then laid 
down the plan of instruction which was adopted a hun- 
dred years afterward by the South Carolina Confer- 
ence, and made the basis of all missionary operations 
among the negroes: "One of the easiest and shortest 
ways to instruct the American negroes in Christianity 
would be, first, to inquire after and find out some of 
the most serious of the planters; then, having inquired 
of them which of their slaves were best inclined, and 
understood English, to go to them from plantation to 



In South Carolina. 89 

plantation, staying as long as appeared necessary at 
each. Three or four gentlemen in Carolina I have 
met with that would be sincerely glad of such an as- 
sistant, who might pursue his work with no more hin- 
derances than must everywhere attend the preaching 
of the gospel." 

His third and last visit to Charleston was made on 
the occasion of his embarking for England. Leaving 
Savannah after evening prayers, December 2, 1737, he 
came to Purysburg early in the morning of the next 
day, and failing to procure a guide for Port Royal, he 
set out without one. After walking two or three hours 
he met an old man who led him into a small path, 
near which was a line of blazed trees, by following 
which, he said, he might easily come to Port Royal in 
five or six hours. He was accompanied by four per- 
sons, one of whom intended to go to England with 
him ; the other two to settle in Carolina. About eleven 
they came into a large swamp, where they wandered 
about till near two. They then found another blaze, 
and pursued it till it divided into two; one of them 
they followed through an almost impassable thicket, 
a mile beyond which it ended. They made through 
the thicket again, and traced the other blaze till that 
also ended. It now grew toward sunset, so they sat 
down, faint and weary, having had no food all day, ex- 
cept a cake of gingerbread, which he had taken in his 
pocket. A third of this they had divided among them 
at noon; another third they took now; the rest they 
reserved for the morning; but they had met with no 
water all the day. Thrusting a stick into the ground 
and finding the end of it moist, two of their company 
began to dig with their hands, and at the depth of 
about three feet found water. They thanked God, 



90 His Ton y of Methodism 

drank, and were refreshed. The night was sharp; 
however, there was no complaining among them, but, 
after having commended themselves to God, they lay 
down close together and slept till near six in the morn- 
ing. God renewing their strength, they arose neither 
faint nor weary, and resolved to make one trial more 
to find a path to Port Eoyal. They started due east; 
but finding neither path nor blaze, and the woods 
growing thicker and thicker, they judged it would be 
their best course to return, if they could, by the way 
they came. The day before, in the thickest part of 
the w r oods, Mr. Wesley had broken many young trees, 
he knew not why, as they walked along; these they 
found a great help in several places, where no path 
was to be seen, and between one and two God brought 
them safe to the house of Benjamin Arien, the old man 
they left the day before. In the evening Mr. Wesley 
read prayers in French to a numerous family, a mile 
from Arien's, one of whom undertook to guide them 
to Port Eoyal. In the morning they set out. About 
sunset they asked their guide if he knew where he 
was. He frankly answered, "No." However, they 
pushed on, and about seven they came to a plantation; 
and the next day, after many difficulties and delays, 
they landed at Port Eoyal Island. They walked to 
Beaufort Wednesday, December 7, where the Eev. 
Lewis Jones, the minister of Beaufort with whom Mr. 
Wesley lodged during his short stay here, gave him a 
lively idea of the old English hospitality. On Thurs- 
day Mr. Delamotte came, with wdioin Mr. Wesley took 
boat on Friday, the 9th, for Charleston, and came 
thither in the morning of Tuesday, the 13th. Here 
lie expected trials of a different kind, and far more 
dangerous; for contempt and want are easy to be 



L\ r South Carolina. 91 

borne, but who can bear respect and abundance ? On 
the 14th he read public prayers by request, and was 
much refreshed with those glorious promises contained 
both in the seventy-second Psalm and in the first les- 
son, the fortieth chapter of Isaiah: "They that wait 
upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall 
mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run and not 
be weary; they shall walk and not faint." On Friday, 
the 16th, he parted from the last of those friends who 
came with him to America, Mr. Charles Delamotte; 
preached once more, Sunday, the 18th, to this careless 
people; went on board the Samuel, Captain Percy, 
Thursday, the 22d, and taking leave of America, sailed 
over Charleston bar Saturday, the 24th, and about 
noon lost sight of land. After a stormy passage, he 
arrived at Deal on the first of February, 1738, the 
anniversary festival of Governor Oglethorpe's landing 
in Georgia; read prayers and explained a portion of 
Scripture at the inn, and on the 3d arrived safe in 
London. 

His successor, Mr. Whitefield, in 1738, bore this 
honorable testimony to Mr. Wesley and his colleagues 
in America: " Surely I must labor most heartily,. since 
I come after such worthy men. The good Mr. John 
"Wesley has done in America is inexpressible. His 
name is very precious among the people, and he has 
laid such a foundation . that I hope neither men nor 
devils will be able to shake it. O that I may follow 
him as he has followed Christ! " 



CHAPTER IV. 



Whitefield begins his course, and rises fair, 
And shoots and glitters like a blazing star. 
He lets his light on all impartial shine, 
And strenuously asserts the birth divine, 
While thousands listen to th' alarming song, 
And catch conviction darted from his tongue. 
Parties and sects their ancient feuds forget, 
And fall and tremble at the preacher's feet; 
With horror in the wise inquiry join, 
"What must we do t' escape the wrath divine?" 

(Charles Wesley.) 

THE ship Samuel, that carried back John Wesley 
to England, passed at the Downs the Whitaker, 
that brought out George Whitefield to America. He 
was now in the twenty-fourth year of his age. He was 
born in the Bell Inn, at Gloucester, England, Decem- 
ber 16, 1714; w r as admitted as servitor in Pembroke 
College, Oxford, in his eighteenth year, and took his 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in July, 1736. His conver- 
sion, which took place about seven weeks after Easter, 
in 1735, he thus describes: 

After having undergone innumerable buffetings of Satan, and 
many months of inexpressible trials by night and day under the 
spirit of bondage, God was pleased at length to remove the heavy 
load, to enable me to lay hold on his dear Son by a living faith, and 
by giving me the spirit of adoption to seal me, as I humbly hope, 
even to the day of everlasting redemption. But O with what joy — 
joy unspeakable, even joy that was full of and big with glory — was 
my soul filled when the weight of sin went off, and an abiding sense 
of the pardoning love of God and a full assurance of faith broke in 
(92) 



History of Methodism 93 

upon my disconsolate soul ! Surely it was the day of my espousals 
— a day to be had in everlasting remembrance. At first my joy was 
like a spring-tide, and, as it were, overflowed the banks. Go where 
I would, I could not avoid the singing of psalms almost aloud. Aft- 
erward it became more settled, and, blessed be God, saving a few 
casual intervals, has abode and increased in my soul ever since. I 
know the place ; it may, perhaps, be superstitious, but whenever I 
go to Oxford I cannot help running to the spot where Jesus Christ 
first revealed himself to me, and gave me the new birth. 

His friends at Gloucester — among whom he had gone 
at the end of May, 1735, to regain his health, which 
had been much impaired by unremitted study — were 
urgent for his taking orders as soon as possible. He 
coveted the work of the ministry, yet seemed to dread 
it. "I never prayed against any corruption I had in 
my life," said he, " so much as I did against going into 
holy orders. I have prayed a thousand times, till the 
sweat has dropped from my face like rain, that God, of 
his infinite mercy, would not let me enter the Church 
before he called me. I remember once in Gloucester 
— I know the room, I look up at the window when I 
am there and walk along the street — I know the bed- 
side and the floor upon which I prostrated myself and 
cried, ' Lord, I cannot go ; I shall be puffed up with 
pride, and fall into the condemnation of the devil. I 
am unfit to preach in thy great name. Send me not, 
Lord, send me not yet.' " To his prayers he added his 
endeavors, and wrote to his friends at Oxford, beseech- 
ing them to pray to God to disappoint the designs of 
his friends in the country who were for putting him 
at once into the ministry ; but they sent back in an- 
swer, " Pray we the Lord of the harvest to send thee 
and many more laborers into his harvest." He wrote 
a sermon, and sent it to a neighboring clergyman to 
convince him how unfit he was to take upon him the 



94 II is tout of Methodism 

important work of preaching; but he kept it for a 
fortnight, and then sent it back, with a guinea for the 
loan of it, telling him that he had divided it into two, 
and had preached it morning and evening to his con- 
gregation. When the good Bishop Benson announced 
in his visitation charge that he would ordain none 
under three and twenty, his heart leaped for joy; but 
the bishop, on the recommendation of Lady Selwyn, 
sent for him to the palace, and told him that he had 
heard of his character, and liked his behavior at 
church, and, inquiring his age, said to him, "Not- 
withstanding I have declared I would not ordain any 
one under three and twenty, yet I shall think it my 
duty to ordain you whenever you come for holy or- 
ders." He was afraid to hold out any longer, lest he 
should fight against God, and came to the resolution 
to offer himself for ordination on the 20th of June, 
1736. On that day he wrote : 

I hope the good of souls will be my only principle of action. Let 
come what will— life or death — I shall henceforward live like one 
who this day, in the presence of men and angels, took the holy sac- 
rament upon the profession of being inwardly moved by the Holy 
Ghost to take upon me that ministration in the Church. I can call 
heaven and earth to witness that when the bishop laid his hand upon 
me I gave myself up to be a martyr for Him who hung upon the 
cross for me. I have thrown myself blindfold, and I trust without 
reserve, into his almighty hands. 

The next Sunday, June 27, he preached a notable 
sermon — the first of upward of eighteen thousand 
during his life— in the Church of St. Mary de Crypt, 
on " The Necessity and Benefit of Beligious Society," 
to a crowded congregation, made up of old men, who 
were the associates of his father; aged women, who 
knew him when an infant in his mother's arms; topers 
not a few, whom, as a blue-aproned tapster, he had 



In South Carolina* 95 

served in the neighboring hotel; school-fellows, with 
whom he had been associated in many a spree; and a 
mixed multitude, who knew him only as the Gloucester 
boy who by his own exertions had made himself an 
honor to his native town. The key-note of this ser- 
mon — by which the audience was stirred with profound 
emotion, and, as was alleged, " fifteen were driven mad " 
— is sounded in the following extract: 

I warn you of the great danger those are in who, either by their 
subscriptions, presence, or approbation, promote societies of a quite 
opposite nature to religion. And here I would not be understood to 
mean only those public meetings which are designed manifestly for 
nothing else but revelings and banquetings, for chambering and 
wantonness, and at which a modest heathen would blush to be pres- 
ent, but also those seemingly innocent entertainments and meetings 
which the politer part of the world are so very fond of, and spend so 
much time in, but which, notwithstanding, keep as many persons 
out of a sense of true religion as intemperance, debauchery, or any 
other crime whatever. Indeed, whilst we are in this world, we must 
have proper relaxations to fit us both for the business of our profes- 
sion and religion. But then for persons who call themselves Chris- 
tians, that have solemnly vowed at their baptism to renounce the 
vanities of this sinful world, and that are commanded in Scripture 
to abstain from all. appearance of evil, and to have their conversation in 
heaven — for such persons as these to support meetings that (to say no 
worse of them) are vain and trifling, and have a natural tendency to 
draw off our minds from God, is absurd, ridiculous, and sinful. 

Mr. Whitefield returned to Oxford June 30, and 
purposed to spend " some years " in that seat of learn- 
ing to fit himself better for the work of the ministry. 
His friends made him Mr. Wesley's successor in the 
unendowed chaplaincy of Oxford Castle, and to his 
great surprise Sir John Philips sent him word that 
he would allow him thirty pounds sterling a year if he 
would remain and superintend the affairs of the Meth- 
odists. 



96 History of Methodism 

In August James Hervey (Methodist) took his place 
at Oxford, to enable him to comply with the request of 
Thomas Broughton (Methodist), curate of the Tower, 
to relieve him that he might assist Richard Hutchins 
(Methodist) at Dummer, in Hampshire; and he was 
employed two months in preaching in London church- 
es and in London prisons, and with such success that 
people from all parts of the vast city began to flock to- 
gether to hear him. When he had been about a month 
in the city, letters came from John and Charles Wes- 
ley, and from Mr. Ingham, their fellow-laborer in 
Georgia. His soul was fired, and he longed to join 
them in America; but "all were agreed that laborers 
were needed at home; that as yet he had no visible 
call to go abroad; and that it was his duty not to be 
rash, but to wait and see what Providence might point 
out to him." The month of October Mr. Whitefield 
spent with his " poor prisoners " at Oxford. In No- 
vember Charles Kinchin (Methodist), now minister of 
Dummer, in Hampshire, and expecting to be chosen 
dean of Corpus Christi College, desired him to ex- 
change places with him till that affair should be de- 
cided. Going to take Mr. Kinchin's work, he prose- 
cuted his plan, and generally divided the day into 
three parts— eight hours for study and retirement, 
eight hours for sleep and meals, and eight hours for 
reading, prayers, catechising, and visiting the parish. 
From these exercises he reaped unspeakable profit, 
and claimed to have learned as much by an afternoon's 
visit in conversing with the poor country people as in 
a week's study. During his six weeks' residence at 
Dummer, the temporary pastor of a small parish of 
less than three hundred souls, two events occurred 
which affected the whole of his after-life. He had the 



In South Carolina. 97 

offer of " a very profitable curacy in London," and yet, 
strangely enough, the penniless young parson de- 
clined it. Had he accepted it he would not have be- 
come one of the illustrious evangelists of the eighteenth 
century. About the middle of December he received 
fresh letters from Charles Wesley, informing him that 
he was just come over to England to procure laborers 
for America, but " dared not prevent God's nomina- 
tion; " and in a few days letters came to him also 
from John Wesley, saying: "Only Mr. Delamotte is 
with me till God shall stir up the hearts of some of 
his servants, who, putting their lives in his hands, 
shall come over and help us where the harvest is so 
great and the laborers so few. What if thou art the 
man, Mr. Whitefield? Do you ask me what you shall 
have? Food to eat, and raiment to put on; a house to 
lay your head in, such as your Lord had not; and a 
crown of glory that fadeth not away." As he read, his 
heart leaped within him and echoed to the call. Prov- 
idence had opened a clear way before him : Dean Kin- 
chin was already in charge of the prisoners at Oxford 
and superintending the affairs of the Methodists ; Mr. 
Hervey was ready to serve the cure at Dummer; he 
was without a parochial charge, and with his soul set 
on fire by the characteristic letter of Mr. Wesley, he 
was determined not to confer with flesh and blood, but 
to join, his friend in America. Accordingly, Charles 
Wesley wrote in his journal, " December 22, 1736, I 
received a letter from Mr. Whitefield offering himself 
to go to Georgia." He expected to embark without 
delay, but a series of unforeseen occurrences detained 
him in England during the whole of the year 1737. 
This was perhaps the most important period of his life, 
and gave a bias to the whole of his subsequent career 
7 



08 History of Methodism 

He was ready and eager to preach whenever and wher- 
ever an opportunity was presented. Like Melanch- 
thon, when he made the great discovery of the truth, 
he imagined that no one could resist the evidence that 
convinced his own mind, and longed to tell everybody 
that there was such a thing as the new birth. No 
power on earth could confine him to a single parish, 
or a single Church. He became a roving evangelist, 
a traveling preacher, and opened the way to Methodist 
itinerancy. In Bristol, in London, in Bath, and every- 
where, his popularity was unbounded. The people 
came in crowds to see and hear the orator, and went 
away more impressed with what he said than how he 
said it. The doctrines he preached soon excited as 
much attention as the man, and when John and 
Charles Wesley came preaching the same great truths, 
the people were as eager to hear them as they had be- 
fore been to hear Whitefield. 

Governor Oglethorpe had returned to England, and 
reported to a special meeting of the trustees of the 
colony, January 19, 1737, that " the people on the 
frontiers suffered under constant apprehension of in- 
vasion, as the insolent demands and threats of the 
Spanish commissioners from Cuba virtually amounted 
to an infraction of the treaty which had been formed 
with the Governor of Florida; " and his majesty, in 
response to a petition of the trustees, had appointed 
Oglethorpe general of all his forces in Carolina and 
Georgia, and likewise commissioned him to raise a 
military force adequate to the defense of Georgia and 
South Carolina. The embarkation of the troops of- 
fered the desired opportunity to Whitefield to make 
his first visit to America. He had been presented 
with the living of Savannah, and longed to be among 



Ix South Carolina. 99 

Lis parishioners. He set sail February 2, 1738, ac- 
companied by his servant, Joseph Husbands, and his 
friend James Habersham, who, notwithstanding the 
opposition of family and friends, determined to go 
with the young evangelist to Georgia. When, after a 
voyage of four months, they at length came to anchor 
at Tybee, on Sunday, May 7, the young missionary 
was unwilling to leave the vessel without preaching a 
farewell sermon to the soldiers whom he had served 
as chaplain. He chose for his text Psalm cvii. 30, 31: 
"Then are they glad because they are quiet; so he 
bringeth them into their desired haven. O that men 
would praise the Lord for his goodness, and for his 
wonderful works to the children of men!" Standing 
beneath the shade of the outspread sails of the Whit- 
aker, the ardent preacher cried: 

God forbid that any of those should ever suffer the vengeance of 
eternal fire amongst whom I have for these four months been preach- 
ing the gospel of Christ; and yet, thus must it be if you do not im- 
prove the divine mercies; and instead of your being my crown of 
rejoicing in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ, I must appear as a 
swift witness against yon. But, brethren, I am persuaded better 
things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though I thus 
speak. Into God's hands I' commend your spirits. May he give 
you new hearts, and enable you to put into practice what you have 
heard from time to time to be your duty. Then God will so bless 
you that you will " build cities to dwell in ; " then will you sow your 
lands and plant vineyards which will "yield you fruits of increase." 
Then your oxen shall be strong to labor, there shall be no leading 
into captivity, and no complaining in your streets; then shall your 
sons grow up as young plants, and your daughters be as the polished 
corners of the temple ; then shall your garners be full and plenteous 
with all manner of store, and your sheep bring forth thousands and 
ten thousands in your streets. In short, then shall the Lord be your 
God ; and as surely as he hath now brought us to this haven, so 
surely, after we have passed through the storms and tempests of 
'his trc iblesome world, will he bring us to the haven of eternal rest, 



100 History of Methodism 

where we shall have nothing to do but to praise him forever for his 
goodness, and declare, in never-ceasing songs of praise, the wonders 
he has done- for us and all the other sons of men. 

He was welcomed on his first visit to Savannah by 
Charles Delamotte and other friends of the Wesleys. 
The authorities of the province, now containing five 
hundred inhabitants, received him with civility, and 
resolved that " he should have a house and tabernacle 
at Frederica, and should serve at Savannah as long as 
he pleased." When he was the stated minister of this 
parish he constantly performed divine service publicly 
very early every- morning, and at the close of the day's 
work every evening, when he always expounded part of 
the first or second lesson. Every Sunday he adminis- 
tered the holy communion and had public service four 
times a day. His congregations were very large, for 
there were many Dissenters in the parish, and there 
were few absentees. It was also his daily practice to 
visit in rotation from house to house, without any re- 
gard to religious denominations or party distinctions, 
and he thus gained more and more on the affections of 
the people. When he examined the state of the Colony, 
he was so deeply affected by the condition of the chil- 
dren that he set his heart on founding the Orphan 
House in Georgia, which Charles Wesley and Gov- 
ernor Oglethorpe had contemplated, and about which 
the former had written and spoken to him before he 
had thoughts of coming to America. He opened 
schools in the villages of Highgate and Hampsteacl, 
and one also for girls in Savannah. After a few weeks 
he visited Frederica, and preached for the people un- 
der a tree, and had the satisfaction before he left of 
seeing them " sawing timber for a commodious place 
of worship, until a church could be built." As he as 



In South Carolina. 101 

yet had received only deacon's orders and wished to 
be ordained priest; and as it was necessary moreover 
to make collections for his Orphan House, he left Mr. 
Habersham at Savannah and went to Charleston to 
embark for England. 

Charles Delamotte had taken leave of the colony on 
the 2d of June— about a month after Mr. Whitefield' s 
arrival. The poor people lamented the loss of him 
and went to the water-side to take a last farewell. 
After a long life of piety and peace, he died at Bar- 
row-upon-Humber in 1796. 

During this first visit of Mr. Whitefield to South 
Carolina, he was received with kindness by Commis- 
sary Garden, who cordially invited him twice into his 
pulpit, and assured him that he would defend him 
with his life and property, should the same arbitrary 
proceedings ever be commenced against him which Mr. 
Wesley had met with in Georgia. The people at first 
despised his youth, but his engaging address soon 
gained him general esteem, and Mr. Garden thanked 
him cordially for the service he had rendered. He 
embarked for England, September 6, and reached 
London, December 8, 1738. 

Mr. Whitefield made in all seven voyages to Amer- 
ica, and fifteen separate visits to South Carolina and 
Georgia. 

How great, how just thy zeal, advent'rous youth, 
To spread, in heathen lands, the light of truth ! 
Go, loved of Heaven ! with every grace refined, 
Inform, enrapture each dark Indian's mind; 
Grateful, as when to realms long hid from day 
The cheerful dawn foreshows the solar ray. 

How great thy charity ! whose large embrace 
Intends th' eternal weal of all thy race; 



102 His Ton y of Methodism 

Prompts thee the rage of winds and seas to scorn, 
T" effect the work for which thy soul was born. 
What multitudes, whom pagan dreams deceive, 
Shall, when they hear thy powerful voice, believe! 

Long as Savannah, peaceful stream, shall glide, 
Your worth renowned shall be extended wide; 
Children as yet unborn shall bless your lore, 
Who thus to save them left your native shore. 
Th' apostle thus, with ardent zeal inspired, 
To gain all nations for their Lord desired. 

On Sunday, January 14, 1739, being in his twenty- 
fifth year, he was ordained priest, at Oxford, by his 
worthy friend, Bishop Benson. Mr. Whiteneld did 
not forget his absent friends. During his passage to 
England he wrote a sort of pastoral letter " to the in- 
habitants of Savannah," in which he strongly insists 
upon that which had been the subject of his sermons — ■ 
"the new birth in Christ Jesus, that ineffable change 
which must pass upon our hearts before we can see 
God." It is a remarkable fact, however, that while 
specifying the means of obtaining it, as (1) self-de- 
nial, (2) public worship, (3) reading the Scriptures, 
(4) secret prayer, (5) self-examination, and (6) receiv- 
ing the holy sacrament, there is not a word said about 
faith in Christ; and further it is equally remarkable 
that until after this first visit to America the doctrine 
of salvation by faith in Christ only is never even 
mentioned in any of his sermons, nor in any of his 
private letters to his friends. 

"While Mr. Whiteneld was in Georgia, Charles Wes- 
ley had formed an intimate acquaintance with Dr. 
Henry Piers, of Bexley, and with the Delamotte fam- 
ily, at Blendon; John AVesley had met with Peter 
Bolder, the Moravian; and under the spiritual guid- 
ance and instruction of these both had come experi- 



In South Carolina. 103 

mentally to know — Charles on Sunday, May 21, and 
John on Wednesday evening, May 23, 1738 — the truth 
of the doctrine of present salvation from the guilt and 
power of sin by faith in the Lord Jesus. The for- 
mer had preached salvation by faith, in Westminster 
Abbey, and the latter had preached before the univer- 
sity in St. Mary's, Oxford, his memorable sermon from 
Eph. ii. 8: "By grace are ye saved through faith." A 
few months later Whitefield was led to embrace the 
same doctrine, and henceforward, equally with the 
Wesleys, nevQT ceased to expound and to enforce the 
text of the inspired apostle, " To him that worketh not, 
but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his 
faith is counted for righteousness" (Rom. iv. 5). The 
new doctrines he preached, and the manner in which 
he preached them, produced a sensation so strong that 
the tide of clerical opinion in England was turned 
against him, and he found himself excluded, with the 
Wesleys, from most of the churches. After the ex- 
ample, therefore, of the Saviour, who had a mountain 
for his pulpit, and the heavens for his sounding-board, 
he began to preach on Hannam Mount, on the south 
of Kingswood, under a sycamore-tree, and found his 
audience, in a short time, increased to twenty thou- 
sand persons. He did the same at Moorfields, Ken- 
sington, and Blackheath, and thousands everywhere 
gathered to his ministry, and were brought into sav- 
ing contact with the truth. 

After obtaining from the trustees of the colony a 
grant of five hundred acres of land for his Orphan 
House, and making collections which amounted to 
upward of a thousand pounds, Mr. Whitefield set sail 
again, August 14, 1739, accompanied by his friend 
William Seward and others, and after a passage of 



104 History of Methodism 

nine weeks landed at Philadelphia. He. left this place 
on the 29th of November, and, in company with Mr. 
Seward and others, traveled on horseback through 
Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, to Charleston. 
He says in his journal: 

Tuesday, January 1, 1740. About sunset we came, to a tavern five 
miles within the province of South Carolina. I believe the people 
of the house at first wished I had not come to be their guest, for it 
being New-year's-day, several of the neighbors were met together 
to divert themselves by dancing country -dances. By the advice 
of my companions I went in amongst them. All were soon put to 
silence, and were for some time so overawed that after I had dis- 
coursed to them on the nature of baptism and the necessity of being 
born again in order to enjoy the kingdom of heaven, I baptized, at 
their entreaty, one of their children, and prayed as I was enabled, 
and as the circumstances of the company required. 

Wednesday, January 2. We rose early, prayed, sung a hymn, gave 
another word of exhortation to the dancers, and at the break of day 
we mounted our horses. For nearly twenty miles we rode over a 
beautiful bay, and were wonderfully delighted to see the porpoises 
taking their pastime. We intended to call at a gentleman's house 
about forty miles distant from our last night's lodging, but we missed 
the way, and came to a hut full of negroes. We inquired after the 
gentleman's house whither we were directed, but the negroes said 
they knew no such man, and that they were but new-comers. From 
these circumstances we inferred that they might be some of those who 
lately had made an insurrection in the province, and had run away 
from their masters. W T e therefore thought it best to mend our pace, 
and soon after Ave saw another set of negroes dancing round about a 
fire. When we had gone about a dozen miles, we came to a planta- 
tion, the master of which gave us lodging and our beasts provender. 
During the day we had ridden nearly three-score miles, and, as we 
thought, in great peril of our lives. 

Thursday, January 3. We had a hospitable breakfast, set out late 
in the morning, and for the ease of our beasts, rode not above nine- 
teen miles the whole day. "A righteous man," says Solomon, "re- 
gardeth the life of his beast." 

Friday, January 4. About eight in fhe evening, after riding forty 
miles, we came to a tavern five miles from Charleston. 



In South Carolina. 105 

Saturday, January 5. We left our lodging before daylight, and 
after we had passed over a three-mile ferry we reached Charleston 
about ten in the morning. 

Sunday, January 6. We went to public service in the morning, 
but did not preach, because the curate had not a commission to lend 
the pulpit, unless the commissary [the Rev. Alexander Garden], then 
out of town, were present. Most of the town, however, being eager 
to hear me, I preached in the afternoon in one of the Dissenting meet- 
ing-houses, but was grieved to find so little concern in the congrega- 
tion. The auditory was large, but very polite. I question whether 
the Court -end of London could exceed them in affected finery, 
gayety of dress, and a deportment ill becoming persons who have 
had such divine judgments lately sent amongst them. I reminded 
them of this in my sermon, but I seemed to them as one that mocked. 

Monday, January 7. Finding the inhabitants desirous to hear 
me a second time, I preached in the morning in the French Church. 
The audience was so great that many stood without the door. I felt 
much more freedom than I did yesterday. Many were melted into 
tears. One of the town, most remarkably gay, was observed to weep. 
Instead of the people going out, as they did yesterday, in a light, 
unthinking manner, a visible concern was in most of their faces. 
After sermon, I and my friends dined at a merchant's, and as I was 
passing along a letter was put into my hands wherein were these 
words: "Remember me in your prayers, for Christ's sake, who died 
forme, a sinner." Many of the inhabitants, with full hearts, entreat- 
ed me to give them one more sermon, and though I was just about to 
take the boat, I thought it my duty to comply with their request. 
Notice was immediately given, and in about half an hour a large con- 
gregation was assembled in the Dissenting meeting-house. In the 
evening I supped at another merchant's house, and had an oppor- 
tunity, for nearly two hours, to converse of the things of God with a 
large company. 

Tuesday, January 8. We left our horses in Charleston, and set 
out for Georgia in an open canoe, having negroes to row and steer us. 
The poor slaves were very civil and laborious. We lay one night on 
the water, and about five, on Wednesday evening, arrived at Beau- 
fort, in Port Royal, one hundred miles from Charleston. 

Wednesday, January 9. The wind being high and sailing imprac- 
ticable, we staid at Beaufort all the morning, and dined with kind Mr. 
Jones, the minister of the place, who received us with great civility. 
Afterward, the weather being fair and the tide serving, we again took 



106 History of Methodism 

boat. In the night we made a fire on the shore. A little after mid- 
night we prayed with the negroes, took boat again, and reached 
Savannah the next day, where I had a joyful meeting with my dear 
friends who had arrived three weeks before. 

Tims, after a journey of five months' duration, 
Y^hitefield once more reached his parish in America, 
Januaiy 11, 1740. It seemed a strange thing for him 
to send the rest of his company by ship, and for him- 
self and William Seward and others to travel to the 
same place through primeval forests, uncultivated 
plains, and miasmal swamps; but in these colonial 
wanderings he made the acquaintance of ministers 
and people which affected the whole course of his 
after-life. 

William Stephens, in his journal of proceedings in 
Georgia, says: 

January 13, 1710. Mr. Whitefield's name, which of late has 
made so much noise in England, could not fail in drawing all sorts 
of people to the Church. Botli morning and evening he made justi- 
fication by faith only the subject of his discourse, which he pressed 
home with great energy, denouncing anathemas on all such as taught 
otherwise. 

January 20. Mr. Whitefield read prayers at seven ; again at ten, 
with a sermon ; again at three, with a sermon ; a lecture at seven, 
besides the sacrament after the second morning service, when he ad- 
ministered to between thirty and forty. Both the sermons were on 
justification and regeneration. I hope for one on good works before 
long. 

Again, Mr. Stephens writes: 

June 22, 1740. Mr. Whitefield always prays and preaches extem- 
pore. For some time past he has laid aside his surplice, and has 
managed to get justification by faith and the new birth into every 
sermon. 

After spending seventeen days in the southern part 
of the province, during which he preached five ser- 
mons to the congregation of the Eev. Mr. McLeod, at 



In South Carolina. 107 

Darierj, and as many as opportunity allowed to "the 
General [Oglethorpe], the soldiers, and the people " of 
Frederica, in a room belonging to the store-house, he 
returned to Savannah, and embarked for Charleston. 
He writes: 

Friday, March 14, 1740. Arrived at Charleston last night, being 
called there to see my brother [James Whitefield], who lately came 
from England. Waited on the commissary [the Rev. Alexander Gar- 
den], but met with a cool reception. Drank tea with the Independent 
minister [the Rev. Josiah Smith, of the then "White Meeting-house, 
now the Circular Church], and preached to a large auditory in his 
meeting-house. 

Saturday, March 15. Breakfasted, sung a hymn, and had some 
religious conversation, on board my brother's ship. Preached in 
the Baptist meeting-house, and in the evening again in the Inde- 
pendent meeting-house to a more attentive auditory than ever. 

Sunday, March 16. Preached at eight in the morning in the Scot's 
Meeting-house [now the First Presbyterian Church] to a large con- 
gregation. Went to church [St. Philip's], and heard the commis- 
sary represent me under the character of the Pharisee who came to 
the temple, saying, "God, I thank thee that I am not as other men 
are." Went to church [St. Philip's] again in the afternoon, and, 
about five, preached in the Independent meeting-house yard, the 
house not being capacious enough to hold the auditory. 

Monday, March 17. Preached in the morning in the Independ- 
ent meeting-house, and was more explicit than ever in exclaiming 
against balls and assemblies. Preached again in the evening; and, 
being incited thereto by some of the inhabitants, I spoke in behalf 
of the poor orphans, and collected upward of £70 sterling — the 
largest collection I ever yet made— on that occasion. 

Tuesday, March 18. Preached twice again this day, and took an 
affectionate leave of my hearers. I believe a good work is begun in 
many. Every day several have come to me, telling me, with weep- 
ing eyes, how God had been pleased to convince them by the word 
preached. Invitations were given me from some of the adjacent 
villages, and many came to town daily, from their plantations, to 
hear the word. At my first coming, the people of Charleston seemed 
to be wholly devoted to pleasure. One well acquainted with their 
manners and circumstances told me that they spent more on their 



103 History of Methodism 

polite entertainments than the amount raised by their rates for the 
poor; but now the jewelers and dancing-masters begin to cry out 
that their craft is in danger. A vast alteration is discernible in la- 
dies' dresses, and some, while I have been speaking, have been so 
convinced of the sin of wearing jewels that I have seen them, with 
blushes, put their hands to their ears, and cover them with their 
fans. The reformation also has gone further than externals. Many 
moral, good sort of men, Avho before were settled on their lees, have 
been awakened to seek after Jesus Christ, and many a Lydia's heart 
has been opened to receive the things that were spoken. Indeed, 
the word came like a hammer and a fire. Several of the negroes did 
their work in less time than usual, that they might come to hear me; 
and many of their owners, who have been awakened, have resolved 
to teach them Christianity. Had I time and proper school-masters, 
I might immediately erect a negro school in South Carolina, as well 
as in Pennsylvania [fostered by Seward's liberality, but failing be- 
cause of his untimely and martyr-death in Wales]. Many would 
willingly contribute both money and land. 

Friday, March 21. Went on board the sloop, prayed, sung a hymn, 
and took an affectionate leave of my brother and other friends ; got 
over the bar, and reached Savannah about noon. 

Mr. "Wkiteneld's original design in coming to 
America was to erect an Orphan House in Georgia. 
He says: 

Some have thought that the erecting such a building was only the 
produce of my own brain; but they are much mistaken. It was 
first proposed to me by my dear friend the Eev. Mr. Charles Wesley, 
who, with his excellency General Oglethorpe, had concerted a 
scheme for carrying on such a design before I had any thoughts of 
going abroad myself. It was natural to think that as the govern- 
ment intended this province for the refuge and support of many of 
our poor countrymen, numbers of such adventurers must necessarily 
be taken off by being exposed to the hardships which unavoidably 
attend a new settlement. I thought it, therefore, a noble design to 
erect a house for fatherless children, and was resolved, in the strength 
of God, to prosecute it with all my might. This was mentioned to 
the honorable trustees. They took it kindly at my hands; and as 
I began then to be pretty popular at Bristol and elsewhere, they 
wrote to the Bishop of Bath and Wells [Butler, author of the "Anal- 



In South Carolina. 109 

ogy"], asking leave for me to preach a charity-sermon on this occa- 
sion, in the Abbey Church. This was granted, and I accordingly 
began immediately to compose a suitable discourse; but, knowing 
my first stay in Georgia would be short, on account of my return- 
ing to take priest's orders, I thought it most prudent first to go and 
see for myself, and defer prosecuting the scheme till I returned to 
England. 

During Mr. "Whiteneld's absence from Georgia, and 
while he was preaching his " charity-sermon " in En- 
gland, Mr. James Habersham, whom he had left as su- 
perintendent at Savannah, had selected for the Orphan 
House a tract of land of five hundred acres, granted by 
the trustees, about ten miles from the town, and had 
already begun to clear and stock it. Accordingly, the 
25th of March was appointed for laying the foundation 
of the building, to be called Bethesda House of Mercy. 
"We went to Bethesda, and with full assurance of 
faith laid the first brick of the great house. The work- 
men attended with me, kneeled down and prayed. 
After we had sung a hymn suitable to the occasion, I 
gave a word of exhortation to the laborers, and bade 
them remember to work heartily, knowing that they 
worked for God." The building was sixty by forty 
feet, with foundation and chimneys of brick, the rest 
of the superstructure of wood. A colonnade sur- 
rounded it, which made a pleasant retreat in summer. 
The hall and all the apartments were very commodi- 
ous, and handsomely furnished. On the ground-floor 
the entrance-hall was a chapel ; on the left was a libra- 
ry, and behind it the orphans' dining-room; on the 
right, Mr. "Whiteneld's two parlors, with the staircase 
between them. On the second and third floors were 
Mr. "Whiteneld's chamber, the manager's room, two 
bed-chambers for the boys, the same number for the 
girls, and five other chambers for general use. In 



110 History of Methodism 

rear of the house was Salt-water Creek, and in front 
the peach-orcharcl and the gardens, in which plants 
and fruit-trees of every variety and climate were made 
to grow. From Savannah to Wormsloe a road was 
cut through the woods, which had a hundred curiosi- 
ties to delight the attentive traveler, and from the lat- 
ter place to Bethesda was a magnificent vista of nearly 
three miles cut through the groves of pine. 

At the expiration of thirty years, February 2, 1770, 
the sum of £15,404 had been expended in erecting and 
continuously maintaining the Orphan House, of which 
amount Mr. "Whitefield, out of his own private means, 
had contributed about £3,300. Not a penny had been 
paid to any person whatever employed or concerned in 
the management of the house. During this period one 
hundred and forty boys and forty-three girls had been 
" clothed, educated, maintained, and suitably provided 
for," while many other poor children had been occa- 
sionally received, supported, and educated. The lands 
granted in trust to Mr. Whitefield for his Orphan 
House were the tract of five hundred acres, called 
Bethesda; a second tract of four hundred and nine- 
teen acres, called Nazareth; a third of the same num- 
of acres, called Ephratah; and adjoining this a fourth 
tract of five hundred acres, called Huntingdon — in all 
eighteen hundred and thirty-eight acres. As early as 
1746 many had applied to Mr. Whitefield to establish 
a public school at the Orphan House, and to take their 
children as boarders. Under date of March 21, he says : 

If there should be peace, it is certain that such a school would be 
exceedingly useful not only for those northern parts of the colony, 
but also for the more southern parts of Carolina, and for Purysburg 
and Frederica, where are many fine youths. I have been prevailed 
on to take one from Frederica and another from Purysburg, and it 
may be I shall admit more. For the present, considering the situa- 



In South Carolina. Ill 

tion of affairs, I think it most prudent to go on making what im- 
provements I can on the plantation, and bring a tutor with me from 
the north in the fall, to teach a few youths the languages, and en- 
large the family when affairs are more settled. 

He accordingly opened a Latin school, and began 
" a foundation for literature," in 1747, in aid of which— 
as well as to pay a debt of £500 contracted in the in- 
terest of the house — he used £300 which the people of 
Charleston gave him, in buying land and negroes, and 
establishing a farm in South Carolina. Under date 
of March 15, 1747, he says: 

The constitution of that colony [Georgia] is very bad, and it is 
impossible for the inhabitants to subsist without the use of slaves. 
But God has put it into the hearts of my South Carolina friends to 
contribute liberally toward purchasing in this province a plantation 
,and slaves, which I purpose to devote to the support of Bethesda. 
Blessed be God ! the purchase is made. Last week I bought, at a 
very cheap rate, a plantation of six hundred and forty acres of ex- 
cellent land, with a good house, barn, and out-houses, and sixty acres 
of ground ready cleared, fenced, and fit for ric-e, corn, and every 
thing that will be necessary for provisions. One negro has been 
given me. Some more I purpose to purchase this week. An over- 
seer is put upon the plantation, and I trust a sufficient quantity of 
provisions will be raised this year. The family at Bethesda consists 
of twenty-six. When my arrears are discharged, I intend to increase 
the number. I hope God will still stir up the friends of Zion to help 
me not only to discharge the arrears, but also to bring the plantation 
lately purchased to such perfection that if I should die shortly Be- 
thesda may yet be provided for. 

James Hervey, when sending him the manuscripts 
of " Theron and Aspasio " to revise, promised him £30 
for the purchase of a negro slave, and he returns the 
following answer, dated February 9, 1752: "I have 
read your manuscripts, but for me to play the critic 
on them would be like holding up a candle to the sun. 
I think to call your intended purchase Weston, and 
shall take care to remind him by whose means he was 



112 History of Methodism 

brought under the everlasting gospel." The expected 
revenue from this farm, however, was not realized, and 
Mr. Whitefield says, May 26, 1752: "I am come to a 
determination if I can dispose of Providence planta- 
tion (in South Carolina), to carry all my strength to 
the Orphan House;" and February 1, 1753: "With 
this 1 send your brother a power to dispose of Provi- 
dence plantation. I hope to hear shortly that you 
have purchased more negroes." On the 18th of 
December, 1764, Mr. Whitefield asked the governor 
and the two houses of Assembly for a grant of two 
thousand acres of land to enable him to convert the 
Orphan House into a college. Both houses voted a 
favorable address to the governor, who transmitted 
the same with his hearty approval of the contemplated 
measure to the lords commissioners for trade and 
plantations, and the two thousand acres were granted 
near Altamaha. In October, 1765, he sent a memorial 
to the king, concluding thus: 

Having received repeated advices that numbers both in Georgia 
and South Carolina are waiting with impatience to have their sons 
initiated in academical exercises, your memorialist therefore prays 
Irhat a charter upon the plan of New Jersey College may be granted ; 
upon which your memorialist is ready to give up his present trust, 
and make a free gift of all lands, negroes, goods, and chattels, which 
he now stands possessed of in the province of Georgia, for the present 
founding, and toward the future support, of a college to be called 
by the name of Bethesda College, in the province of Georgia. 

The charter tendered him by his majesty's Privy 
Council was not such as he felt he ought to accept, 
because it contained a clause which made it obligatory 
that the head of the college should be a member of 
the Church of England. He made known his objec- 
tions to- the Privy Council, and reminded them that by 
far the greatest amount of the 'Orphan House collec- 



In South Carolina. 113 

fcions came from Dissenters, not only in South Caro- 
lina and other provinces in America, bnt in England 
also. He stated moreover that since the announce- 
ment of the design to turn the Orphan House into a 
college, and of the approval of that project by the 
Governor and Assembly of Georgia, he had visited 
most of the places where the benefactors of the Orphan 
House resided, and had frequently been asked " upon 
what bottom the college was to be founded." To these 
inquiries he had answered — indeed, he had declared 
from the pulpit — that it should be upon a broad bottom, 
and no other. He concluded by telling them that he 
would not trouble them further about the business, but 
would himself turn the charity into a more generous 
and extensively useful channel. His decision under 
the circumstances was just and prudent. When the 
correspondence with the Privy Council was concluded, 
he wrote to the Governor of Georgia as follows: 
" I humbly hope the province of Georgia will in the 
end be no loser by this negotiation. For I now pur- 
pose to superadd a public academy to the Orphan 
House, as the College of Philadelphia [built above 
twenty-eight years before, for a charity school and 
preaching-place for Mr. Whitefield, and ministers of 
various denominations, on the bottom of the doctrinal 
articles of the Church of England] was constituted a 
public academy, as well as charitable school, for some 
time before its present charter was granted in 1755." 
He expressed his willingness also to settle the whole 
estate upon trustees, with the proviso that no oppor- 
tunity should be neglected of making fresh application 
for a college charter upon a broad bottom, whenever 
those in power might think it for the glory of God 
and the interest of their king and country to grant the 

8 



114 History of Methodism 

same. In pursuance of this purpose, lie sent over 
workmen to erect the necessary additional buildings 
for the intended academy at the Orphan House; and 
in the presence of the council and a large assembly of 
people, the foundation of the two additional wings to 
the main building — each one hundred and fifty feet in 
length — was laid by Governor Wright, on Saturday, 
the 25th of March, 1769, being the anniversary of the 
laying of the corner-stone of that house in 1740. 

Sunday, January 28, 1770, was a remarkable day in 
the history of Bethesda. A memorial-service was held, 
and the Governor, James Wright, the Council, the 
House of Assembly of Georgia, with their president, 
James Habersham, and a large number of colonists, 
were invited to attend and dine at the Orphan House. 
Mr. Whitefield's sermon on this memorable Sunday 
was founded on Zechariah iv. 10, " For who has de- 
spised the day of small things? " and was one of his 
best. He expressed the opinion that the colonies of 
America were likely to become " one of the most opu- 
lent and powerful empires in the world." He told the 
congregation that when he first came to Georgia "the 
whole country almost was left desolate, and the me- 
tropolis, Savannah, was but like a cottage in a vine- 
yard, or as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers." He 
reminded them that it had been reported to the House 
of Commons that " the very existence of the colony 
was in a great measure, if not totally, owing to the 
building and supporting of the Orphan House. I 
dare not conclude," said he, " without offering to your 
excellency our pepper-corn of acknowledgment for the 
countenance you have always shown Bethesda, and for 
the honor you did us last year in laying the first brick 
of yonder wings; in thus doing you have honored 



In South Carolina. 115 

Betliesda's God. Next to his excellency, my dear 
Mr. President, I must beg your acceptance both of 
thanks and congratulations. For you were not only 
my dear familiar friend, and first fellow-traveler in 
this infant province, but you were directed by Provi- 
dence to this spot; you laid the second brick to this 
house, and watched, prayed, and wrought for the fam- 
ily's good. You were a witness of innumerable trials, 
and were the partner of my joys and griefs. You will 
have now the pleasure of seeing the Orphan House a 
fruitful bough, its branches running over the wall 
For this, no doubt, God has smiled upon and blessed 
you in. a manner we could not expect, much less de- 
sign. May he continue to bless you with all spiritual 
blessing in heavenly places in Christ Jesus ! Look to 
the rock whence you have been hewn, and may your 
children never be ashamed that their father married 
a real Christian [Mary Bolton], who was born again 
under this roof." He then proceeded to address the 
"gentlemen of his majesty's council," and the " speak- 
er and members of the General Assembly," and finally 
his "reverend brethren," and "the inhabitants of the 
colony in general." The following is the official re- 
port of this memorial-service: 

Commons House of Assembly, Monday, January 29, 1770. Mr. 
Speaker reported that lie, with the House, having waited on the 
Rev. Mr. Whitefield, in consequence of his invitation, at the Orphan 
House Academy, heard him preach a very suitable and pious sermon 
on the occasion, and with great pleasure observed the promising ap- 
pearance of improvement toward the good purposes intended, and 
the decency and propriety of behavior of the several residents there ; 
and were sensibly affected when they saw the happy success which 
has attended Whitefield's indefatigable zeal for promoting the wel- 
fare of the province in general and the Orphan House in particular. 
Ordered that this report be printed in the Gazette. 

John Simpson, Clerk. 



11G History of Methodism 

The establishment of his college continued to be a 
subject of great anxiety. In a letter dated Charleston, 
February 10, 1770, he wrote: 

I have more than once conversed with the Governor of Georgia, 
in the most explicit manner, concerning an act of the Assembly for 
the establishment of the intended Orphan House College. He most 
readily consents. I have shown him a draught which he much ap- 
proves of; and all will be finished on my return from the northward. 
Meanwhile the buildings will be carried on. Since my being in 
Charleston I have shown the draft to some persons of great eminence 
and influence. They highly approve of it, and willingly consent to 
be some of the wardens ; near twenty are to be of Georgia, about six 
of this place, one of Philadelphia, one of New York, one of Boston, 
three of Edinburgh, two of Glasgow, and six of London. Those of 
Georgia and South Carolina are to be qualified— the others to be 
only honorary corresponding members. 

The last letter Mr. Wesley wrote to his old friend 
was in part on the subject of his intended college: 

Lewisham, February 21, 1770. 
My Dear Brother : — Some time ago, since you went hence, I 
heard a circumstance which gave me a great deal of concern, namely, 
that the college, or academy, in Georgia had swallowed up the Or- 
phan House. Shall I give my judgment without being asked ? Me- 
thinks friendship requires I should. Are there not, then, two points 
which come in view — a point of mercy and a point of justice ? With 
regard to the former may it not be inquired, Can any thing on earth 
be a greater charity than to bring up orphans ? What is a college, 
or academy, compared to this? Unless you could have such a col- 
lege as perhaps is not on earth. I know the value of learning, and 
am more in danger of prizing it too much than too little; still, I 
cannot place the giving it to five hundred students on a level with 
saving the bodies, if not the souls too, of five hundred orphans. But 
let us pass from the point of mercy to that of justice. You had 
land given and money collected for an orphan house. Are you at 
liberty to apply this to any other purpose — at least, while there are 
any orphans in Georgia left ? I just touch upon this, though it is an 
important point, and leave it to your own consideration whether 
part of it, at least, might not properly be applied to carry on the 



In South Carolina. 117 

original design. In speaking thus freely, I have given you a fresh 
proof of the sincerity with which I am your ever affectionate friend 
and brother. 

The Orphan House buildings, furniture, slaves, and 
lands, as property held in trust, were left " to that elect 
lady, the Right Honorable Selina, Countess-dowager 
of Huntingdon," and in case of her death to White- 
field's "dear first fellow-traveler, and faithful, invari- 
able friend, the Honorable James Habersham, Esq., 
president of his majesty's honorable council " in 
Georgia. The countess determined to send from En- 
gland a president and master for the Orphan House, 
and at the same time to dispatch a number of her 
Trevecca students as missionaries to the Indians and 
to the people in the back settlements. The students, 
summoned from all parts of the kingdom, assembled 
at Trevecca on the 9th of October, 1772. At the end 
of the month they embarked for Georgia with the 
Rev. Mr. Percy, rector of St. Paul's in South Caro- 
lina, who was appointed president, and the Rev. Mr. 
Crosse, afterward vicar of Bradford, who was chosen 
master. The housekeeper of the countess was sent 
with them to regulate domestic matters according to 
her ladyship's direction. The missionaries were wel- 
comed by the people, and for a brief period affairs at 
the Orphan House seemed to prosper. In the month 
of June, 1773, this historic edifice, except the two 
wings, was consumed by fire. In 1782, during the 
war with England, the estate was confiscated, and in 
1800 the two wings were in a state of decay, the brick- 
wall inclosing the premises was leveled with the 
ground, and the foundations, in many places, plowed up. 

On Sunday, March 23, 1740, two days after Mr. 
Whitefield left Charleston to lay the foundation of 



118 History of Methodism 

the Orphan House, Commissary Garden preached a 
remarkable sermon against him, and on Wednesday, 
the 26th, the Bev. Josiah Smith, of the Independent 
Church, defended him with much spirit and ability in 
a discourse founded on Job xxxii. 17. 

Mr. Whitefield, after laying the foundation of the 
Orphan House (March 25, 1740), left Savannah on the 
30th of June, and arrived again in Charleston on the 
2d of July. In his journal he writes: 

Sunday, July 6, Charleston. Preached twice yesterday and twice 
to-day, and had great reason to believe our Lord got himself the 
victory in some hearts. Went to church in the morning and after- 
noon, and heard the commissary preach as virulent, unorthodox, 
and inconsistent a discourse as ever I heard in my life. His heart 
seemed full of choler and resentment ; and out of the abundance 
thereof he poured forth so many bitter words against the Methodists 
in general, and me in particular, that several who intended to re- 
ceive the sacrament at his hands withdrew. Never, I believe, was 
such a preparation sermon preached before. I could not help think- 
ing the preacher was of the same spirit as Bishop Gardiner in Queen 
Mary's days. After sermon he sent his clerk to desire me not to 
come to the sacrament till he had spoken with me. I immediately 
retired to my lodging, rejoicing that I was accounted worthy to suf- 
fer this further degree of contempt for my dear Lord's sake. Blessed 
Jesus, lay it not to the commissary's charge ! Amen and amen ! 

On Friday, the 11th of July, he received from him, 
through William Smith, the following citation: 

You are hereby cited to appear at the Church of St. Philip's, 
Charleston, on Tuesday, the fifteenth day of this instant (July), be- 
twixt the hours of nine and ten in the forenoon, before the Kev. 
Alexander Garden, commissary, to answer such articles as shall 
there be objected to you. 

Accordingly, on the day appointed, the court assem- 
bled at St. Philip's Church, and consisted of the com- 
missary, and the Bev. Messrs. Guy, Mellichamp, Kowe, 
and Orr. The prosecution was conducted by James 



IxV South Carolina, 119 

Graham, and the defense by Andrew Rutledge. The 
authority of the court was denied, and exceptions in 
writing tendered ;t in recusation of the judge " (recusa- 
tio judicis). These exceptions were repelled by the 
court, and Mr. Whitefield then lodged an appeal to 
his majesty in the high court of chancery. During 
this visit, and even while the trial was progressing, 
his ministerial labors were abundant, and he preached 
almost daily in Charleston and the surrounding coun- 
try. Fully occupied with bis Master's work, Mr. 
Whitefield, after forwarding his appeal, soon ceased 
to take any active interest in the matter, and it was 
therefore never tried, but allowed by the authorities 
to die of neglect. Accordingly, at the end of twelve 
months, the commissary, in the exercise of an author- 
ity which his bishop never attempted to use, though 
Mr. Whitefield had preached in the fields near Lon- 
don, and all over England, issued his decree against 
him, in which, after reciting that his frequently preach- 
ing in Dissenting meeting-houses without using the 
prescribed forms of prayer had been proved by Hugh 
Anderson, Stephen Hartley, and John Redman, he 
continued in a cloud of high-sounding words: 

Therefore we, Alexander Garden, the judge aforesaid, having 
first invoked the name of Christ, and setting and having God alone 
before our eyes, and by and with the advice of the reverend persons, 
William Guy, Timothy Mellichamp, Stephen Kowe, and William 
Orr, Avith whom in that part we have advised and maturely delib- 
erated, do pronounce, decree, and declare the aforesaid George White- 
field, clerk, to have been at the times articled, and now to be, a priest 
of the Church of England, and at the times and days in that part 
articled to have officiated as a minister in divers meeting-houses in 
Charleston, in the province of South Carolina, by praying and 
preaching to public congregations, and at such times to have omit- 
ted to use the form of prayer prescribed in the Common Book, or 
Book of Common Prayer ; or, at least, according to the laws, canons. 



120 History of Methodism 

and constitutions ecclesiastical in that part made, provided, and 
pronmlged, not to have used the same according to the lawful proofs 
before us in that part judicially had and made. We therefore pro- 
nounce, decree, and declare that the said George Whitefield, for his 
excesses and faults, ought, duly and canonically, and according to 
the exigence of the law in that part of the premises, to be corrected 
and punished, and also to be suspended from his office ; and, ac- 
cordingly, by these presents, we do suspend him, the said George 
Whitefield; and for being so suspended we also pronounce, decree, 
and declare him to be denounced, declared, and published openly 
and publicly in the face of the Church. 

This extraordinary document did not in the slight- 
est degree affect the popularity and usefulness of Mr. 
Whitefield. With growing favor among the people, 
he continued to preach from year to year in South 
Carolina and Georgia, freely exchanging pulpits with 
Dissenters of every sect and denomination, and was 
welcomed by all as a true messenger of the gospel of 
peace. On his last visit to Charleston, he spent the 
month of February, 1770, preaching every day to over- 
flowing congregations; and, going soon after on his 
usual northern trip, closed his labors with his life, at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, September 30, 1770. 
His last sermon was preached the day before, from 2 
Cor. xiii. 5: "Examine yourselves, whether ye be in 
the faith; prove your own selves. Know ye not your 
own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye 
be reprobates ? " "I go, I go," said the dying preacher, 
"to rest prepared. My sun has arisen, and, by aid 
from heaven, given light to many; 'tis now about to 
set for — no, it cannot be! — 'tis to rise to the zenith of 
immortal glory. I have outlived many on earth, but 
they cannot outlive me in heaven. Many shall live 
when this body is no more; but then — O thought di- 
vine! — I shall be in a world where time, age, pain, and 



In South Carolina. 121 

sorrow are unknown. My body fails, my spirit ex- 
pands; how willingly would I live forever to preach 
Christ! but I die to be with him. How brief, compar- 
atively brief, has been my life, compared with the vast 
labors I see before me to be accomplished; but if I 
leave now, while so few care about heavenly things, 
the God of peace will surely visit you." 

Thus passed into the skies the last of the Oxford 
Methodists who labored in Georgia and South Caro- 
lina—being, in the estimation of Mr. Wesley, who for 
thirty-seven years had been his frank, loving, and con- 
fidential friend, "one of the most eminent ministers 
that has appeared in England, or perhaps in the world, 
during the present century." 

And is my Whitefield entered into rest, 

With sudden death, with sudden glory blest ! 

Left for a few sad moments here behind, 

I bear his image on ray faithful mind; 

To future times the fair example tell, 

Of one avIio lived, of one who died so well ; 

Pay the last office of fraternal love, 

And then embrace my happier friend above. 

(Charles Wesley.) 



CHAPTER V. 



His eyes diffuse a venerable grace, 

And charity itself is in his face. 

Humble and meek, learned, pious, prudent, just, 

Of good report, and faithful to his trust ; 

Vigilant, sober, watchful of his charge, 

Who feeds his sheep, and other folds enlarge. 

(Emily Wesley.) 

IT is a remarkable fact that at the very time Mr. 
Whitefield, who embarked September 4, 1769, was 
making his seventh and last voyage to America, Bi'ck- 
ard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor, the first two mis- 
sionaries sent out by Mr. Wesley, were being borne, 
through the same storms and tempests, to the same 
field of labor. Mr. Whitefield's work was indeed 
nearly ended; but he had prepared the way for Mr. 
Wesley's preachers and for founding a Church, now 
the largest on the American continent. In his last 
letter to Mr. Whitefield, this earnest request is made 
by Mr. Wesley: " For the present, I must beg of you to 
supply my lack of service by encouraging our preach- 
ers as you judge best, who are as yet comparatively 
young and inexperienced, by giving them such advices 
as you think proper, and above all by exhorting them 
not only to love one another, but, if it be possible, as 
much as lies in them, to live peaceably with all men." 
' In pursuance of a plan of operations formed by Mr. 
Boardman and Mr. Pilmoor, the latter set out in the 
month of April, 1772, on a journey to the South, in 
(122) 



His toby of Methodism. 123 

the prosecution of which he preached through parts 
of Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and 
Georgia, What success attended his labors in the 
last-named provinces appears in his journal. Return- 
ing to the North in the spring of 1773, he continued 
his work nine months longer in America, and in the 
year 1774 returned to England, in company with Mr. 
Boardman. In that country he continued for a few 
years to travel and labor as a Wesleyan preacher ; but 
he afterward came back to America, took orders in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and spent the remainder 
of his life in the cities of New York and Philadelphia, 
as an acceptable and efficient minister of that Church, 
and was instrumental in the conversion and salvation 
of many. 

On the 3d of August, 1769, in the Conference at 
Leeds, Mr. Wesley said from the chair: "We have a 
pressing call from our brethren of New York (who 
have built a preaching-house) to come over and help 
them. Who is willing to go ? Richard Boardman and 
Joseph Pilmoor. What can we do further in token of 
our brotherly love? Let us now take a collection 
among ourselves." This was immediately done, and 
out of it £50 was allotted to the payment of their debt, 
and about £20 given to the brethren for their passage. 

While in London, the Rev. George Whitefield sent 
for Mr. Boardman and Mr. Pilmoor. The latter says, 
in his journal: 

As he had been long in America, he knew what directions to give 
us, and treated us with all the kindness and tenderness of a father in 
Christ. Difference of sentiment made no difference in love and affec- 
tion. He prayed heartily for us, and commended us to God and the 
word of his grace. So we parted in love, hoping soon to meet where 
parting is no more. 

Sunday, August 20, 1769. At the Foundry, London, Mr. Charles 



124 History of Methodism 

Wesley met the Society, and afterward sent for Mr. Board man and 
me into his room, where he spoke freely and kindly to us about our 
sea voyage, and the important business in which we had engaged. 
After giving us much good advice, he sent us forth with his blessing, 
in the name of the Lord. This was of great advantage to us, as. it 
afforded us the pleasing reflection that we had not asked contrary to 
the minds of our brethren and fathers in Christ. We had what we 
believed a call from God; we had the approbation and authority of 
three godly clergymen of the Church of England, and we had like- 
wise the authority of more than a hundred preachers of the gospel, 
"who were laboring day and night to save souls from destruction, and 
advance the kingdom of Christ. Hence we concluded we had full 
power, according to the New Testament, to preach the everlasting 
gospel and do all possible good to mankind. We embarked from 
Gravesend in the evening of Monday, August 21, 1769, on board the 
Mary and Elizabeth, Captain Sparks having command, for Philadel- 
phia. After a passage of nine weeks from London, we made land on 
the 20th of October, and on the 21st landed at Gloucester Point, six 
miles below Philadelphia. When we got on shore we joined in a 
doxology, and gave praise to God for deliverance, and all the mer- 
cies bestowed upon us during the passage. When we had rested a 
little while at a public house, Mr. Boardman and I walked up to the 
city, where we were kindly received and entertained by Captain 
Sparks and wife. Having no knowledge of any society in Philadel- 
phia, we had resolved to go forward to New York as soon as possi- 
ble; but God had work for us to do ihat we knew not of. As we 
were walking along one of the streets, a man who had been in our 
society in Ireland, and had seen Mr. Boardman there, met with ns, 
and challenged him. This was very providential ; for he informed 
us they had heard two preachers were arrived, and he was then out 
seeking us. He took us homeAvith him, and in a little time Captain 
Webb, who had been in the city for some days, came to us and gave 
us a hearty welcome to America. Our souls rejoiced to meet with 
such a valiant servant of Jesus in this distant land, especially as he 
was a real Methodist. The next day Mr. Boardman preached to a 
small but serious congregation, on the call of Abraham to go forth 
into the land of Canaan. The next day he set off for New York, 
and I agreed to stay some time in Philadelphia, to try Avhat might 
be done for the honor of God and the salvation of immortal souls. 

Mr. Boardman and Mr. Pilmoor interchanged, at 



In South Carolina. 125 

stated periods, between Philadelphia and New York, 
making these two cities their head-quarters, and occu- 
pying the territory in the vicinity to a limited extent. 
The arrival of Francis Asbury and Richard Wright 
in Philadelphia, on the 27th of October, 1771, was 
a valuable addition to the ministerial corps. Thus 
strengthened, they commenced to labor in more dis- 
tant fields. In the spring of 1772, in May, Mr. Board- 
man went to Providence, Rhode Island, and to Boston, 
Massachusetts. May 2l), 1772, Mr. Pilmoor started on 
his tour to preach the gospel in Maryland, Vi rgini a, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. He says: 

Wednesday, January 6, 1773 . As there are many people in the 
place f Wilmington, North Carolin a], I should be glad to stay, only 
I am under a necessity of hastening to Charleston. After dinner I 
set off, and intended to reach Brunswick, but the roads were so bad 
I was obliged to stop by the way. In the morning I hastened on to 
the town in hopes of preaching that day, but could not get the peo- 
ple together till Friday, when we had a fine congregation in the 
church, where I found liberty and power to preach the gospel. Sat- 
urday I dined with William Hill, Esq., to whom I had letters of 
recommendation. He is a gentleman of good understanding, and a 
friend to serious religion, so that I spent the time very comfortably. 

Sunday, 10. As the day was very wet and disagreeable, our con- 
gregation at church was but small ; however, God enabled me to 
preach with power, and gave his blessing to the word. Monday I 
was told of a ship bound to South Carolina, and intended to go by 
her to save time; but she not being ready to sail, on Tuesday I set 
off by land, and went on about twenty miles to Mr. Moor's, a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Society, with whom I had great comfort in relig- 
ious conversation, and concluded the day with more satisfaction 
than I have done for some time before. The next morning I took 
leave of my Christian friend, and went forward on my journey. 
The woods were very dreary, and I did not see any thing but trees 
for many miles together. However, the road was very good, and at 
length I spied a little cottage about half a mile from the road, and 
was glad to find a feAV blades of Indian corn for my horse, and hav- 
ing provision for myself along with me, I made out very well. I 



126 History of Methodism 

intended to call at the Boundary House (so called because it stands 
on the line that divides the two Carolinas), but I missed it in the 
wood, and was obliged to travel on till I could find a place on the 
road ; and about eight o'clock at night I came, weary enough, to a 
little mean house, about a mile from the end of the long bay. After 
a little refreshment, I prayed with the family, and was greatly com- 
forted in calling upon the Lord, who has graciously condescended to 
smile on his poor servant in the wilderness, and caused him to re- 
joice. 

Thursday, 14. Being told the tide suited very early in the morn- 
ing, I set off, and found the sand very good for about seven miles. 
The other eight it was exceedingly heavy, so that it tired my horse 
very much, but I was in hopes of a refreshment as soon as I got 
over, but the first house I came to the master was from home, and 
tbe negroes would not let me have any thing, so I was obliged to go 
on as well as I could. At length, having traveled about twenty 
miles, I found a place about a mile from the road, where, with some 
difficulty, I got .something for my poor beast, and then pursued my 
journey toward Georgetown. In the afternoon the wind that had 
blown very hard all the day brought on a most terrible storm of 
rain, and being obliged to travel in the night till I could find a 
house, it was both dangerous and disagreeable, but at length I came 
to the place where the ferry had been kept, but has lately been re- 
moved about nine miles down the river. However, I got entertain- 
ment, and made out much better than I expected. The next morn- 
ing I set forward for the ferry, but had not gone far before I broke 
one of my wheels down to the ground. This distressed me very 
much, as I did not know what I should do; but seeing a house at a 
small distance, I left my horse and chaise on the road, and went to 
try if I could borrow a wheel, which I readily obtained, and it did 
pretty well. I then went forward again, and found out the way 
through the woods as well as I could, but it was near sunset before 
I got to the ferry. As it was late, they would not put me over, so I 
was obliged to wait till the next day. I have traveled many thou- 
sands of miles in England and Wales, and now seen much of North 
America, but this day's journey has been the most distressing of all 
I have met with before; but it is now over, and will never afflict me 
again. In like manner all the tribulations I have yet to go through 
will suddenly vanish away, and 1 shall enter my rest. 

Saturday, 16. Being afraid the wind would rise and hinder me 
from crossing the ferry, I resolved to go over as soon as possible. 



In South Carolina. 127 

"We were on the water before sunrise, and the river is but two miles 
over, yet the wind blew so fresh that it was with the utmost diffi- 
culty I escaped. However, the Shepherd of Israel watched over 
me, and by his providential care and blessing I was preserved. But 
my difficulties were not yet over. I had to pursue my way through 
the woods where there was no kind of road, and found it hard work 
to get forward. At length I got to the road, and after traveling many 
miles came to a little tavern, where I got some refreshments for my- 
self and my horse. I then set forward again, and got to Santee 
ferry just as the boat was going off, so I got over without interrup- 
tion. But the road from this river to the next, which is about a 
mile, is the very worst I ever beheld. I durst not ride in the chaise 
at all, ainl was afraid the horse would break his legs among the 
trees that are laid across the mud for a road. But I got safely over, 
and met the other boat ready for me; so I went on board and got 
over just before the night came on. As I waded through the water 
and mud in many places, I came to the inn, almost covered over 
with dirt, but I had reason to praise my God that I had been pre- 
served from misfortune when in such imminent danger. 

Sunday, 17. I called at a church by the way-side, where I heard 
a useful sermon on the necessity of prayer. After service, the min- 
ister came and spoke to me very kindly, and appeared to be a very 
good man. I then went forward, but as the road was very bad my 
horse began to fail me, and I was likely to be in very great distress; 
but three gentlemen came up, and one of them told me he would 
lend me his horse to draw me to the public house where I intended 
to stay. So we put his horse to the chaise, and he rode with me to 
the place, where I met with a family of pious, genteel people, who 
gladly spent the evening with me in reading, singing, and prayer. 
Here I found a young man in a deep consumption, whom I spoke to 
with the greatest plainness of the necessity of preparing for death 
and the invisible world. My heart was much affected with a con- 
cern for his salvation, and I had some reason to believe for his sake 
I was brought to this place. 

Monday, 18. I had a blessed opportunity in family prayer, then 
took leave of my kind friends, and driving slowly my horse held 
out to the ferry, where I had a sight of Charleston , but did not get 
over till late in the evening. As it was very dark, and I was an 
utter stranger in the town, I did not know what way to go, but a 
negro boy offered to go with me to Mr. Crosse's, a publican, to whom 
I brought a letter from Maryland. It appeared to be but an indif- 



123 History of Methodism 

ferent place; however, I was glad of any place where I could get a 
little rest. My way from Virginia has been very rugged indeed, 
the trials I have met with very considerable, my expenses very 
great, yet the Lord has not suffered me to want, nor yet to be in the 
least discouraged. If I had been left to myself, my heart would 
presently have fainted, but having obtained help from the Lord, I 
continue to this day, fully determined to follow him whithersoever 
he shall be pleased to lead me. I count not my life dear unto my- 
self, so that I may but finish my course with joy, and testify the 
gospel of the grace of God. 

Tuesday, 19. Being heartily sick of my situation among the 
sons of Belial, I took a walk into the town to deliver a letter, and 
seek for a private lodging, which I went to the next day; and as 
the people are professors, I was in hopes we should have family 
prayer; but the master, Mr. Swinton, told me as he had a mixed 
multitude in his house, it might not be agreeable, as family prayer 
was very uncommon in Charleston. "What, family prayer uncom- 
mon among Presbyterians!" He replied, "It is too much neglect- 
ed;" so I only replied, "You, sir, know best what is convenient in 
your own house," and retired to my room. Thursday I called on 
Mr. Wilson, a Moravian, from New York, who took a walk with 
me to see the town, and afterward took me to drink tea with Mr. 
and Mrs. Gautier, where I felt my mind much at liberty, and was 
very much comforted in conversation. In the evening I went with 
two gentlemen to Mr. Ton's, a gentleman that has the care of the 
General Baptist meeting-house, to make application for the use of 
the pulpit, which he readily granted, and we gave it out as much 
as we could that there would be preaching there the following night. 

Friday, 22. I dined with Mr. Forrest, who I find has heard me 
preach in New York. When I came to this town I did not know 
one single person, nor had I any reason to suppose that any one 
knew me; but I am known by several, I find, and have come to re- 
joice that I am not afraid of any discoveries. At six in the even- 
ing I preached my first sermon in Charleston. As the notice was 
but very short, our congregation was not large, but very serious. 
Two ministers were present all the time, and behaved very well. 
The Baptist minister, Mr. Hart, returned me thanks for my sermon, 
Vnd invited me to preach in his pulpit. Thus the Lord is opening 
my way before me, and will, I trust, give me his blessing. Saturday 
I was comforted by a packet of letters from the North, and in the 
evening the congregation was three times as large as that we had 



In South Carolina. 129 

last night, and the Lord gave me wisdom and power to preach the 
gospel without controversy or meddling with particular opinions. 
As the General Baptists have no minister, and thinking it more 
blessed to give than to receive, I gladly consented to preach for them 
on Sunday morning. 

Sunday, 24. As it was published last night, we had a very full 
house at ten o'clock, and I was greatly comforted in the work of the 
Lord. At three o'clock I preached for Mr. Hart, to the Particular 
Baptists, on part of the eighteenth Psalm ; and in the evening, not- 
withstanding the rain, the house was as full as it could hold, and 
the Lord was remarkably present while I opened and applied "As 
many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God," 
and all behaved as well as the people in Philadelphia. This was 
thought very extraordinary, for when I first proposed evening 
preaching I was told it would be impracticable on account of the 
mob; but I was resolved to try in the name of the Lord, and he 
took care of me and his own work. My heart is greatly united with 
the people of this town, and I feel such freedom of mind in preach- 
ing that I hope the word of the Lord will be made effectual for the 
conversion of sinners and building up the children of Zion. Mon- 
day I was very unwell with the fatigue of preaching the day before, 
but in the evening the congregation was so large and attentive that 
my heart was abundantly comforted in preaching a free salvation to 
sinners, and calling them to Christ just as they are, that they might 
be saved by grace. Tuesday I spent the morning in reading, medi- 
tation, and prayer, then went to dine with Mr. Patrick, where I met 
the Kev. Mr. Hart, the Baptist minister, who is not only sensible, but 
truly evangelical, and very devout. At night the house was as full 
as it could well hold, and the word of the Lord was made the savor 
of life unto life. The day following I dined with Mr. John Cogdeli, 
where I met with a young gentleman who is friendly to the people 
of God and spiritual religion, and we spent our time to the mutual 
comfort and edification of each other. The meeting-house was full 
again this evening, and the people appeared to receive the word 
with gladness. After preaching I was glad to accept of an invita- 
tion to stay with one of the Baptists while I continue in Charleston, 
and we concluded the day with family prayer. Thursday, 28th, 
found my soul exceedingly happy in morning prayer, and. reading 
the word of God; dined with Captain Blewer from Philadelphia, 
where I was treated with the utmost respect, and at six o'clock I had 
a time of refreshing, while I explained and applied "Christ our 



130 History of Methodism 

Passover is sacrificed for us," and, though the house was wonder- 
fully crowded, all was orderly and still as the night. This is surely 
the Lord's doing, and he is worthy to he praised forever and ever. 
Friday I found myself very much out of order, owing to the cold I 
got by coming sweating from the pulpit every night into the damp 
air, yet I resolved to preach in the evening, and God gave me 
strength sufficient for the business, and made my heart rejoice in 
his salvation. Saturday night the congregation was large and deep- 
ly serious. Charleston bids fair for a revival of religion, and a good 
work of the Lord. 

Sunday, 31. I spent the morning in waiting upon God, and 
praying for his presence and blessing to be with me through all the 
duties of the day. At ten o'clock I preached in the Old Meeting, 
and was favored with the illuminations of grace, and the divine en- 
ergy of the Holy Spirit. At two, we had a gracious season at the 
New Meeting, and in the evening we had the largest congregation 
I have seen since I left Virginia. The house was so full it was with 
the utmost difficulty I could get to the pulpit, and there were hun- 
dreds at the outside that could not get in at all. As the weather 
was favorable, I desired them to open the windows, and by extend- 
ing my voice a little more than usual I believe most of them heard 
distinctly. This has been a trying day to my constitution, but that 
is a small matter. My soul has feasted as on marrow and fat things 
— on wines — wines on the lees, well refined. The word of the Lord 
has been clothed with power, and made mighty through God to the 
pulling down of strongholds and vain imaginations. 

Monday, February 1. I rose greatly refreshed, and began to 
prepare for my journey to Georgia. As I purpose to return to 
Philadelphia by land, I judged it best to leave my horse in Charles- 
ton to rest till I come back from Savannah, and set off on a poor 
mean creature that I borrowed, and in the evening reached Ean- 
toul's Bridge, about sixteen miles from Charleston, where I con- 
cluded the day in great tranquillity of mind in calling upon God 
with the family. The next day I came to Ashepoo . Wednesday to 
Alison's tavern, and about twelve o'clock on Thursday to Pury s- 
burg, a settlement of French refugees, on the River Savannah. As 
the boat was gone, I was obliged to stay all night. Friday morning 
I set off very early, in hopes of getting to Savannah before night. 
As they had no proper boat for horses, we were glad to fasten the 
canoes together with ropes, and put the horses with the forefeet in 
the one and the hinder feet in the other. There was a great fresh 



In South Carolina. 131 

in the river, which carried us rapidly down the stream for seven 
miles, then Ave had to turn up a creek, and had the stream against 
us, but the negroes pulled very stoutly, and in about two hours put 
me safe ashore. After a little refreshment I hastened on, and about 
two o'clock I arrived in ^Savannah . It stands on a rising ground, on 
a pretty good river of the same name, which is navigable up to the 
town, and carries on a considerable trade. There are about three 
thousand inhabitants, white and black. The houses are part of 
brick, the rest of timber — not very large, but exceedingly neat. 
They have three churches — one for the English Episcopalians, one 
for the Lutherans, and one for the Independents. As the soil is 
very sandy, and the streets not paved, it is exceedingly inconven- 
ent and disagreeable, especially when the weather is hot. Having 
no acquaintance, I was directed to a lodging-house, where I found 
a number of persons, genteel enough, but not very religious. In the 
evening I attended a lecture at Mr. Zubly's meeting, and afterward 
delivered him the letters I had from Charleston. Saturday I dined 
with him, and attended a preparation sermon for the sacrament, and 
afterward returned home with him, to make my abode at his house 
while I stay in this place. The circular-letter, respecting the Ar- 
minian controversy, had found its way to Georgia, and deeply 
prejudiced his mind against Mr. Wesley, so he spoke very freely, and 
candidly told me his mind. I had been pretty strongly recommended 
to him, yet he told me frankly he could not think of admitting me to 
his pulpit until I had satisfied him concerning the doctrine of merit 
and justification by works. As I do totally renounce every idea of 
human merit, and all justification by works, I soon gave him full 
satisfaction, and he offered me his church to preach in Sunday. 

Sunday, 7. When I rose in the morning, my mind was greatly 
drawn out with a desire to preach, and I longed to do something for 
my Master and Lord. But I had no opportunity; Mr. Zubly 
preached himself, and afterward the sacrament was administered, 
and the people seemed to be affected with the solemnity of the ordi- 
nance, and received with great order and decency. In the after- 
noon I went to the Episcopal Church, and heard a discourse on the 
great duty of prayer. His language was good, and his delivery 
agreeable, but his doctrine very imperfect. What a pity that those 
who profess to be the servants of Jesus should have so little to say 
for their Master ! _ At six o'clock I preached in Mr. Zubly's meeting 
with a degree of freedom, but not with my usual life and liberty. 
When I came down from the pulpit, a young gentleman who ha? 



132 History of Methodism 

often heard me in Philadelphia was waiting to speak with me, and 
introduced me to several others, who invited me to go with them to 
Mr. Wright's, where I spent the evening in great happiness, and we 
concluded the day with praise and prayer. 

.Monday, 8. Spent the morning in study; dined with several 
gentlemen at Mr. Wright's where piety and politeness are happily 
united, and had a good time in the evening, while I opened and 
applied, "This man receiveth sinners;" the word was with power, 
and the Lord made bare his arm in defense of his own truth and 
righteousness, displayed in the everlasting gospel of his Son. Tues- 
day, I wrote several letters to my correspondents in the North, and 
at night I expounded the histo ry of th e Canaanitish woman to a large 
congregation of genteel and attentive hearers; my heart was drawn 
out with desires to do them good, but I had not so much unction and 
divine, tenderness of spirit as I frequently find in other places. 

Wednesday, 10. Mr. Wood, a lawyer, and a young merchant from 
Boston, accompanied me to the Orphan House, twelve miles from 
Savannah. The road was through the pine-trees, which, being per- 
petually green, make it remarkably pleasant. But the situation of 
the house is by no means agreeable. It stands on a small creek, and 
is almost surrounded with barren sand that produces nothing but 
pines, which is a certain sign of the badness of the soil. The house 
itself is well enough. In the evening I preached to the family with 
peculiar satisfaction of mind, and had abundant reason to say the 
Lord was in that place. Thursday morning we had prayer in the 
chapel. My heart was united with the people of God, and drawn 
out with longing desires for the salvation of mankind. Afterward 
I returned to Savannah, and preached in the evening with liberty 
of spirit. Friday was the time for Mr. Zubly's Dutch lecture, but 
the town was in confusion on account of his excellency Governor 
Wright, who was expected this day, so there was no service. Satur- 
day the governor came, the guns were fired, the militia mustered, 
and all the gentlemen in the town attended to congratulate him on 
his safe arrival, and the whole town was full of festivity; neverthe- 
]ess we had a pretty large congregation in the evening, and the Lord 
made us to rejoice in his salvation. 

Sunday, 14. The weather was so very wet and gloomy that our 
congregation was but small, yet. our labor was not in vain in the 
Lord. In the afternoon I heard preaching in the Episcopal Church, 
in the evening at Mr. Zubly's, and concluded the day with my kind 
and dear friend Mr. Wright, who has behaved to me with the great- 



In South Carolina. 133 

est tenderness and civility. Since I came to this province I have 
had many invitations to Fort Augusta, and several different places, 
but my mind draws me back to visit the places where I have gone 
preaching the gospel, and I judge it my duty to obey, for I dare not 
run without a commission, nor venture to depart from my heavenly 
guide. Therefore, having no longer any divine call in this place, on 
Monday morning I took leave of Savannah in company with Mr. 
Zubly, for South Carolina. In our way we called on a Lutheran 
minister to breakfast. He appeared to be a man of God; my spirit 
united with him, and was exceedingly happy in his company and 
conversation. We then went forward toward the ferry. Mr. Zubly 
had appointed his negroes to meet us at a place about half a mile 
from the river, but they did not come in time; so we ventured 
through the woods and swamps, and did as well as we could. After 
waiting a good while, at length a negro boy came with a letter, by 
which we were informed they were coming with a canoe to carry us. 
Presently the canoe arrived, we took our saddles off the horses, 
took them and our portmanteaus in the canoe with us, and left the 
Ik uses to come after us in the boat. As there was a very great flood, 
we had to row a great way through the woods, but after some diffi- 
culty we escaped safe to land. When we had taken a little refresh- 
ment, we walked to the house where Mr. Zubly had been sent for to 
visit a woman that was sick, but she had taken her flight before we 
arrived, and was to be buried that day. We found the people gath- 
ered, and some of them pretty merry with grog, and talking as if 
they had been at a frolic rather than a funeral. As they had two 
miles to go, they put the corpse into a cart, and let each of us a horse 
to accompany them to Purvsburg . When we came to the grave, Mr. 
Zubly gave us a short exhortation, and concluded with prayer. We 
then went into the church, and he gave us a sermon against drunk- 
enness, which, though very uncommon at a funeral, was very neces- 
sary for the people that were there. He published preaching for me 
on the morrow, and at the time appointed I found a good congrega- 
tion, to whom I preached the gospel with more comfort than I have 
felt several days. The word was made quick and powerful, and the 
people were much affected under the sermon. After preaching I 
was invited to dine with a Frenchman, who was one of the principal 
inhabitants, and expressed a very great desire that I would stay and 
be their parish minister ; but parishes, however valuable as to earthly 
tilings, have no weight with me; my call is to run — to run to and fro, 
that knowledge may be increased and God exalted in the earth. 



134 History of Methodism 

Wednesday, 17. Took leave of my kind friend, and hastened on 
to Combahee, and in the evening to Ponpon. The next morning I 
set off pretty early, and traveling steady all the day, in the evening 
I came safe to my dear friends in Charleston , who greatly rejoiced 
to see me returned to them again. Friday we sent word through the 
town that I should preach in the evening, and we had a fine congre- 
gation, to whom I declared "She is a tree of life to them that lay 
hold upon her, and happy is every one that retaineth her." The 
day following I had a young man to visit me who was in society 
with the Methodists in England, and is well acquainted with the 
things of the Spirit. In the afternoon I had a message from Mr. 
Percy, one of Lady Huntington's ministers, Avho is just arrived 
from England, and has been very poorly; so I waited on him, and 
was glad to find him very zealous for God, and hope he will be in- 
strumental of much good to the people in this new world. At six 
o'clock I preached in Mr. Hart's meeting to a small but serious con- 
gregation with great freedom of heart, and a degree of divine unction 
from above. 

Sunday, 21. In the forenoon I was a good deal straitened in my 
own mind, yet the people were much affected under the word, and 
many were blessed. At two o'clock I had a good opportunity in 
preaching at Mr. Hart's meeting, and in the evening Ave had the 
Old Meeting full enough while I preached "The law as a school- 
master to bring us to Christ." I am not so much satisfied with 
preaching the law, as I am with the gospel; but it is necessary, and 
therefore I must submit for the good of mankind and glory of God. 

He preached his last sermon in Charleston, Monday 
evening, March 8, 1773. He refers to it as follows: 

In the evening had a vast multitude of people to hear my farewell 
sermon, and all waited with the closest attention while I opened and 
applied the words of St. Paul to the believing Corinthians : " Brethren, 
farewell ; be perfect, be of good comfort, be of one mind, live in peace, 
and the God of love and peace shall be with you." My heart Avas 
greatly engaged for the happiness of these dear people, who.have al- 
ways behaved to me as if I had been an angel of God. I should like 
Avell to continue longer in this toAvn, but I must hasten through the 
Avoods to Philadelphia and preach the gospel in the waste places of the 
Avilderness. After preaching I visited a gentleAvoman a\ t 1io is sick, and 
desirous to be saA r ed in the Avay of the gospel ; Ave called upon God, 
and he graciously hearkened to the voice of our supplications. 



Ix South Carolina. 135 

Tuesday, March 9. I had many to take leave of, who heartily 
wish me success in the name of the Lord. We joined in singing 
the praises of Jehovah, and calling upon his excellent name, and he 
gave us a parting blessing. Many of them accompanied hie to the 
water-side, where I found the boat ready, and had a very good pas- 
sage to Mrs. Barkesdale's, where I was kindly received, and spent the 
evening in worshiping God with the family, and rested in peace. 



CHAPTER VI. 



No. 50, America. 

(Minutes of the British Conference held in London, August 7, 1770.) 

A man of wisdom, of sound faith, and a good disciplinarian. 

(Petition to Mr. Wesley for ministerial help in America, 17G8.) 

THERE came up to the twenty-eighth annual ses- 
sion of the British Conference, which met at 
Bristol, in England, August 6, 1771, a Methodist 
preacher in the twenty-sixth year of his age, who, by 
his studious habits and conscientious fidelity in the 
discharge of duty during five years of itinerant life, 
had gained the full confidence and esteem of all his 
brethren. For some time he had felt a strong desire to 
come as a missionary to the Western Continent, and 
had prayerfully considered the whole matter. John and 
Charles Wesley, Ingham and Whitefield, had been 
here years before. Embury, Webb, and Strawbridge 
had been forming societies in various parts of the 
country since he joined the Conference; and Board- 
man, Pilmoor, and Williams had been two years in the 
field, and were calling for additional laborers. Satis- 
fied that it was the will of God that he should enter 
upon this particular work, he conferred not with flesh 
and blood, but as soon as Mr. Wesley called for volun- 
teers, among the first to respond was Francis Asbury, 
and from that moment his heart was in America. He 
was born near Birmingham, in Staffordshire, England, 
on the 20th or 21st day of August, 1745. In early 
youth he listened, at West Bromwich Church, to the 
(136) 



History of Methodism. 137 

preaching of Byland, Stillingfleet, Talbot, Bagnall, 
Mansfield, Hawes, Venn, and others, some of whom 
were among the most distinguished ministers, and 
ornaments of the English pulpit. With a taste thus 
formed for spiritual things, and a mind open to any 
good influences in the world around him, as soon as 
he was told of the Methodists he felt a desire, kindred 
to that of Mr. Fletcher, to know something more of 
the strange religious sect whose zeal for God had given 
them such notoriety, and went with a companion to the 
neighboring town of Wednesbury to see and hear for 
himself. Although the people had not assembled in 
a church with tower, and bell, and organ, 

And storied windows, richly dight, 
That cast a dim religious light, 

yet they worshiped at the very gate of heaven. Said he : 

I soon found that this was not the church, but it was better. The 
people were so devout — men and women kneeling down, saving 
amen. Now, behold, they were singing hymns — sweet sound ! Why, 
strange to tell, the preacher had no prayer-book, and yet he prayed 
wonderfully! What was yet more extraordinary, the man took his 
text and had no sermon-book. Thought I, this is wonderful indeed! 
It is certainly a strange way, but the best wav» H- I talked about 
confidence and assurance, of which all my flights and hopes fell 
short. I had no deep convictions, nor had I committed any deep 
known sins. At one sermon, some time after, my companion was 
powerfully wrought on. I was exceedingly grieved that I could not 
weep like him; yet I knew myself to be in a state of unbelief. On 
a certain time when we were praying in my father's bam, I believe 
the Lord pardoned my sins and justified my soul; but my compan- 
ion reasoned me out of this belief, saying, " Mr. Mather said a be- 
liever was as happy as if he was in heaven." I thought I was not 
as happy as I would be there, and gave up my confidence, and that 
for months. Yet I was happy; free from gu'lt and fear, an I had 
power over sin, and felt great inward joy. Some time after I had 
obtained a clear witness of ray acceptance with God, the Lord show .J 



138 History of Methodism 

me, in the heat of youth and youthful blood, the evil of my heart ; 
for a short time I enjoyed, I thought, the pure and perfect love of 
God ; but this happy frame did not long continue, although at sea- 
sons I was greatly blessed. 

He was formally licensed to officiate as a local preach- 
er when he was seventeen years old, and at twenty-one 
entered the traveling connection. 

As the mother of the AVesleys willingly gave up her 
sons, John and Charles, to preach to the savages of 
Georgia, so the mother of Asbury cheerfully acqui- 
esced in the leadings of Providence, and with Chris- 
tian resignation parted with her only son to come as a 
missionary to the wilds of America. 

He embarked September 4, 1771, with Richard 
Wright, a young man who had been in the itinerant 
connection but one year, but who, impressed with the 
importance of the missionary work, had volunteered 
to accompany him to America; and, after a voyage of 
eight weeks, they were welcomed to the hospitalities 
of Philadelphia, where "the people looked on them 
with pleasure, hardly knowing how to show their love 
sufficiently; bidding them welcome with fervent affec- 
tion, and receiving them as the angels of God." The 
first evening was spent at the old St. George's Church, 
where they listened to a discourse from Joseph Pil- 
moor, and entered at once on their American work. 

The limited sphere of operations presented by New 
York and Philadelphia did not suit the apostolic spirit 
of Asbury. "At present I am dissatisfied," said he, 
under date of Thursday, November 22, 1771. " I judge 
we are to be shut up in the cities this winter. My 
brethren seem unwilling to leave the cities, but I think 
I shall show them the way." He accordingly planned 
excursions into the surrounding country and to dis- 



In South Carolina. 139 

fcant towns, and his labors were abundantly successful. 
He received letters from Mr. Wesley, October 10, 1772, 
appointing him general assistant for the societies in 
America, with powers to be exercised under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Wesley himself. 

Mr. Wesley desired, indeed, to visit America in 
person, that he might understand the true state of 
things for himself, and thereby be made competent to 
act with the more discretion and efficiency; but, by 
letters dated March 2, 1773, he informed Mr. Asbury 
''that the time for his visiting America is not yet, be- 
ing detained by the building of a new chapel." He, 
however, sent over Thomas Rankin and George Shad- 
ford to strengthen the hands of the ministers in Amer- 
ica. They arrived at Philadelphia, June 3, 1773. Mr. 
Wesley had not been perfectly satisfied with the con- 
duct of all the preachers in America in respect of the 
administration of the sacraments, and having the full- 
est confidence in Mr. Rankin, who was known to pos- 
sess peculiar gifts for governing the Church, and who 
was Mr. Asbury's senior by several years, he appointed 
him general assistant for the societies in America — • 
an office the duties of which he zealously discharged, 
and secured the object for which he was appointed; 
although, in doing this, he evinced too much austerity 
to allow of his being popular. His arrival was a source 
of great comfort to Mr. Asbury, who, after hearing 
him preach a discourse from Revelation iii. 8, ex- 
pressed the opinion that perhaps he would not be 
admired as a preacher, but as a disciplinarian he 
believed he would be qualified for the place assigned 
him. The great principles that governed the societies 
in England were enforced here, and in particular the 
preachers were prohibited from administering the sac- 



140 History of Methodism 

raments, and required to urge their people to attend 
the services of the Established Church, and to receive 
the ordinances at the hands of her ministers. 

It was not from any sense of inability that Mr. Wes- 
ley allowed his preachers in England to remain in the 
position of laymen, and the great majority of his so- 
cieties to continue without the administration of the 
sacraments in their own places of worship — he fully 
believed that he possessed the scriptural power and 
right to supply all this want, to place his societies 
everywhere in the position of churches, and himself 
in the character of a scriptural bishop over the largest 
spiritual nock in the country; but it was because he 
considered the orders of the ministry in the Estab- 
lished Church reasonable and useful as human ar- 
rangements, and because he felt conscientiously bound 
to remain all his life in communion with this Church, 
and, as far as in him lay, to keep his people in the same 
path. To secure this object he subjected himself and 
them to violent persecution — from which the plea of 
dissent would have given full protection — and retained 
his societies in a disadvantageous and anomalous po- 
sition. And so long as the American colonies were 
subject to the British government, he pursued a 
similar course in this country. When, however, the 
United States were recognized as independent, and 
England had renounced all civil and ecclesiastical au- 
thority over them, then Mr. Wesley felt that in respect 
to the societies in this country there remained no rea- 
son why he should deprive them of those privileges 
which, in their case especially, were necessary to their 
religious stability; which they could obtain from no 
other source, and which he was perfectly competent 
to communicate. He accordingly ordained Dr. Coke 



In South Ca&olixa. 141 

as a superintendent, or bishop, and Eichard Whatcoat 
and Thomas Yasey as presbyters, or elders, to serve 
these societies; it being understood that on his arri- 
val Dr. Coke should ordain Francis Asbury as joint 
.superintendent, to have coordinate authority with 
himself; and that the two should, from among the 
preachers, ordain a sufficient number to administer 
the sacraments to the whole of the societies in America. 
Furnished with letters of ordination under the hand 
and seal of Mr. Wesley, Dr. Coke and his companions 
sailed for New York, and arrived in that city Novem- 
ber 3, 1784. Information of what had been done by 
Mr. Wesley, and of what was further proposed to be 
done, having been communicated to the preachers and 
members of the American societies, a Conference was 
summoned and convened in Baltimore on the 25th of 
December, over which Dr. Coke presided, assisted by 
Mr. Asbury, and at which sixty out of eighty-three— 
the whole number of preachers in America— were 
present. The first act of this Conference was to elect, 
by a unanimous vote, Dr. Coke and Mr. Francis As- 
bury general superintendents. This being done, Mr. 
Asbury was by Dr. Coke, assisted by the Eev. Mr. 
Otterbine — a clergyman of the German Church — suc- 
cessively ordained deacon, presbyter, and superin- 
tendent. The following American preachers were at 
the same time elected, and as many of them as were 
present at the Conference ordained elders, viz. : Free- 
born Garrettson, William Gill, Le Koy Cole, John 
Hagerty, James O. Cromwell, John Tunnell, Nelson 
Eeed, Jeremiah Lambert, Eeuben Ellis, James O'- 
Kelly, Eichard Ivey, Beverly Allen, and Henry Willis. 
Freeborn Garrettson and James O. Cromwell were set 
apart especially for Nova Scotia, and Mr. Lambert 



142 History of Methodism 

for the Island of Antigua, in the West Indies. John 
Dickens, Caleb Boyer, and Ignatius Pigman were 
elected and ordained deacons. The American socie- 
ties were thus constituted a separate Christian Church, 
and furnished with all the means and agencies for. 
inculcating the doctrines and administering the ordi- 
nances of religion to the people of this vast country. 

At the Christmas Conference, Bishop Asbury de- 
termined to occupy the fields which had been opened 
about fifty years before by the Oxford Methodists, but 
which, under the continued labors of Mr. Whitefielcl 
and Mr. Pilmoor till 1773, had yielded fruit only to 
impart life and strength to other denominations. For 
the planting of the newly constituted Church by the 
formation of societies and circuits within the original 
limits of the South Carolina Conference, he selected 
four of the best pioneer preachers then in the Connec- 
tion, viz.: John Tunnell, Henry Willis, Beverly Allen, 
and Woolman Hickson. Mr. Tunnell was one of the 
thirteen elected to the order of elders, but did not re- 
ceive ordination because he had gone in quest of health 
to St. Christopher's, one of the West India Islands. 
He was here solicited to remain as a preacher; but he 
promptly declined the offer of a good salary, a house, 
and servant to wait on him, and returned to his ap- 
pointment in Charleston. He was received on trial 
in 1777, and sent to the famous Brunswick Circuit in 
Virginia; and in 1778 traveled the Baltimore Circuit. 
"His gifts as a preacher," says Jesse Lee, "were 
great." His brethren were fond of comparing him 
with his classmate William Gill, the most philosophic 
mind in the Methodist ministry of his day, and whom 
Dr. Bush pronounced the greatest divine he had ever 
heard; and with Caleb B. Peddicord, who was younger 



In South Carolina. 143 

in the ministry by one year, and who possessed the 
rare talent, with his soft and plaintive voice, of touch- 
ing and moving his congregation to tears before he 
had uttered the third short sentence of his discourse. 
But neither Gill nor Peddicord could bind his audience 
with chains like Tunnell. He ranked as the Aj)ollos 
of the day. He is described as "truly an apostolic 
man." His heavenly-mindedness seemed to shine on 
his face, and made him appear more like an inhab- 
itant of heaven than of earth. A sailor one day was 
passing by where he was preaching, and stopped to 
listen; he was observed to be deeply affected, and on 
rejoining his companions, said: "I have been listen- 
ing to a man who has been dead and in heaven; but 
he has returned, and is telling the people all about that 
world." In 1787 he scaled the Alleghanies, with four 

itinerants, and became one of the founders of Meth- 
i 

odism in the great valley of the West. 

At the first Holston Conference, appointed to be 
held in May, 1788, Bishop Asbury having been de- 
layed in crossing the mountains from Burke county, 
in North Carolina, to the seat of the Conference in 
Washington county, Virginia, and consequently not 
arriving in time, Mr. Tunnell preached, on Sunday, 
a discourse which profoundly impressed the crowded 
audience, in which were General Russell and his wif e, 
the sister of the illustrious Patrick Henry. At the 
close of the service Mrs. Kussell went to Thomas Ware, 
who traveled the Nolachucky Circuit, and said: "I 
thought I was a Christian; but, sir, I am not a Chris- 
tian; I am the veriest sinner upon earth. 1 want you 
and Mr. Mastin (Jeremiah Mastin, who traveled the 
Pedee Circuit in 1786, but was now on the Holston 
Circuit) to come with Mr. Tunnell to our house and 



144 History of Methodism 

pray for us, and tell us what we must do to be saved." 
They accordingly went, and spent much of the after- 
noon in prayer, especially for Mrs. Russell ; but she did 
not presently obtain comfort. Being much exhausted, 
the preachers retired to rest awhile in a pleasant grove 
near at hand. After they had withdrawn, the General, 
seeing the deep agony of soul under which his wife 
was laboring, began to read to her, by the advice of 
his pious daughter, Mr. Fletcher's charming address 
to mourners as contained in his Appeal. At length 
the preachers heard the voice of rejoicing accompa- 
nied with clapping of hands, and hastening into the 
house they found Mrs. Russell praising the Lord, and 
the General walking the floor and Aveeping bitterly, 
uttering at the same time this plaintive appeal to the 
Saviour of sinners: " O Lord, thou didst bless my dear 
wife while thy poor servant was reading to her; hast 
thou not a blessing also for me? " At length he sat 
down quite exhausted. To look upon the aged sol- 
dier and venerable statesman, now trembling with emo- 
tion and earnestly inquiring what he must do to be 
saved, was a scene in the highest degree interesting 
and affecting. 

But the work ended not here. The conversion of 
Mrs. Russell, whose zeal, good sense, and amiableness 
of character were proverbial, together with the pen- 
itential grief so conspicuous in the General, made a 
deep impression on the minds of many, and numbers 
were brought to a saving knowledge of the truth be- 
fore the Conference closed. The General himself rest- 
ed not till he obtained the witness of his adoption, and 
he continued a faithful member and office-bearer in 
the Church, constantly adorning the doctrine of God 
our Saviour unto the end of his life. His daughtei, 



Ix South Carolina. 145 

Chloe Russell, became the wife of Hubbard Saunders, 
a traveling preacher; and Sarah Campbell, the daugh- 
ter of Mrs. Russell by a former marriage with General 
Campbell, who distinguished himself at the battle of 
King's Mountain, was married to Francis Preston. 
She became the mother of twx> of South Carolina's 
gifted sons, who retained the beautiful impress of 
her piety — the honorable William Campbell Preston, 
whose commanding eloquence was often heard in the 
Senate Chamber at Washington, as representative from 
the State, and the late General John Preston, who 
long survived, an ornament both to Church and State. 
" In the Conference of 1787," says Thomas Ware, " I 
volunteered with two other young men, who esteemed 
the reproach of Christ greater riches than earthly 
treasures, to accompany Tunnell to the Holston coun- 
try." His last appointment was in this frontier field 
(1789), where he fell at the head of seven itinerants, 
the victim of a disease developed by his exposure and 
fatigues. Three short sentences contain the obituary 
record of this remarkable man: '''John Tunnell died 
of a consumption at the Sweet Springs, in July, 1790. 
He was about thirteen years in the work of the min- 
istry ; a man of solid piety, great simplicity, and godly 
sincerity; well known and much esteemed both by 
ministers and people. He had traveled extensively 
through the States, and declined in sweet peace." 
Bishop Asbury, in laying him in his grave at Dew's 
Chapel, says: 

I preached his funeral-sermon; my text, "For me to live is 
Christ, and to die is gain." (Phil. i. 21.) We were much blessed, 
and the power of God was eminently present. It is fourteen years 
since Brother Tunnell first knew the Lord ; and he has spoken 
about thirteen years, and traveled through eigh't of the thirteen 
10 



14G History of Methodism 

States. Few men as public ministers were better known or more 
beloved. He was a simple-hearted, child-like man ; of good learn- 
ing for his opportunities. He had a large fund of Scripture knowl- 
edge, was a good historian, a sensible preacher, a most affectionate 
friend, and a great saint. He had been declining in health and 
strength for eight years, and for the last twelve months sinking into 
a consumption. I am humbled. O let my soul be admonished to 
be more devoted to God ! 

Henry Willis was born on the old Brunswick Cir- 
cuit in Virginia, was a classmate of Mr. Tunnell in the 
ministry, and the first man ordained deacon and elder 
by Bishop As bury after the Christmas Conference. 
He pioneered Methodism across the Alleghanies into 
the Holston country in 1784; and unable to reach 
Baltimore in time for the Conference, in consequence 
of detentions in making his way through the mount- 
ains in the depth of winter, he stopped at Mr. Henry 
Fry's in Culpepper county, Virginia. Freeborn Gar- « 
rettson says: 

He was a light in the Church for many years. At a very early 
period in the work I met him in Virginia, took him by the hand, 
and thought he would be a blessing to the Church; and so he 
proved. His habit was slender, though he traveled many years ; 
but want of health at length induced him to take a supernumerary 
relation. His zeal and love for the cause continued to the day of 
his death, and rendered him exceedingly useful in his neighborhood. 

Thomas Ware says: 

He stood preeminent. I knew him well. He was a manly genius, 
and very intelligent. He well understood theology, and was a most 
excellent minister. His life as a traveling and local preacher, and 
as a supernumerary, was, I believe, unblemished. I followed him to 
the South as far as North Carolina, to the East as far as New York, 
and to the West as far as Holston, and found his name dear to many 
of the excellent of the earth. His physical powers, however, were 
not sufficient to sustain the ardor of his-mind. But of this he was 
often wholly unmindful, until his bow nearly lost its elasticity, when 



In South Carolina. 147 

a local or supernumerary relation became inevitable. He was pos- 
sessed of great gifts, natural, spiritual, and acquired ; he gave him- 
self greatly to reading, especially in the earlier part of his life. His 
prominent features were an open, pleasant, smiling countenance; he 
possessed great fortitude and courage, tempered with good conduct ; 
he was cheerful without levity, and sober without sullen sadness or 
gloomy melancholy. He possessed the relative virtues in a very 
high degree : a pleasant, obedient, and dutiful son ; a most endear- 
ing, discreet, and affectionate father; a loving, faithful, and tendei 
husband ; and a firm, open, and familiar friend, much given to hos- 
pitality. He considered the traveling ministry as the most excellent 
way, and nearest the apostolic plan of spreading the glorious gospel 
of Christ with success, and his great argument for continuing in the 
itinerancy, notwithstanding his physical infirmities and family cares, 
was that his call and qualifications were of a divine nature, and not 
to be dispensed with but by unfaithfulness, debility, or death. This 
great man of God extended his labors from New York in the North 
to Charleston in the South, and from the Atlantic to the western wa- 
ters, and greatly rejoiced to see the pleasure of the Lord prosper 
through his instrumentality. Not many such cases, perhaps, as that 
of Henry Willis have been known even among the primitive Meth- 
odist preachers in America. 

He lingered along the shores of death apparently 
dying, and then reviving and re-reviving, for several 
years, until finally the feeble, sickly taper sunk quietly 
in the socket and disappeared. He died in 1808, at 
Pipe Creek, Frederick county, Maryland, with an un- 
shaken confidence in his God, and triumphant faith 
in Christ Jesus as his Saviour. "Henry Willis! " ex- 
claimed Bishop Asbury on visiting his grave, "ah, 
when shall I look upon thy like again ? Rest, man of 
God!" 

Beverly Allen was also elected elder at the Christ- 
mas Conference; but, not leaving his appointment in 
Wilmington to attend it, did not receive ordination 
till the first Conference held in North Carolina, at 
Green Hills, beginning Aioril 20, 1785. He had been 



148 History of Methodism 

a devout and zealous preacher, and became the trav- 
eling companion of Bishop Asbury, and a correspond- 
ent of Mr. Wesley. He was a man of extraordinary 
talents, acquired an almost unparalleled popularity as 
a preacher, became a leader in the ranks of the min- 
istry, and a prominent representative of Methodism. 
He married into a highly respectable family, and 
gained a fine social position in Carolina. In 1792 his 
name stands in the Minutes as " expelled." He en- 
gaged in mercantile .pursuits in Augusta, Georgia; 
financial embarrassments soon followed, and he killed 
the United States Marshal, Major Forsyth, while at- 
tempting to arrest him for debt. In his flight, he was 
captured and imprisoned in Elbert county, in Georgia, 
but was soon released by his friends, who charitably 
supposed him to be insane, and buried himself in the 
wilds of Kentucky, where he engaged in the practice 
of medicine. The Rev. Peter Cartwright, D.D., says: 

Dr. Allen, with whom I boarded, had in an early day been a 
traveling preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was 
sent South to Georgia as a very gentlemanly and popular preacher, 
and did much good. He married in that country a fine, pious wom- 
an, a member of the Church ; but he, like David, in an evil houi 
fell into sin, violated the laws of the country, and a writ was issued 
for his apprehension. He warned the sheriff not to enter his room, 
and assured him if he did he would kill him. The sheriff rushed 
upon him, and Allen shot him dead. He fled from the country to 
escape justice, and settled in Logan county, Kentucky — then called 
''Kogues' Harbor." His family followed him, and here he prac- 
ticed medicine. To ease a troubled conscience, he drank in the doc- 
trine of Universalism ; but he lived and died a great friend to the 
Methodist Church. * 

Woolman Hickson was received on trial in 1782, 
and was trained for the work of, the ministry during 
the first year by that apostolic man Freeborn Garrett- 



In South Carolina. 149 

son, who in the service of his Master traversed mount- 
ains and valleys, frequently on foot with his knapsack 
on his back, guided only by Indian paths in the wil- 
derness, waded through deep morasses, satisfied his 
hunger with a piece of bread and pork, quenched his 
thirst from the running brook, and rested his weary 
limbs on the fallen leaves of the trees. Mr. Hickson's 
" name is very precious to the lovers of early Method- 
ism," says Wakeley. He was " a man of splendid 
talents and brilliant genius," which shone the' brighter 
by contrast with the shattered casket that inclosed 
them, for his whole public life was oppressed by phys- 
ical suffering and feebleness. He labored in Virginia, 
Maryland, and New Jersey, and, though fast hastening 
to the grave by consumption, volunteered to go as a 
missionary to Nova Scotia, but was forbidden by Bish- 
op Asbury, and sent, in 1787, as a substitute for Henry 
Willis, to assist John Dickens in New York. During 
this year he had the distinguished honor of introduc- 
ing Methodism into Brooklyn, which is now the " City 
of Churches." From a table in Sands street, directly 
in front of the spot where a Methodist church now 
stands, he preached his first sermon in the open air, 
and at the close offered to visit them again if any 
person present would open his house for preaching. 
Peter Cannon at once invited him to return, and fitted 
up a cooper-shop for the reception of the congrega- 
tion. Here Mr. Hickson formed the first class in 
Brooklyn, and appointed Nicholas Snethen, afterward 
so famous as a preacher, the first leader. He died 
and was buried in New York, and is briefly commem- 
orated in the Minutes as a man of promising genius, 
upright life, snatched away by consumption, seven 
years in the work. 



150 History of Methodism 

Such were the men chosen by Bishop Asbury to 
establish Methodism in Carolina. In aid of their 
operations he planned an early visit to the South, and 
determined to take with him also, as a traveling com- 
panion and co-laborer, Jesse Lee, from the Salisbury 
Circuit in North Carolina. Mr. Lee was also a native 
of Virginia, and entered the itinerancy in 1783. Al- 
though not regularly educated for the gospel ministry, 
nor possessing those rare talents which command the 
admiration of mankind, he yet exhibited much native 
genius, had a clear understanding of the method of 
salvation by grace, and evinced an ardent love for the 
souls of men. With his intimate friends he was frank 
and familiar, and often enlivened conversation with 
sudden strokes of wit and amusing anecdotes, which, 
however, always had a religious tendency. His ap- 
pearance in the pulpit was plain yet dignified, simple 
but commanding. His style was unadorned with the 
flowers of rhetoric, but his armory abounded with 
apposite quotations of Scripture, which were often en- 
livened by the introduction of a fitting anecdote, and 
made impressive by striking and familiar illustrations. 
In the estimation of his contemporaries he ranked " as 
the best every-day preacher in the Connection." If 
in the judgment of some he occasionally descended 
from the dignity of his solemn subject by quaint ob- 
servations, he generally corrected the seeming evil 
effect by regaining at once the gravity of the minister 
of God, and urging upon his hearers the necessity of 
holy living. Sometimes, as if instantaneously moved 
by inspiration, or a sense of the tremendous impor- 
tance of his subject, he burst forth in those impas- 
sioned exclamations which are 'rather calculated to 
overwhelm with astonishment than to convince the 



In South Carolina, 151 

judgment by the force of argument. These instances, 
however, were rare, for his preaching generally resem- 
bled a smooth-flowing stream, keeping within its nat- 
ural bounds, but now and then having its placid sur- 
face disturbed by passing a gentle declivity over a 
pebbled bottom. It therefore gradually and imper- 
ceptibly instilled »itself into the understanding, and 
won the heart by its own native force rather than by 
any sudden effort of the orator's tongue. But the 
best praise of his preaching is found in its effects. 
The unction of the Holy One attended his word, and 
made it life and salvation to the souls of multitudes. 
His labors extended almost from one end of the United 
States to the other, until at length, in 1816, having 
preached his last sermon on 2 Peter ii. 5, "But grow 
in grace," and having transmitted sundry messages 
to absent friends — in particular this one: "Give my 
respects to Bishop McKendree, and tell him that I die 
in love with all the preachers; that I love him, and 
that he lives in my heart " — he departed this life in 
great triumph, and was buried in the city of Balti- 
more. 

Bishop Asbury left Baltimore on Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 5, 1785, and, in company with Mr. Hickson, 
on Saturday, the 8th, reached Mr. Fry's, in Culpepper 
county, Virginia, where Mr. Willis had stopped on his 
way to the Conference, and on the next day preached 4 
ordained him deacon, and baptized some children. 
Mr. Willis now joined himself to their company, and 
when they arrived at Carter's Church, in Virginia, Mr. 
Asbury ordained him elder, January 18, administered 
the sacrament, and held the love-feast. The Lord was 
with them in each of these services. They continued 
their journey together through the counties of Stokes 



152 History of Methodism 

and Surry, in North Carolina, and, under the guidance 
of Mr. Willis, arrived on the 29th of January, 1785, 
at the hospitable mansion of Colonel Joseph Hern- 
don, who resided in the county of Wilkes, on the head- 
waters of the Pedee, and within the bounds of the 
Yadkin Circuit. Here they rested for a few days, and 
made preparation for their journey into South Caro- 
lina. Mr. Lee, who did not go to the Baltimore Con- 
ference, came up from Salisbury to attend the Bish- 
op's appointment at this place, and was requested by 
him to travel with him also during his trip to the 
South. 

The company, now fully formed, bade adieu to the 
kind entertainment of Colonel Herndon, and entered 
upon their journey February 3d, daily in every house 
ceasing not to teach and preach Jesus Christ and him 
crucified. They entered South Carolina at Cheraw, 
Thursday, February 17th, and were welcomed to the 
hospitalities of a merchant who had been a Method- 
ist in Virginia, and in whose employment there was a 
clerk, a native of Massachusetts. This young man 
gave Mr. Lee an account of the social customs and 
religious condition of his native State, which produced 
a desire that soon ripened into a conviction of duty, 
to go and preach in Massachusetts the unsearchable 
riches of Christ. He fulfilled this felt obligation in 
1789, and such were the successes that attended his 
ministerial labors that he has been justly styled the 
"Apostle of New England." After giving religious 
instruction to the people, and spending some time in 
the church (St. David's) in prayer, the party pursued 
their journey, and came to Long^ Bluff Court-house, 
thence to Mr. Kimbro's, where- they were kindly en- 
tertained, and thence across Lynch's Creek, Blrck 



In South Carolina. 153 

Miiigo, and Black River, by the usual route of travel 
to Georgetown, where they arrived on the 23d of 
February. 

On the following night, Bishop Asbury preached to 
a large and serious congregation, on 1 Cor. ii. 14: " But 
the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit 
of God, for they are foolishness unto him; neither 
can he know them, because they are spiritually dis- 
cerned." Just as they were about to start for the 
place of worship, the gentleman at whose house they 
were staying excused himself, " as it was his turn to 
superintend a ball that night." Jesse Lee prayed 
with great earnestness that if the Lord had called 
them to Georgetown, he would open the heart and 
house of some other person to receive them. At the 
close of the service Mr. Wayne, a cousin of the cele- 
brated General Wayne, invited them to call on him, 
and from that time his house became a home for Meth- 
odist preachers. They took breakfast with him, and 
on leaving he showed them the way to the river, and 
paid their ferriage. It was his courtesy also in giving 
letters of introduction to Mr. Willis, who had pre- 
ceded the party to Charleston, that secured for them 
a cordial reception in that city. Bishop Asbury says: 

Thursday, February 24. We traveled on through a barren conn- 
try, in all respects, to Charleston. We came that evening to Scott's, 
where the people seemed to be merry ; they soon became mute. We 
talked and prayed with them. In the morning, when we took our 
leave of them, they would receive nothing. We met Brother Wil- 
lis, lie had gone along before us, and had made an acquaintance 
with Mr. Wells, a respectable merchant of the city, to whom he had 
carried letters of introduction from Mr. Wayne, of Georgetown. I 
jogged on, dejected in spirit, and came to Mr. Wells's. We ob- 
tained the use of an old meeting-house belonging to the General 
Baptists, in which they had ceased to preach. Brother Willis 
preached at noon, Brother Lee morning and evening. I tirst went 



154 History of Methodism 

to the Episcopal Church (St. Philip's), and then to the Independ- 
ent meeting-house (Circular Church). At this last I heard a good 
discourse. 

Monday, 28. The Calvinists, who are the only people in Charles- 
ton who appear to have any sense of religion, seem to be alarmed. 
Yesterday morning, and again at noon, the congregations were small ; 
at night we were crowded. There is a great dearth of religion 
here; some say never more so than at this time. The people were 
a little moved while Brother Lee preached to them on Sabbath 
evening. My first sermon was on Wednesday morning, March 2d, 
on 2 Cor. v. 20. I had but little enlargement. I preached again 
the next day, on Eccles. xi. 9. The people were solemn and attent- 
ive. I find there are some here who oppose us— I leave the Lord 
to look to his own cause. I told my hearers that I expected to stay 
in the city but seven days; that I should preach every night, if they 
would favor me with their company; and that I should speak on 
subjects of primary importance to their souls, and explain the es- 
sential doctrines taught and held by the Methodists. 

Friday, March 4. I gave them a discourse on the nature of con- 
viction for sin, from John xvi. 8. Many serious people attended, 
and some appeared to feel. 

Saturday, 5. I spoke on the nature and necessity of repentance. 
The ministers, who had before this held meeting at the same hour 
with us, and had represented our principles in an unfavorable light, 
and striven to prepossess the people's minds against our doctrines — 
even these ministers came to hear. This afternoon Mr. Wells be- 
gan to feel conviction. My soul praised the Lord for this fruit of 
our labors — this answer to our prayers. 

Sunday, 6. I had but few hearers this morning ; those few ap- 
peared to have feeling hearts. In the evening I preached to a large, 
wild company, on Acts xvii. 30, 31. My soul is in deep travail for 
Mr. Wells. I hope God will set him at liberty. The sore-throat 
and scarlet fever prevail in this city, yet are the inhabitants vain 
and wicked to a proverb. I bless God for health. 

Wednesday, 9. I had a good time on Matt. vii. 7. In the even- 
ing the clouds about Mr. Wells began to disperse ; in the morning 
he could rejoice in the Lord. How great is the work of God — once 
a sinner, yesterday a seeker, and now his adopted child ! Now we 
know that God has brought us here, and have a hope that there will 
be a glorious work among the people — at least among the Africans. 

Thursday, 10. This day I delivered my last discourse, on 1 Pet. 



In South Carolina, 155 

iii. 15. I loved and pitied the people, and left some under gracious 
impressions. We took our leave, and had the satisfaction of observ- 
ing that Mrs. Wells appeared to be very sensibly affected. We had 
rough crossing in going over the bay to Hadrell's Point. I baptized 
two children, for which I was offered a great reward; but it was by 
persons who did not know that neither my own feelings nor the 
Constitution of our Church permitted me to receive any compensa- 
tion for such services. We reached Georgetown time enough to give 
notice for preaching in the evening. 

Sunday, 13. The people generally attended and were serious. 
We found Mrs. Wayne under deep distress of soul. From George- 
town we came by Kingstree, and got to Mr. Durant's, who, I heard, 
was a Methodist. We found him in sentiment one of Mr. Hervey's 
disciples, but not in the enjoyment of religion. I delivered my own 
soul before I took my leave of him. Hearing of Brother Daniel at 
Town Creek, I resolved to make a push for his house. It w T as forty 
miles distant, and I did not start until nine o'clock. I dined at 
Lockwood's Folly, and got in about seven o'clock. O how happy 
was I to be received, and my dear friends to receive me! I hrfve 
been out for six weeks, and ridden near five hundred miles among 
strangers to me, to God, and to the power of religion. 

Saturday, 19. After preaching at Town Creek I rode in the 
evening to Wilmington, North Carolina. Night came on before we 
reached there, and from the badness of the causeway I ran some 
risk. We went to a house, but the owner was not prepared to re- 
ceive us; afterward to another, where we had merry, singing, drunk- 
en raftsmen. To their merriment I soon put a stop. I felt the 
power of the devil here. 

Sunday, 20. The bell went round to give notice, and I preached 
to a large congregation. I came away well satisfied that I had de- 
livered my own soul. 



CHAPTER VII. 



He began to send them forth by two and two, and gave them power 
over unclean spirits. (Mark vi. 7.) 

Who sends his servants forth by pairs 

To make his power and goodness known, 
Thus to their successors declares 

That two are better far than one, 
And wills the preachers in his name 
To think, and speak, and live the same. 

The force of unity divine 
Nor men nor devils can oppose ; 

In Jesus' love our spirits join, 
We trample on our hellish foes, 

And spoil Abaddon of his crown, 

And turn his kingdom upside down. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

AFTEK the return of Jesse Lee to the Salisbury 
Circuit, and the departure of Bishop Asbury to 
hold the first North Carolina Conference at Green 
Hills, April 20, 1785, the work continued to make en- 
couraging progress in Charleston and Georgetown, 
and in particular many appeared to be deeply awak- 
ened in the parishes of Christ Church and St. Thomas. 
Mr. Allen, who w r as appointed for this year (1785) to 
Georgia, after reaching Charleston in the month of 
June, concluded to remain, and, with his spiritual son 
in the gospel, John Mason, to unite in labors with the 
preachers in Carolina. It was not long before the 
spirit of opposition began to manifest itself. The 
enemy could not bear to see his prey taken from him, 
and stirred up the wicked to spread all manner of 
(156) 



History of Methodism. 157 

falsehood abroad, and in some measure gained his 
point. The people became almost afraid to hear the 
preachers, lest they should be infected with Method- 
ism. The awakened and converted, however, began 
to be gathered into societies, and numbered at the end 
of the first year thirty-five whites and twenty-three 
colored in Charleston. In letters to Mr. Wesley, Mr. 
Allen says: 

It was now ( June 1785 ) too late in the summer to proceed to 
Georgia; I therefore paid my friends and spiritual children a visit 
at Anson, in North Carolina, and formed what is now called Great Pe- 
dee Circuit, where many hundreds flocked to hear the word of the 
Lord, and many were truly awakened. In autumn I paid my friends 
another visit in Anson, where some, who had backslidden after my 
first coming among them, were deeply distressed. One night at 
ColonelJackson's we had a most affecting season ; many were deeply 
distressed, but in particular tw o of the Colonel's daugh t ers and a 
s ister of Mrs. Spencer, whose husband was one of the judges of the 
Superior Court. These after we had retired to bed continued with 
such cries and groans that we could not rest, and after awhile we 
arose and continued in prayer and exhortation till near two o'clock, 
when God heard our petitions and sent the Comforter. In the course 
of this tour we had crowded assemblies to hear, and many were 
deeply wrought upon. In September I returned with my dear com- 
panion in travels and sufferings, John Mason, to Cainhoy, where 
we found the work going on in the hearts of our friends. We spent 
some time with them and in Charleston, and then took our journey to 
the North. We visited our friends again on Pedee and the Yadkin, 
where God gave us some gracious seasons. At the Conference of 
1786 , held at Salisbury, I was appointed to take charg e of Pede e 
and Santee circuits, in the former of which we had a blessed ingath- 
ering of souls, and in the latter God set a few seals to my feeble 
labors. I spent some time also in North Carolina, where we had 
very happy meetings, some falling to the earth, and others crying to 
God to have mercy on their souls. 

While Mr. Allen was thus cultivating the northern, 
Mr. Hickson was equally active in developing the 
southern portion of this field, so that in 1786 the 



158 History of Methodism 

Pedee Circuit was made to embrace the territory on 
either side of the river, and to extend from Georgetown 
in South Carolina to within ten miles of Salisbury in 
North Carolina, and contained a membership of two 
hundred and eighty-five whites and ten colored. In 
like manner, by the active labors of Mr. Tunnell and 
Mr. Willis, the Santee Circuit was formed, and, begin- 
ning near Charleston, was made to include the territory 
on either side of the Santee and Wateree rivers from 
Nelson's Ferry to Providence, within ten miles of 
Charlotte, in North Carolina, and had a membership 
of seventy-five whites; and the Broad Eiver Circuit, 
which commenced in the Dutch Fork above Columbia, 
and extended north as far as the Pacolet Springs, em- 
bracing parts of Newberry, Fairfield, Chester, Union, 
and Spartanburg districts, and which contained a 
membership of two hundred whites and ten colored. 
In this work of forming the circuits they were greatly 
aided by the Rev . James Fo ster, a native of Virginia, 
who was received on trial in 1776, but injured his con- 
stitution by excessive fasting and preaching in the open 
air, and was compelled to locate at the expiration of 
two years. He removed to South Carolina, and formed 
a circuit among some Methodist emigrants from Vir- 
ginia, and supplied them with preaching. Thus in 
distant loneliness from his brethren in the ministry, and 
in much affliction, he became providentially honored 
as one of the founders of Methodism in the State. 
He reentered the itinerancy in 1786, and the Broad 
River Circuit was included in his appointment. In 
his last years his intellect gave way under his in- 
firmities, and in his mental prostration he used to 
wander about among Methodist families, exhibiting 
the amiableness of disposition and maintaining the 



In South Carolina. 159 

strictness of religious habits that always character- \ 
ized him. Being unable to preach for them, he con- ] 
ducted their domestic devotions with the greatest pro- / 
priety. 

Thus the preachers chosen to labor for the year 
1785, in South Carolina, confined not their operations 
to Charleston and Georgetown, for which they are 
named in the Minutes — for these were only prominent 
appointments within circuits which they were expected 
to form — but passing up the principal rivers of the 
State where the chief settlements were to be found, 
left behind them foot-prints distinctly to be traced 
on the banks of the Pedee and Yadkin, Santee and 
Wateree, Congaree and Broad rivers, even to the 
remotest limit of population. The people being scat- 
tered over a large tract of country exposed the itin- 
erants who traveled among them to many serious 
inconveniences, while the bogs and morasses through 
which they had to pass often placed their lives in 
dangers of the most alarming nature. On an average 
they had to ride about one hundred miles a week, and 
to encounter difficulties to which their successors were 
utter strangers, who had public roads provided for 
them, and bridges to preserve them from the quag- 
mires and torrents that intersected the deserts. But 
through all these perils the gracious Lord preserved 
his faithful servants, and caused his work to prosper 
in their hands. Bishop Asbury returned on his second 
visit to South Carolina, reaching Mr. Dunham's, in 
Britton's Neck, January 4, 1786. He says: 

We crossed Great Pedee and Lynch's Creek, and wet my books. 
Coming to Black Mingo, Ave lodged at a tavern, and were well used. 
Sleeping up-stairs, I was afraid the shingles, if not the roof of the 
house, would be taken away with the wind. 

Saturday, 7. I preached at Georgetown twice to about eighty peo- 



160 History of Methodism 

pie each time. This is a poor place for religion. Here I was met 
by Brother Henry Willis. 

Tuesday, 10. Kode to Wappetaw. It was no small comfort to 
me to see a very good frame prepared for the erection of a meeting- 
house for us, on that very road along which, last year, we had gone 
pensive and distressed, without a friend to entertain us. 

Wednesday, 11. Preached at Saint Clair Capers's, We had a good 
time and many hearers, considering that neither place nor weather 
was favorable. My soul enjoyed great peace, and I was much en- 
gaged with God that my labors might not be in vain. From Ca- 
pers's I came to Cain hoy by water. 

Friday, 13. I came to Charleston ; being unwell, Brother Willis 
supplied my place. 

Sunday, 15. We had a solemn time in the day, and a full house 
and good time in the evening. My heart was much taken up with 
God. Our congregations are large, and our people are encouraged 
to undertake the building of a meeting-house this year. Charleston 
has suffered much — a fire about 1700, again in November, 1740, and 
lastly the damage sustained by the late war. The city is now in a 
flourishing condition. 

Friday, 20. I left the city, and found the road so bad that I was 
thankful I had left my carriage and had a saddle and a good pair of 
boots. We were water-bound at Wasmassaw, where I found a few 
who had been awakened by the instrumentality of our preachers. 

Monday, 23. The Wasmassaw being still impassable, we directed 
our course up the lowlands through the wild woods, until we came 
to Mr. Winter's, an able planter who would have us to dine with 
him and stay the night. His wife's mother being ill, and desiring 
the sacrament, we went to her apartment and there had a melting, 
solemn time. In this worthy family we had prayer night and 
morning. 

Tuesday, 24. We made an early start. We stopped at a tavern 
for breakfast. The landlord had seen and heard me preach three 
years before in Virginia, and would receive no pay. We rode to 
the Congaree, and lodged where there was a set of gamblers. I 
neither ate bread nor drank water with them. We left early next 
morning, and, after riding nine miles, came to afire, where, stopping 
and broiling our bacon, we had a high breakfast. At Weaver's Ferry 
we crossed the Saluda. Here once lived that strange, deranged mor- 
tal who proclaimed himself to be God. Report says that he killed 
three men for refusing their assent to his godshjp ; he gave out his 



Jy South Carolina. 161 

wife to be the Virgin Mary, and his son Jesus Christ; and when 
hanged at Charleston, promised to rise the third day. 

Friday, 27. I had near four hundred hearers at Parrott's log 
church, near Broad River. We had ridden about two hundred 
miles in the last eight days. 

Sunday, 29. Having by appointment to preach on Sandy River, 
Ave set off in the rain, which had been falling all the night before. 
The first little stream we attempted to cross had well-nigh swept 
Brother McDaniel away. We rode on to Little Sandy, but it was 
too much swollen for us to ford ; going up the stream, we crossed 
over on a log — our horses swimming over. Having gained the op- 
posite bank, we continued on about twenty miles and had a trying 
time. I was happy, although Brother Willis was afraid we should 
be obliged to sleep in the woods. 

Monday, 30. We rode to friend Terry's ; but here we met with 
our old difficulties, and were compelled to go up higher. Coming 
to Great Sandy, we crossed the river at Walker's Mill; and here we 
were in danger of losing both our horses; the water came in with 
such rapidity from the dam that it swept them down the stream un- 
der a log. We at length came to Father Seally's ; here we staid 
to refit, and had every thing comfortable. I preached on Wednes- 
day, after which I had one hundred and fifty miles to ride to White's 
Mulberry-fields, near the mouth of John's River. 

Sunday, February 5. I preached at Brother Connelly's, where 
there is a large society and a revival of religion. 

Monday, 6. We rode to W. White's, and appointed preaching 
for the next day. Here I had about one hundred hearers. 

Sunday, 12. At Joseph Herndon's it was a chilly day ; but there 
was some life among the people. My rides are little short of twenty 
miles a day in this mountainous country, besides my public labors. 
My soul has peace, but this body is heavy and afflicted with pain. 

Sunday, 19. Preached at Morgan Bryan's. Next day I set off in 
the rain and traveled with it. We swam Grant's Creek, and reached 
Salisbury in the evening, wet and weary. I thought we should 
scarcely have preachers at the time appointed, but the bad weather 
did not stop their coming. We spent three days in Conference, and 
went through our business with satisfaction. 

At this second North Carolina Conference, held in 
Salisbury, February 21, 1786, the appointments made 
for Charleston were, James Foster, elder ; Henry Wil 
11 



162 History of Methodism 

lis, and Isaac Smith as his colleague. Mr. Smith was 
a native of Virginia, served as a private and an officer 
in the Revolutionary War, was present at the battles 
of Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth, 
and Stony Point, and bore the honorable scars of the 
conflict to his grave. He enlisted as a soldier of the 
Lord Jesus in 1783, was received on trial into the Vir- 
ginia Conference the following year, and sent as a 
colleague of Jesse Lee to the Salisbury Circuit, and 
in 1785 was associated with Thomas Humphreys on 
the Tar River Circuit in North Carolina. He con- 
tinued to fill prominent appointments in the South 
Carolina Conference till 1796, when he located and 
engaged in mercantile pursuits in Camden. He re- 
entered the itinerant ranks in 1820, and in 1822 was 
sent as a missionary to the Creek Indians, in charge 
of a school to be established among them. Here he 
shone as a light in a dark jjlace, till the infirmities of 
age compelled him to take a superannuated relation 
to the Conference in 1827. He died of a cancer, in 
Monroe county, Georgia, in 1834, " full of faith and 
the comfort of the Holy Ghost," after more than half 
a century of ministerial life, aged seventy-six years. 
" He was one of the fathers of the Church in this 
country," say the Minutes, " and entitled to be had in 
everlasting remembrance. We cannot trust ourselves 
to speak fully of him. He was the oldest, and; what 
was well becoming the father of the Conference, the 
most honored and beloved of all the preachers. Be- 
lieving every word of God, meek above the reach of 
provocation, and thoroughly imbued with the spirit of 
love and devotion, he was a saint indeed." 

It was during this year, 1786, his first in the South 
Carolina Conference, while engaged in forming the 



In South Carolina. 163 

Edisto Circuit, and riding upon the banks of the San- 
tee, he felt the need of a deeper consecration to God, 
and dismounting from his horse, in a grove beside the 
river, he had a season of wrestling with God in prayer, 
and from that time the assurance of God's love toward 
him never forsook him for an hour. He would often 
come from his closet, after remaining an hour upon 
his knees, with his face fairly glowing with a heavenly 
light. 

In this region (Edisto) the name Methodist was scarcely known 
till he visited it. The new name and his heart-searching preaching 
caused much stir among the people, as they had heard but little 
preaching before, and knew nothing of experimental religion. Many 
were convicted and converted, and a number of societies were formed. 
It was no uncommon event for persons to fall under his pungent 
preaching as suddenly as if they had been shot. The doctrine of 
the new birth was no better understood by the people then than it 
was by Nicodemus, until they were enlightened by his preaching. 
The pioneer of Methodism not only has to take people as he finds 
them, but the gold lias to be worked out of the ore. When Mr. 
Smith was forming Edisto Circuit, a gentleman who was not a pro- 
fessor of religion invited him to his home. While at his house 
his host observed that he frequently retired into the woods, and on 
one occasion followed him, when, to his great astonishment, he 
found him on his knees engaged in fervent prayer. This struck him 
under conviction, and was the cause of his embracing religion soon 
after. The happy mixture of dignity, pleasantness, and meekness 
in his countenance was calculated to win the good opinion of such 
as beheld him. His appearance and his manners qualified him for 
the missionary work, and many of those whom he found dead in sin, 
and their tongues defiled with most profane language, he soon re- 
joiced to hear praising God. He, like most of his brethren that 
were engaged in planting Methodism, did not weary his congrega- 
tions with dry and tedious discourses, but their sermons were short 
and energetic. They enforced their preaching with the most con- 
sistent deportment in the families where they sojourned, always 
praying with and for them, and speaking to each individual on the 
great matter of salvation. (Lednum.) 



164 History of Methodism 

To the zealous labors of Mr. Smith in forming the 
Edisto Circuit must be added the successful ministry 
of Henry Willis. He preached first in a Lutheran 
church on Cattle Creek. Jacob Barr, who had been a 
Continental officer, lived in the neighborhood, and, 
drawn by curiosity— half atheist as he was— went out 
to see and hear the stranger. The result was that he 
was thoroughly awakened and soundly converted, and 
became afterward a most faithful and successful local 
preacher. The Edisto Circuit was made to extend 
from the Savannah Eiver to within thirty miles of 
Charleston, and from Coosawhatchie Swamp to the 
Santee River, and reported to the Conference for 1787 
a membership of two hundred and forty whites and 
four colored. 

The work made encouraging progress in Charleston 
during this year. The first Methodist church was 
erected in the city, and was ready for occupation at 
the first session of the South Carolina Conference. It 
was a plain wooden structure, sixty by forty feet, with 
galleries for the colored people, and occupied a site on 
Cumberland street which cost three hundred pounds 
sterling — about fifteen hundred dollars. The building 
cost one thousand pounds sterling — about five thou- 
sand dollars — and was at first called the " Blue Meet- 
ing," in contradistinction from the " White Meeting " 
(Circular Church), but afterward took the name of 
Cumberland, from the street on which it stood. The 
congregations were large during the year, and a grow- 
ing interest was manifested on the part of the people 
on the subject of religion. The preachers reported at 
Conference a membership of thirty-three whites, ac- 
cording to the Minutes, but of forty, according to Dr. 
Coke, and fifty-three colored. 



In South Carolina. 165 

The appointments for the Peclee Circuit this year 
(1786) were Beverly Allen, elder, Jeremiah Mastin, and 
Hope Hull. "At the Conference (1786) held at Salis- 
bury I was appointed," says Mr. Allen, " to take 
charge of Pedee and Santee circuits, in the former 
of which we had a blessed ingathering of souls, and in 
the latter God set a few seals to my feeble labors. I 
spent some time also in North Carolina, where we had 
very happy meetings — some falling to the earth, and 
others crying to God to have mercy upon their souls." 
Mr. Mastin was received on trial into the traveling 
connection in 1785, and was sent to the Williamsburg 
Circuit in Virginia. After traveling the Pedee Cir- 
cuit one year, he gave three years in succession to the 
Holston country, and located in 1790. His successful 
labors on this circuit were long and gratefully remem- 
bered, and Mastin became a family name in house- 
holds awakened and converted through his instrumen- 
tality. Hope Hull was a native of Maryland, a class- 
mate in the ministry of Mr. Mastin, and was appointed 
the first year to the Salisbury Circuit in North Caro- 
lina. Dr. Coke says: 

Mr. Hull is young, but is indeed a flame of fire. He appears 
always on the stretch for the salvation of souls. Our only fear con- 
cerning him is that the sword is too keen for the scabbard — that he 
lays himself out in work far beyond his strength. Two years ago he 
was sent to a circuit in South Carolina which we were almost ready 
to despair of; but he, with a young colleague (Mastin) of like spirit 
with himself, in one year raised that circuit to a degree of impor- 
tance equal to that of almost any in the Southern States. 

His popularity in the Pedee country was unbounded, 
and his name, like that of Mastin, was perpetuated by 
incorporation as a family name in many households. 
Edward Crosland, of Green Pond Church, was so par- 
tial to both the preachers that he named a son Mastin 



166 History of Methodism 

and a daughter Hope Hull; and Robert Purnell, of 
Beauty Spot, who was awakened and converted under 
a sermon preached in the open air, because the log 
church could not contain the multitude that thronged 
the appointment, and who was one of the first local 
preachers raised up in the South Carolina Conference, 
and a great revivalist, named his second son Hope 
Hull, and sent him afterward to the academy which 
he established in Georgia to be educated for the min- 
istry. Dr. Pierce, in Sprague's Annals, says: 

Mr. Hull's style of preaching was awakening and inviting — by- 
far the most successful mode with the mass of mankind. He was 
also, emphatically, what may be called an experimental preacher, 
both as regards the renewed and unrenewed heart ; a style grow- 
ing out of the fact that he had carefully studied human nature in 
its deceitful workings, and Christian experience, not only in its 
more palpable, but more intricate phases, so that when an attentive 
hearer had listened to one of his searching discourses, whether it 
was intended to lay bare the sinner's heart or to test the Christian's 
hopes, he always felt as if he had passed through a process of spir- 
itual engineering which had mapped before him the whole held 
of his accountable life. Sinners often charged him with having 
learned their secrets, and using the pulpit to gratify himself in 
their exposure ; and Christians, entangled in the meshes of Satan's 
nut, and ready to abandon their hope of the Divine mercy, have 
been cleared of these entanglements under his judicious tracings of 
the Holy Spirit in his manifold operations on the heart and con- 
science. Powerful emotion could be seen as it played in unmistak- 
able outline upon the anxious believer's countenance, while under- 
going one of these spiritual siftings ; and when, at last, the verdict 
was written on his heart that he was a child of God according to the 
rules of evidence laid down, all the conventional rules about the 
propriety of praise were broken by one welling wave of joy, and he 
told aloud that the kingdom of God was not a kingdom of word 
only, but of power. Mr. Hull was a fine specimen of what may be 
regarded an old-fashioned American Methodist preacher. His ora- 
tory was natural, his action being the unaffected expression of his 
inmost mind. Not only was there an entire freedom from every 



In South Carolina. 167 

thing like mannerism, but there was a great harmony between his 
gesticulation and the expression of his countenance. He seemed, 
in some of his finest moods of thought, to look his words into his audi- 
ence. He was one of nature's orators, who never spoiled his speak- 
ing by scholastic restraints, fie wisely cultivated his mind and 
taste that he might rightly conceive and speak; but he left all ex- 
ternal oratory to find its inspiration in his subject, and to warm itself 
into life in the glow of his mind. Hence, in many of his masterly 
efforts, his words rushed upon his audience like an avalanche, and 
multitudes seemed to be carried before him like the yielding cap- 
tives of a stormed castle. 

Mr. Mastin and Mr. Hull labored each but one year 
in South Carolina, and when they left the Pedee Cir- 
cuit went, the former to pioneer Methodism over the 
Alleghanies into Holston, and the latter into Georgia, 
where he used to be known under the coarse but 
graphic appellation of the "Broad-ax," an honorary 
distinction conferred on him because of the mighty 
power that attended his ministry. With the exception 
of the year 1792, when he went to assist Jesse Lee in 
New England, and traveled the Hartford Circuit in 
Connecticut, Mr. Hull gave the whole of his ministe- 
rial life to Georgia. He located in 1795, established 
an academy in Wilkes county, removed to Athens in 
1802, was always a great friend of the Georgia Uni- 
versity, and at one time its acting president, and died 
October 4, 1818. The number of members in the 
Pedee Circuit was this year increased to seven hun- 
dred and ninety whites and thirty-three colored. 

The appointments for Santee Circuit in 1786 were 
Beverly Allen, elder, and Richard Swift. Mr. Swift 
commenced his itinerant career in 1783, with William 
Watters, the first American Methodist preacher, on 
the Calvert Circuit, in Maryland. The following 
year he traveled the Caswell Circuit, in North Caro- 



168 History of Methodism 

lina, and in 1785 labored in the Holston country. His 
preaching made a deep impression in the Santee coun- 
try, and his name has been handed down to the pres- 
ent generation in grateful remembrance by those who 
in early life were brought into the Church through 
his instrumentality. The climate proved unfriendly 
to the health of one brought up in a more northern 
latitude, and after the Conference he returned with 
Bishop Asbury to Virginia, where he labored with 
success, and located in 1793. He reported a member- 
ship of one hundred and seventy-eight whites and 
twelve colored. 

Broad River Circuit had this year (1786) the services 
of James Foster, elder, and Stephen Johnson. Mr. 
Johnson was received on trial into the traveling con- 
nection in 1785, and appointed to the Guilford Circuit 
in North Carolina. He gave one year only to South 
Carolina, and devoted the remainder of his ministerial 
life to Virginia. He had large success on this circuit, 
and more than doubled the membership of the Church, 
reporting to the Conference four hundred and three 
whites and nineteen colored. 

On the 10th of February, 1787, Dr. Coke sailed 
from St. Eustatius, one of the West Indies, on board 
of a Dutch ship that was bound for Charleston in 
South Carolina. After a pleasant voyage of eighteen 
days he landed in the city, and spent about a month 
in preaching to the people in the church which had 
just been erected on Cumberland street, and which 
was first opened by him for religious service. Such 
was the spirit of hearing excited among the inhabit- 
ants that from three to four hundred persons regu- 
larly attended the morning preaching. He was much 
gratified by the information he received of the rapid 



In South Carolina. 169 

progress of Methodism, both in Carolina and in Geor- 
gia. But peace and prosperity from without are fre- 
quently counterbalanced by domestic circumstances 
that tend to disturb the tranquillity that reigns within. 
Prejudices came to be entertained against Dr. Coke 
in his absence, by some of the leading preachers, 
which, as a transient cloud, produced a momentary 
gloom, but openness of communication caused Chris- 
tian friendship again to resume its place, leading to 
mutual cooperation, and raised the sacred flame to a 
more brilliant luster than before. 

On the 12th of March, 1787, Bishop Asbury crossed 
the Little Pedee, and, attended by Hope Hull, came 
by way of Buck Swamp and Ports Ferry, to George- 
town, receiving information on the route that Dr. Coke 
was in Charleston. He writes: 

We rode nearly fifty miles to get to Georgetown. Here the scene 
was greatly changed — almost the whole town came together to hear 
the word of the Lord. We arrived in Charleston and met Dr. Coke. 
Here we have already a spacious house prepared for us, and the 
congregations are crowded and solemn. 

Sunday, 25. I enlarged on Psalm lxxxiv. 10: "I had rather be 
a door-keeper in the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of 
wickedness." At night again on Isaiah xlv. 22: " Look unto me, and 
be ye saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is 
none else." We hold our Conference in this city. 

Tuesday, 27. We exchanged sentiments on matters freely. 

Wednesday, 28. The Doctor treated on the qualifications and 
duties of deacons. 

Thursday, 29. Our Conference ended. 

Friday, 30. Left the city and rode thirty miles. Next day rode 
forty miles through the rain. 

Sunday, April 1. We came to Santee ferry, and there was such 
an overflowing of water in our route that we had to swim upon our 
horses several times. That day we rode thirty miles, and the next 
day fifty miles, and came to Moore's. Here we met with Brother 
Richard Swift, who had been near death, but then was recovering. 



170 History of Methodism 

We advised him to go with us for his life. The people here begin 
to feel and yield to the .power of truth. 

Wednesday, 4. At Camden I preached on Matt. xxii. 5, "They 
made light of it." Thence we rode on to quarterly-meeting, where 
I met with a multitude of people who were desperately wicked — but 
< rod hath wrought among them. "We had little rest by day or night. 

Friday, 0. Rode forty miles to preaching at Jackson's, and then 
to Brother Pace's. 

Saturday and Sunday, 7 and 8. Attended Anson quarterly-meet- 
ing in North Carolina. The Doctor preached on "The love of 
Christ," and I on "The grace of God that bringeth salvation." 
Sacrament followed. From Saturday to Saturday I have ridden 
about three hundred miles, and have preached only about half the 
time. O may the Lord seal and water his own word, that all this 
toil of man and beast be not in vain! We have scarcely time to 
eat or sleep. 

The appointments for 1787 were: Charleston, Bev- 
erly Allen, elder, and Lemuel Green; Edisto, Edward 
. West. Says Mr. Allen, in letters to Mr. Wesley: 

At the Conference at Charleston, 1787, I was appointed to the 
i - - care of Edisto, Charleston, and Cainhoy. But the preacher failing 
" to come to Edisto who was appointed, I spent most of my time there, 
where I had many happy meetings. The first of these was on my 
way to Georgia . On May 9 , when the neighbors assembled at one 
Jones's, where I sat down very weary and poorly, and preached to 
them. It pleased God to bles; the word, so that I believe there was 
not one person unaffected. Some of them have since informed me 
that they never rested again till they found peace with God. / 1 pro- 
ceeded to Georgia, where, during my stay of three weeks, the power 
of God attended us in a particular manner. The people had waked 
with impatience to see me there. Many of them had kno wn me in 
the North ; and they Avere not disappointed, for such gracious sea- 
sons will not soon be forgotten. Many flocked to hear, and though 
the notice was very short, we had more than any of the preaching- 
houses could contain. One day we assembled in the open air, where 
the shady bowers formed our covering, while the attentive people 
stood in crowds around me. Deep solemnity sat on every brow, 
while I endeavored to prove that "God is not willing that any should 
perish, but that all should come to repentance," and toward the close 



In South Carolina. 171 

of my discourse one poor sinner dropped to the ground in silence, 
while many others cried aloud for mercy; and several found peace 
and pardon to their souls before our meeting broke up. The same 
divine power attended my meetings almost every day till I returned 
home. I found also that Brother Major and Brother Humphreys r? * 

had been made very useful in the State of Georgia. On my return Q 
there Avas a considerable prospect of a revival in my own n e igh bor- . 
hood. I tarried a few days, preach ing about home, and then went •' 
to Charleston and Eclisto, where very many came to hear, and did 
not hear in vain. It seemed like a harvest-time indeed to poor 
souls. After spending the summer in those places to which I was 
app ointed , I paid North Carolina another visit, and in Novembe r 
returne d home . I spent most of the winter in Cha rleston. Edisto , 
und__(.ainhoy, not without particular instances of divine power 
made manifest in the conviction of some and conversion of others. 

Mr. Green entered the traveling connection in 1783, 
was a classmate in the ministry of Jesse Lee, Thomas 
Humphreys, and Richard Swift, and was sent to the 
Yadkin Circuit in North Carolina. He traveled ex- « 
tensively in Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and 
New York, filled the most prominent appointments in 
these States, and after seventeen years of faithful and 
laborious work in the vineyard, located in 1800. Ed- 
ward West, who was sent to the Edisto Circuit, was 
received on trial at this Conference, afterward traveled 
the Roanoke and Halifax circuits in North Carolina, 
and located in 1791. 

The preachers for the Santee Circuit in 1787 were 
Reuben Ellis, elder, and Isaac Smith. Mr. Ellis was a 
native of North Carolina, entered the traveling ministry 
with Henry Willis and Richard Ivey in 1777, and con- 
tinued in the work till the end of life. He filled im-' 
portant appointments in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 
Virginia; was made elder in Eastern North Carolina 
in 1785, and Western North Carolina in 1786, and 
gave seven of the best years of his life to South Car- 



172 History of Methodism 

olina. He was a man of slow but very sure and solid 
parts, both as counselor and guide. In his preaching 
he was weighty and powerful — a man of simplicity 
and godly sincerity. He was a faithful friend, and 
absolutely free from selfishness. During twenty years' 
labor he never laid up twenty pounds by preaching. 
His horse, his clothing, and immediate necessaries 
were all he appeared to want of the world. Like 
Fletcher, he lived as on the verge of eternity, enjoy- 
ing much of the presence of God. He was always 
ready to fill any station to which he was appointed, 
although he might go through the fire of temptation 
and the waters of affliction. The people of South 
Carolina well knew his excellent worth as a Christian 
and a minister of Christ. His last station was in 
Baltimore, where he ended his warfare in the month 
of February, 1796. His way opened to his everlast- 
ing rest, and he closed his eyes to see his God. "It 
is a doubt/' says Bishop Asbury, "whether there be 
one left in all the Connection higher, if equal, in 
standing, piety, and usefulness." 

The appointments for the Pedee Circuit in 1787 were 
Reuben Ellis, elder, Henry Bingham, Lemuel An- 
drews, and Henry Ledbetter. Mr. Bingham was born 
in Virginia, entered the traveling connection in 1785, 
and died in 1789. He gave two years to South Carolina, 
and his labors on Edisto Circuit were more than com- 
monly successful. He was a humble, faithful, and 
zealous Christian minister, fervent in exhortation dur- 
ing his last sickness, and resigned in death. Mr. An- 
drews devoted the four years of his itinerant life to 
South Carolina. He died in peace in 1790, and was 
remembered by his brethren for Jiis upright walk and 
punctual attention to his work. The name of Henry 



Lv South Carolina. 173 

Ledbetter is still fresh in the memory of the Church. 
He was received on trial in 1787, and after seven yeai'3 
of itinerant labor given to the Carolinas and Georgia, 
he located and settled in the upper part of this cir- 
cuit. He died full of years and full of faith, leaving 
to his descendants the rich inheritance of an unblem- 
ished Christian character. 

The preachers on the Broad River Circuit in 1787 
were Richard Ivey, elder, John Mason, and Thomas 
Davis. Mr. Ivey was a native of Sussex county, in 
Virginia, and spent eighteen years in the itinerant 
work. He traveled extensively through New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, North and South 
Carolina, and Georgia. He was a man of quick and 
solid parts, and sought not himself any more than did 
a Peddicord, a Gill, or a Tunnell— men who were well 
known to our Connection as preachers who never 
thought of growing rich by the gospel; their great 
concern and business was to be rich in grace and use- 
ful to souls. Exclusive of his patrimony, he was in 
debt at his death. He died in his native county in 
Virginia, in the latter part of the year 1795. Mr. 
Mason began his itinerant life with Mr. Allen, in 1785, 
and was admitted on trial the following year, and sent 
to the Yadkin Circuit in North Carolina. His col- 
league, Mr. Davis, was in the first year of his minis- 
terial labors. Like their predecessor, Stephen John- 
son, they gave one year each to South Carolina, and 
it does not appear, indeed, that either of them took 
an appointment afterward. During this one year, 
however, they opened a fountain of usefulness which 
continues to flow with ever-widening and deepening 
current through the South Carolina Conference. 

In the State of Pennsylvania, in 1752, there was 



174 History of Methodism 

born an interesting daughter to Quaker parents, who 
brought her in yet tender years to a new home in 
Spartanburg District, in South Carolina, and gave her 
all the advantages of education which the condition 
of the country at that early period afforded. In par- 
ticular they impressed on her tender mind such sen- 
timents as were calculated to raise her thoughts to 
things above, and ever afterward influence her life; 
and were especially careful to enforce the precepts of 
piety by a godly example. The plainness and sim- 
plicity which generally characterized the sect to which 
her mother was attached were always exhibited by the 
daughter. At the age of twelve she delighted to read 
the holy Scriptures, and wept at the name of Jesus, 
because he had suffered and done so much for her. 
She occasionally had the opportunity of hearing the 
Baptists preach, but refused to join them for the rea- 
son that she had come thus early in life to draw lines 
of distinction between two or more denominations, of 
which she had at least heard and read, and did not 
feel warranted in uniting with a Church whose creed 
was not in accordance with her views. In 1768 she 
was married to a worthy citizen of Spartanburg. 
Living in a country which was but thinly inhabited, 
pressed with the cares of a rising family early in life, 
and unaided at length by the presence of her husband, 
who was an officer in the Revolutionary War, she was 
almost entirely deprived of the opportunity of hear- 
ing preaching or enjoying the means of grace. The 
coming of John Mason and Thomas Davis, bringing 
the gospel into every neighborhood, and to the very 
houses of the people, was a source of great joy to 
her who was often brought to mourn her departed 
privileges. Their preaching she thought a true ex- 



In South Carolina. Im- 

position of her own opinions, and therefore without 
hesitation offered her hand for membership in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. By close inquiry she 
soon came to discover that she had been resting 
on false hopes, and that for a long space of time be- 
fore she had remained calm in the midst of danger. 
A knowledge of her true condition gave fresh vigor 
to her exertions. Under the guidance of these holy 
men of God, who drew their instructions from a clear 
personal experience of religion, she soon attained to 
a sound conversion, when her close walk with God in 
the use of all the means of grace, and her deportment 
toward her friends and acquaintances constrained 
them to acknowledge the reality of the religion of 
Jesus. She became intensely interested in the relig- 
ious welfare of her family. She used great importu- 
nity in her private devotions, and often lifted up her 
voice to God in behalf of her husband and children. 
For about fifteen years she traveled alone the way to 
Zion. Although brought up in the nurture and ad- 
monition of the Lord, her children had hitherto re- 
sisted the drawings of the Good Spirit; her compan- 
ion too had striven against divine impressions. But 
under the preaching of George Dougherty, who came 
to the Saluda District as presiding elder, in 1802, and 
of Lewis Myers, who was in charge of the Broad 
Kiver Circuit the same year, she had the happiness of 
seeing her husband and most of her children converted 
to God, and members of the Church. She besought 
the Lord earnestly and especially, if consistent with 
his divine will, to thrust out one of her children at 
least as a laborer in his vineyard. In 1804 the Lord 
answered this prayer also, and she had the pleasure 
of sitting under the ministry of one of her sons for 



176 History of Methodism, 

more than twenty years. But one earthly wish now 
remained. She asked in faith that she might live 
to see her youngest child, a daughter, comfortably 
settled in the world. God granted this desire also, 
when, in response to one who knew of the matter, 
and asked if she was then willing to depart, she said, 
"Yes, glory be to God, I am now ready and willing to 
go at any moment that he shall see best to call me ! " 
For more than three years previous to her death she 
was much afflicted with rheumatism, which entirely 
deprived her of the use of the lower limbs of the 
body, but under the acutest sufferings she rejoiced in 
the love of God her Saviour. On the 24th of March, 
1826, she called for the first volume of Dr. Clarke's 
Commentary on the New Testament— a book almost 
constantly in her hands — and read for some time, after 
which her husband, now eighty-five years of age, who 
held in his hand the second volume of the same work, 
called her attention to some particular passage, to the 
reading of which she seemed to listen with delight 
until he had concluded. At this moment, rising to go 
into an adjoining room, he saw her fall back on the 
pillows by which she had been supported. His feeble 
arms were extended in vain for her relief — the spirit 
had flown, but her hand still grasped the blessed book 
of God. The joy which beamed from her soul had 
imprinted on her features an expression of holy tri- 
umph which the conqueror, Death, was unable to 
efface. This sainted woman was Martha Luallen, the 
wife of Joseph Wofford, and the mother of the Rev. 
Benjamin Wofford, the liberal founder of Wofford 
College, in his native district of Spartanburg, in South 
Carolina. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



And are we yet alive, 

And see each other's face ? 
Glory and praise to Jesus give 

For liLs redeeming- grace ! 
Preserved by power divine 

To full salvation here, 
Again in Jesus' praise we join, 

And in his sight appear. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

THE first American Conference met in the city 
of Philadelphia, July 14, 1773; the first South 
Carolina Conference convened March 22, 1787, about 
fourteen years afterward, in the city of Charleston. 
Besides examining the character of the preachers, and 
fixing their appointments for the following year, little 
business was done in these early Conferences; they 
were for the most part purely religious meetings. 
Their number was greatly multiplied to suit the con- 
venience of the preachers and people — as many as 
three being held in the State of Virginia in 1793, and 
no less than nineteen the same year in different parts 
of the country. But these different Conferences were 
considered but as the adjourned meetings of the same, 
or viewed as one by the aggregation of the several 
parts, and their proceedings published as those of 
only one Conference. The following account in sub- 
stance, given by Stith Mead, of one of these Confer- 
ences, held in a log-cabin (1792), may aid to a clear 
understanding of their proceedings: 

12 (177) 



178 History of Methodism 

First Day. Four elders and four deacons, who composed the Con- 
ference, were present, and four other preachers who had business 
with it — in all twelve. One was received into full connection, and, 
together with a local preacher, was elected to deacon's orders ; one 
located ; two were admitted on trial ; two of the preachers were 
called on to relate to the Conference their religious experience, and 
then the body adjourned until next day. 

Second Day. Three of the preachers were examined by the Bishop 
before the Conference, first of their debts, second of their faith in 
Christ, third of their pursuit after holiness. Bishop Asbury preached 
from Deuteronomy v. 27 : " Go thou near, and hear all that the Lord 
our God shall say ; and speak thou to us all that the Lord our God 
shall speak unto thee; and we will hear it, and do it." Hope Hull 
preached from 1 Corinthians i. 23, "But we preach Christ crucified." 
In the afternoon Stith Mead was called on to relate his experi- 
ence to the Conference. In the evening the appointments were 
read out. 

Third Day. All were examined by the Bishop as to their con- 
fession of faith and orthodoxy of doctrine ; two were found to be 
tending to Unitarianism. The Bishop requested all the members of 
Conference to bring forward as many texts of Scripture as they could 
recollect to prove the personality of the Trinity, and especially that 
of the Holy Ghost. The two preachers recanted their errors, and 
were continued in fellowship. Bishop Asbury preached from Titus 
ii. 1, " But speak thou the things that become sound doctrine," and 
was followed by Hope Hull from 1 John iv. 17, " Herein is our love 
made perfect, that we may have boldness in the day of judgment; 
because as he is so are Ave in this w T orld." Deep feeling pervaded 
the audience ; the sacrament was administered ; the services were 
continued until near sundown ; many sinners were awakened, and 
ten souls converted. 

Fourth Day. Three were ordained elders and two deacons, after 
which Conference adjourned about ten o'clock. 

The early Quarterly Conferences were of the like 
character. The brethren from twenty to forty miles 
around assembled together. The congregations on 
these occasions were accordingly very large, and the 
meetings always continued two^ clays, and often three 
or more. At these meetings all the traveling preach- 



In South Carolina. 179 

ers connected with the circuit preached one after an- 
other in regular succession; and on some occasions 
the local preachers lengthened out the services with 
additional discourses and exhortations. To these ser- 
mons and exhortations the love-feast was added; but 
this, after the preachers received ordination (1784), was 
sometimes superseded by the sacrament. Their pub- 
lic worship was, therefore, sometimes protracted to six 
or seven hours in length, but even in these cases the 
congregations manifested no impatience. 

The second South Carolina Conference convened in 
Charleston, March 14, 1788. Bishop Asbury left Fay- 
etteville, in North Carolina, February 19, 1788, and 
reached Mr. Crosland's, at Green Pond in Marlbor- 
ough, South Carolina, the next day. He says in his 
journal: 

Saturday, 23. I attended the quarterly-meeting at Beauty Spot. 
The weather was cold, but I had great assistance on Isaiah xxxv. 
1—6: " The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them, 
and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. It shall blos- 
som abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing. The glory 
of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and 
Sharon. They shall see the glory of the Lord, and the excellency 
of our God. Strengthen ye the weak hands, and confirm the feeble 
knees. Say to them that are of a fearful heart, Be strong, fear not : 
behold, your God will come with vengeance, even God with a rec- 
ompense ; he will come and save you. Then the eyes of the blind 
shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be u/istopped. Then 
shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb 
sing ; for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in 
the desert." 

Sunday, 24. I preached on Zechariah xi. 12: "And I said unto 
them, if ye think good, give me my price ; and if not, forbear. So 
they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver." We had a gra- 
cious, moving time. 

Monday, 25. AVe crossed Pedee at the Long Bluff, and rode 
nearly fifty miles to Brother Gardner's. I preached at Black Creek 



ISO History of Methodism 

on Psalm cxlv. I was much fatigued, and had a high fever; but 
my soul had peace, and was staid upon God. 

Wednesday, 27. After preaching I had to ride ten miles out of 
ray way to cross Lynch's Creek. We moved forward to our worthy 
friend Rembert's, who entertained us kindly and supplied us with 
horses to ride to our appointments at Lenoir's and Moore's, where 
we had few hearers and dead times. After our meetings at these 
places we returned to Rembert's, at whose house our Cjuarterly- 
meeting began on Saturday, the first of March, which was not with- 
out some life ; in our love-feast there appeared to be more feeling 
than speaking. 

Monday, March 3. We rode through the snow to Bradford's, and 
next day had no small difficulty in crossing the swamps in order to 
get to San tee ferry. We made it a ride of about fifty miles to 
H 's, and did not get in until about nine o'clock at night. 

Wednesday, 5. I passed Dorchester, where there are the re- 
mains of what appears to have once been a considerable town ; there 
are the ruins of an elegant church, and the vestiges of several well- 
built houses. We saw a number of good dwellings and large plan- 
tations on the road leading down Ashley River. In the evening we 
reached the city of Charleston, having ridden about fifty miles. 

Sunday, 9. Brother Ellis preached in the morning. In the even- 
ing I felt some liberty in enlarging on Romans x. 1-3 : " Brethren, 
my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is that they might be 
saved. For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but 
not according to knowledge. For they, being ignorant of God's 
righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, 
have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God." On 
Monday my soul and body enjoyed some ease and rest. 

Friday, 14. Our Conference began, and we had a very free and 
open time. On Saturday I preached on Isaiah lxii. 6, 7: "I have 
set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem, which shall never hold 
their peace day nor night : ye that make mention of the Lord, keep 
not silence, and give him no rest till he establish, and till he make 
Jerusalem a praise in the earth." On the Sabbath, on Luke xxii. 
61, 62: "And the Lord turned and looked upon Peter. And Peter 
remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before 
the cock crow twice thou shalt deny me thrice. And Peter went out 
and wept bitterly." It was a gracious season both in the congrega- 
tion and in the love-feast. While another was speaking in the morn- 
ing to a very crowded house, and many outside, a man made a riot 



In South. Caholixa. 181 

at the door; an alarm at once took place; the ladies leaped out at 
the windows of the church, and a dreadful confusion ensued. Again, 
whilst I was speaking at night, a stone was thrown against the north 
side of the church ; then another on the south ; a third came through 
the pulpit window, and struck near me inside the pulpit. I, how- 
ever, continued to speak on— my subject, Isaiah lii. 7 : "How beau- 
tiful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good 
tidings, that publisheth peace; that bringeth good tidings of good, 
that publisheth salvation ; that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth !" 
Upon the whole, I have had more liberty to speak in Charleston this 
visit than I ever had before, and am of opinion that God will work 
here; but our friends are afraid of the cross. 

Monday, 17. Preached in the morning, and took my leave of 
the city. When I reached Mr. Giveham's, the congregation had 
been dispersed about ten minutes. I preached at K — — 's, at 

L ; s, and at C. C. Church, in the Edisto Circuit. The people 

are insensible, and I fear are more in love with some of Christ's 
messengers than with Christ. I now changed my course and went 
through Orangeburg, by the Congarees, to Saluda, and thence up 
to Broad River quarterly-meeting. We rode till one o'clock on 
Friday, March 21. I believe we have traveled about two hundred 
miles in five days. Dear Brother Isaac Smith accompanied me. I 
was so unwell that I had but little satisfaction at the quarterly- 
meeting. My service was burdensome, but the people were lively. 

Wednesday, 26. We rode from Finch's to Odell's new church, 
where we had a good time whilst I enlarged on Titus ii. 14, " Who 
gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and 
purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works," and 
administered the Lord's Supper. Thence to Smith's, thirty miles. 
After preaching we had night-meeting that prevented our getting 
to bed until about twelve o'clock. We had a comfortable cabin, and 
were very well entertained. 

Thursday, 27. I had but little freedom on 2 Timothy ii. 19, 
" The foundation of God standeth sure." Brothers Mason and Major 
spoke after me. I Avent alone into the woods, and found my soul 
profitably solitary in sweet meditation and prayer. 

Friday, 28. Rode about thirty miles to B 's. My soul was tried , 

but it was also comforted in the Lord. I was much led out on Ephe- 
sians vi. 18, " Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the 
Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication 
for all saints," and was employed till nearly twelve o'clock at night 



182 History of Methodism 

Sunday, 30. I had some liberty in preaching, but the people be- 
gan to move about when they were pointedly dealt with. Brothers 
Mason and Major spoke after me. I found it good to be alone by 
the solitary stream and silent woods; to study the welfare of Zion, 
and to pray for her prosperity. 

Monday, 81. We rode within a mile of Savannah River. The 
land in general, during our route, is very fine. We were benighted, 
and moping in the woods made our journey a long one of about fifty 
miles. 

Tuesday, April 1. We crossed the Savannah at the forks, and 
came where I much wanted to be^-in Georgia. Nevertheless, I fear 
I shall have but little freedom here. 

The object of Bishop Asbury's visit was to attend 
the first Georgia Conference, which had been appointed 
for April 9, 1788, in the forks of Broad River, then in 
Wilkes, now Elbert county, near old Petersburg, and 
which was probably held at the house of David Merri- 
wether. At that time it was thought best for the work 
in Georgia to be embraced in a district separate from 
South Carolina, and this arrangement continued until 
the Conference of 1793, after which Georgia was con- 
nected as originally with South Carolina in one Con- 
ference. 

Wednesday, 9. Our Conference began at the forks of Broad 
River, where six members and four probationers attendedi Brother 
Major was sick and could not meet us; soon after he made his exit. 
to his eternal rest. 

Thursday and Friday, 10 and 11. I felt free, and preached with 
light and liberty each day. Many that had no religion in Virginia 
have found it after their removal into Georgia and South Carolina. 
Here at least the seed sprung up, wherever else it may have been 
sown. Our little Conference was about sixty-one pounds deficient in 
thoir quarterage, nearly one-third of which was made up to them. 

South Carolina — Sunday, 13. I called at a Presbyterian meeting- 
house, and heard Mr. Kobert Hall, the minister, preach a good sermon 
on Isaiah lv. After meeting we rode to Brother Moore's, twenty- 
miles on the Saluda. 



In South Carolina. 183 

Monday, 14. Was almost entirely occupied in writing letters to 
the North. 

Tuesday, 15. I had many people at the widow Bowman's. While 
here we had a most awful storm. I was afraid the house would 
come down. We rode in the night to Mark Moore's. I was seized 
with illness on the way, which continued during the night. Next 
day, however, I was able to pursue my journey. 

Friday, 18. We rode along crooked paths to Kasey's, where we 
received the afflicting account of the death of dear Brother Major, 
who departed this life last Saturday. He was a witness to holiness, 
and died in peace and love. 

Saturday, 19. I preached at Wilson's with some liberty on 2 Peter 
iii. 7. 

Sunday, 20. I spoke with little enlargement. Our friends here 
on Tiger Kiver are much alive to God, and have built a good 
chapel. We rode to Buffington's in the evening, on Fair Forest 
Creek, and were kindly entertained, 

North Carolina— Tuesday, 22. Rode to Rutherford Court-house, 
and the next day to Burke Court-house ; it being court time, we went 
on, and reached Brother White's, on John's River, about ten o'clock 
at night. Here I found both saddles broken, both horses foundered, 
and both their backs sore ; so we stopped a few days. 

Thus in this second visit made by Bishop Asbury to 
the South Carolina Conference, as in others, he held 
quarterly-meetings and filled appointments for preach- 
ing in every circuit, at the expense of great toil and 
suffering. The entire work in South Carolina was 
embraced in one district, and twelve preachers received 
their appointments from this second Conference. 

Says Mr. Allen, in letters to Mr, Wesley; 

At the Conference in Charleston, 1788, I was appointed to travel 
at large through the State of South ( arolina, which I did, and visited 
North Carolina and Georgia. Indeed, my famil y had very little of 
my company, but poor souls reaped the benefit. I think we had 
more powerful visitations than had been under my ministry for 
three years before. At one quarterly-meeting held in Santee, I 
think fifteen or twenty professed to obtain mercy, and almost every 
hearer was dissolved in tears. Many fell on their knees and en- 



184 His war of Methodism 

treated us to pray for them; I have seldom seen a more solemn 
season. But this is only one instance out of many of this nature, 
both in Edisto, Broad River, and Pedee circuits. At some of our 
meetings I was obliged to stop before I had gone through my dis- 
course, for my words could not be heard. The voices of the people 
Avere like the sound of many waters. Great numbers were added to 
our Church in the course of this season. 

All thanks be to God, who scatters abroad 

Throughout every place, 

By the least of his servants, the savor of grace. 

In the year 1786 I began to form this circuit, and at this time 
there were two hundred and forty-five members. Such has been the 
increase in general in South Carolina. On my return I received 
information of ten or twelve persons who were converted at Edisto 
quarterly-meeting, which I had attended on my way to Broad River 
and Santee. Soon after my return home, I again set off with my 
family to Pedee, where we had some happy meetings. At the 
quarterly-meeting we had a great number of people, and they were 
much affected. Several fell to the earth and cried aloud for mercy, 
and many professed to obtain pardon and peace. At some places I 
could not be heard for the cries of sinners, and the rejoicing of 
believers. In the latter end of August I returned hom e, and after 
preaching a few sermons in the country, and visiting my friends in 
Charleston, set off on my journey to Georgia, where I met my 
brethren, the preachers, and attended one quarterly-meeting on my 
way at Edisto. I was so ill with a fever when I reached the quar- 
terly-meeting in Georgia, that I was not able to preach. But through 
the mercy of God I got strength to preach on my way home. It 
being the time of the sitting of the Legislature in Augusta, I 
preached to many who would fain have me settle at that place; but 
I bade them adieu and returned ho me. In Novembe r I made another 
visit to Pedee, and went as far as Anson in North Carolina . This 
tour was also owned of God, and we had some gracious visitations 
from him. After waiting a few days among my neighbors, and in 
Charleston, I paid Georgia another visit, which I trust was not in 
vain in the Lord. Near Washington we had a quarterly-meeting, 
where about one thousand and five hundred people attended. With 
some difficulty I prevailed on them to be quiet, and restrain their 
passions till I had preached to them. Great power attended the 
word; I am persuaded that near one thousand of my hearers were 
in tears, and some testified that they had found peace with God. 



In South Carolina. 185 

The Lord hath done great tilings in the State of Georgia within a 
few years. Perhaps I never traveled more in one year, even when 
in single life, t han I did this yea r ; and, blessed be God, I did not run ^ 
in vain, or labor in vain. I saw the pleasure of the Lord prospering 
in ray unworthy hands. 

The other appointments for the year 1788 were as 
follows: Reuben Ellis, elder; Saluda, Lemuel An- 
drews; Broad River, William Partridge; Edisto, 
Henry Bingham, William Gassaway; Charleston, Ira 
Ellis; Santee, John Smith, Hardy Herbert; Wax- 
haws, Michael Burdge; Pedee, Thomas Humphreys, 
Mark Moore. Of these only Messrs. Ellis, Andrews, 
and Bingham had before filled appointments in South 
Carolina. 

Mr. Partridge was born in Sussex county, Virginia, 
in 1754. He was brought up to industry, and from 
his childhood was strictly moral. About the twenty- 
first year of his age he embraced religion. His name 
appears on the Minutes of 1780 as a traveling preacher, 
and so continues for about nine years. He then retired 
and continued a local preacher about twenty-five years, 
during which time his wife— a pious woman — died and 
left two children. He continued to keep house with 
them until they were grown and provided for. He had 
frequently expressed a desire to labor and die in the 
traveling connection; an opportunity now offered, he 
embraced it, and was sent in 1814 to Keowee Circuit; 
in 1815 and 1816 to Alcovi; and 1817 to Sparta, Georgia, 
where he died on the 17th of May. As a citizen he 
respected the rights of man with a nicety seldom 
equaled, never surpassed. Though surrounded by 
those who held slaves, he would have none. As the 
head of a family, it may be said industry, piety, peace, 
and harmony were the motto of his house. As a 
Christian, numbers have professed sanctification, but 



186 History of Methodism 

lie lived it. One intimately acquainted with him 
writes thus: 

I have lived a near neighbor to Brother Partridge for upward of 
twenty years, and can with satisfaction say that he was the greatest 
example of piety 1 have ever been acquainted with. As a minister 
of the gospel he knew the strength of his abilities, and never ap- 
peared to soar above them. In preaching he was experimental, 
practical, and plain, and none were at a loss to understand him. 
He drew his divinity out of the Bible, and read authors but little; 
but the Scripture was his constant study, and he was profitable to 
many. He deeply lamented the growing departure among us from 
primitive Christian simplicity, and earnestly warned the societies 
among whom he labored against it. His labors and life he wished to 
close together. His last sermon Avas on these words: "Walk in wis- 
dom toward them that are without." That evening he was taken ill 
(14th May)— his illness increased ; physicians were procured, but in 
vain. His colleague asked him whether he was ready for the final 
summons. He said, "Yes; for me to die is gain." His speech left 
him, and on Saturday night after he was taken he breathed his last. 
Thus he lived, thus he died. "The memory of the just is blessed." 

Ira Ellis was a native of Virginia, and Avas admitted 
into the traveling connection in 1781. He continued 
his ministerial labors with distinguished ability for 
some thirteen years, and filled divers appointments 
from Philadelphia in Pennsylvania to Charleston in 
South Carolina. Bishop Asbury has put on record 
this high estimate of his talents and character: 

He was a man of quick and solid parts. I have thought, had 
fortune given him the same advantages of education, he would have 
displayed abilities not inferior to Jefferson or Madison. But he 
had what is better than learning ; he had undissembled sincerity, 
great modesty, deep fidelity, great ingenuity, and uncommon power 
of reasoning. He was a good man, of even temper. 

Like most of his fellow-itinerants of that day, Mr. 
Ellis located in 1795 through domestic necessities. 

John Smith was a native of Maryland, and was ad- 
mitted on trial in 1784. He labored faithfully for ten 



Ik South Carolina* 187 

or twelve years, notwithstanding the infirmities of a 
feeble constitution, and preached a part of his time 
beyond the Alleghanies. This was the only year given 
to South Carolina. He died in 1812, in Maryland, and 
rests at " Hinson's Chapel, near the great and good 
William Gill." His death was most triumphant. 
"Come, Lord Jesus! " he exclaimed; "come quickly, 
and take my enraptured soul away. I am not afraid 
to die. I long to be dissolved, and see my Saviour 
without a dimming vail between. Death has lost its 
sting." 

Michael Burclge was received on trial at this Con- 
ference, and appointed to Waxhaw?- which embraced 
the territory of the Catawba Indians, in whose relig- 
ious welfare great interest was excited. "I wish," 
says Bishop Asbury-j April 3, 1789, " to send an ex- 
tra preacher to Waxhaws to preach to the Catawba 
Indians. They have settled amongst the whites on a 
tract of land twelve miles square." Mr. Burdge dili- 
gently cultivated this field, and opened the way for 
the Catawba Circuit, which was more fully formed by 
Jonathan Jackson in 1790. A^ter laboring the next 
year on Broad River, and the two following on Eclis- 
to Circuit, he located in 1792. In 1808 he joined 
Matthew P. Sturdevant, who responded to the call of 
Bishop Asbury to go as a missionary to the white set- 
tlements on the Tombigbee River, and at the end of 
two years reported eighty-six Church-members — the 
germ of all the subsequent growth of Alabama and 
Mississippi Methodism. He subsequently filled with 
fidelity and success divers appointments in Georgia 
and the Carolinas, after which he disappears from the 
records. 

Thomas Humphreys was born in Virginia, and was 



188 History of Methodism 

admitted on trial in 1783. His first appointment was 
to Berkeley Circuit. The two following years he trav- 
eled respectively the Guilford and Tar River circuits, 
in North Carolina. At the Virginia Conference, held 
at Lane's Chapel, in Sussex county, April 10, 1786, 
when a call was made for missionaries for Georgia, a 
larger number responded than could be spared for 
that field. Thomas Humphreys and John Major were 
selected, and, crossing the river at Dooly's Ferry, be- 
came the messengers of peace to thousands beyond 
the Savannah. 

Mr, Major came over from the Burke Circuit in 
Georgia to attend the quarterly - meeting of Broad 
River Circuit in South Carolina, and to conduct Bishop 
Asbury to the first Georgia Conference, but in conse- 
quence of sickness was unable to jneet with his breth- 
ren, and died April 12, 1788, the day after the adjourn- 
ment of Conference. "A simple hearted man; a living, 
loving soul, who died as he lived, full of faith and the 
Holy Ghost; ten years in the work; useful and blame- 
less." 

Mr. Humphreys, assisted by Lemuel Moore, formed 
the Little Pedee Circuit in 1789, and was sent with 
Hardy Herbert to Georgetown in 1790, after which he 
married and settled as a local preacher within the 
bounds of the Pedee Circuit. He was presiding elder 
in 1797, and on Little Pedee Circuit in 1798. He was 
a man of fine personal appearance, preached with 
great earnestness and power, and was distinguished 
for his native wit and fearlessness. In the judgment 
of Mr. Travis, who often heard him, he was one of the 
greatest natural orators of his day, though by no 
means free from eccentricities. On a certain Sabbath, 
when he was to preach at Georgetown, a good sister, 



In South Carolina. 189 

walking with him to church, said to him in a timid 
yet persuasive tone, " Now, Brother Humphreys, rec- 
ollect you are to preach to tow r n folks ; it will not do 
to be too plain." Mr. Humphreys made no response, 
but the good sister felt encouraged to hope for a dis- 
course in full accordance with town culture. In preach- 
ing, however, the speaker, after enforcing for some 
time, with great earnestness, the duty of repentance, 
said, with full emphasis, " If you do n't repent, you '11 
all be damned." With the air of sudden recollection, 
and very great alarm, he jumped back in the pulpit 
and began to apologize: " I beg your pardon; you are 
town folks." This he repeated several times during 
the discourse, in each instance suiting the action to 
the word, and adding at the last, "If you are town 
folks, if you do n't repent and become converted, God 
will cast you into hell just as soon as he wall a piney- 
woods sinner." There sat the timid sister with head 
bowed down in disappointment and mortification, but 
with mind well made up to waste on the incorrigible 
Humphreys no more lectures on pulpit aesthetics. On 
another occasion he was sent for to visit a church 
where there had been some time before a revival of 
religion. A dancing-master had come into the neigh- 
borhood to make up a school, and some of the young 
professors had been persuaded to enter it. Mr. Hum- 
phreys, in his sermon, described in a graphic manner 
the wiles of the devil, and traced out in minute detail 
his multifarious ways to ruin souls, all along develop- 
ing lines of resemblance between Satan and a danc- 
ing-master, until at length the latter could stand it no 
longer. He accordingly took up his hat and started 
tow r ard the door; just as he approached it, Mr. Hum- 
phreys said, with loud and impressive voice, " But, 



190 History of Methodism 

brethren, resist the devil and he will flee from you, 
just like the dancing-master." He no more made his 
appearance in the neighborhood. Mr. Humphreys 
lived to a good old age, loved and esteemed by all who 
knew him, retaining his ministerial character unblem- 
ished to the last, and receiving the crown of life. 

Mark Moore entered the traveling connection in 
1786, and was appointed to Holston; in 1787 to Salis- 
bury, in 1789 to Santee, in 1798 to Broad Kiver, in 
1799 located. In 1819 he was stationed in New Or- 
leans. He possessed every requisite qualification to 
render him an eloquent and effective preacher of the 
gospel, and if he had continued in the regular itiner- 
ant work he would have become truly a polished shaft 
in Jehovah's quiver. He was a fine scholar and good 
educator, but unfortunate in the management of his 
temporal affairs. He lived to be quite aged, and to 
the last was the faithful and holy man of God. 

Hardy Herbert, who was admitted on trial this year, 
was a native of North Carolina, but brought up in 
South Carolina on the banks of Broad Biver. He pro- 
fessed faith in Christ at sixteen years of age, began to 
travel when he was about eighteen, and labored in the 
work of God about six years, during which time he 
traveled the Great Pedee Circuit with Aquila Sugg in 
1789; Georgetown with Thomas Humphreys in 1790; 
with John Andrew — father of Bishop Andrew — Wash- 
ington, in Georgia, in 1791; after which Bishop As- 
bury took him to the north side of Virginia . He was 
a youth of genius, of an easy and natural elocution, 
and pleasing as a speaker. He was obedient to those 
who had the rule over him, and was loved and es- 
teemed by the Bishop and all his brethren. " Take 
care of dear Brother 'Herbert," wrote Hope Hull to 



In South Cabolina. 191 

John Andrew when he was in Georgia, " for my sake, 
for Christ's sake, and for his own sake." Finding his 
constitution weak, he wished to decline traveling at 
large, and hoped to assist the Connection as a teacher. 
Moved by one who had a very great influence over 
him, he went to Norfolk in Virginia to improve himself 
in French and other studies. There he married, and 
soon after died, we have reason to believe, in the fear, 
favor, and love of God — carried off by a bilious fever. 
He changed this state of sorrow and suffering in the 
twenty-fifth year of his age, November 20, 1794. 

William Gassaway, who entered the traveling con- 
nection this year, had a long and distinguished career 
in the South Carolina Conference. In his youth he 
was wild and reckless, full of fun and frolic, and withal 
somewhat given to those pugilistic encounters which 
were deemed among the young men of that day strong 
evidences of manliness. He had not the fear of God 
before his eyes. While thus pursuing a life of sinful 
forgetf ulness of God, he chanced one day to attend a 
Methodist meeting, and the word of the Lord came to 
his heart in power. God's Spirit thoroughly aroused 
him from his guilty dream of pleasure and security. 
When the penitents were invited forward for prayers, 
he, with others, accepted the invitation. This, he said, 
surprised everybody. The dancing people said, " What 
shall we do for a fiddler? " Everybody had something 
to say about Bill Gassaway. Many prophesied he 
would not hold out long. But those who knew him 
best said, "He is gone! the Methodists have got him; 
he will never play the fiddle, or drink, or fight, any 
more." His convictions were very deep. He felt so 
unworthy that he refused to drink water because the 
stream looked pure; and although the day was very 



192 History of Methodism 

hot, and lie was very thirsty, yet he would not drink 
because he was a sinner; but he allowed his horse to 
drink, saying, "You are not a sinner, but I am; you 
may drink, but I will not." He says he was totally 
ignorant of the great principles of Christianity: 

I understood that Jesus Christ was the Son of God, and the 
Saviour of the world ; but that lie had died for my sins, and for his 
sake, and his sake alone, the Father would forgive my sins, was 
what I knew nothing at all about, And, what was worse, I knew of 
nobody to whom I could go but one man, and he was an elder in 
the Presbyterian Church; and so little did I know of the true spirit 
of Christianity, I thought, as I had been up for the Methodists to 
pray for me, that this man would show me no favor. But at last, so 
deep and pungent were my convictions, I concluded to go and see 
this old Presbyterian man anyhow. So I went. I did not know 
how to make any apology, so I just told him plainly my condition. 
Think of my surprise when this good old man took me into his open 
arms, saying to me: "The Spirit of the Lord is at work with you; 
see that you do n't quench that Spirit. Make my house your home; 
I will give you all the help I can." 

This Presbyterian gentleman with whom Mr. Gas- 
saway remained about three months, until he was con- 
verted, was Maj. Joseph McJunkin, of Union District 
in South Carolina, long since gone to his heavenly 
home. He was a good man in the best sense of that 
term, honoring God in private and in public, by a life 
of straightforward and Christian piety. He was the 
principal instructor of Mr. Gassaway in the things of 
God. He exhorted his young friend never to look 
back, but to persevere unto the end, for only such could 
be saved. He advised him to read Baxter's Saints' 
Rest. Could he have put a better book in his hands ? 
Mr. Gassaway says that he took the book and walked 
out into the woods near a little stream of water. He 
had long been weeping over his sins, and confessing 
to his God, and in deep sorrow he sat down to read. 



In South Carolina.- 193 

He had not read long before the Lord, the King of 
glory, for the sake of his Son, baptized him with the 
Holy Ghost and with fire from heaven. He was never 
better satisfied of the truth of any fact in his life than 
he was of his conversion at this time. "With no 
human being near me," says he, " I immediately got 
on my knees and thanked God, and then and there 
dedicated myself, soul, body, and spirit, to him, and 
then and there covenanted to be his forever. I re- 
turned immediately to the house of my friend and told 
him the whole story. He blessed God, called his 
family together, told them what had taken place, anl 
then we all united in prayer and praise for my con- 
version." Mr. Gassaway joined the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, and after awhile, feeling himself called to 
warn his fellow-men of the danger of living in sin, and 
to publish to them the riches of God's redeeming and 
saving mercy, he received from the Church authority 
to preach, and was admitted on trial as a traveling 
preacher in the South Carolina Conference, in 1788. 
After traveling the Edisto, Bush River, and Little 
Pedee circuits, he located from family necessities; but 
in the year 1801 he reentered the itinerant ranks, and 
continued until the expiration of the Conference-year 
1813, when he again located, having traveled in all 
sixteen years with a large family and poor pay. 
"When but a youth," says Mr. Travis, "I was accus- 
tomed to hear him preach at my uncle's, in Chester 
District in South Carolina, and when I entered the 
itinerancy it was in the same Conference to which he 
belonged. He was a sound, orthodox preacher, and on 
suitable occasions argumentative and polemical — a 
great lover and skillful defender of Methodist doctrines 
and usages." His method of pulpit preparation was 
13 



194 History of Methodism 

the following: When he contemplated going to an ap- 
pointment, he retired in secret to commune with God ; 
he first sought to know whether it was the will of God 
that he should preach there. That being settled affirm- 
atively, he next humbly and earnestly asked of the 
Lord a suitable text, and then light and power to 
preach from it; and it appears that when he thus 
sought the Divine guidance and help he was never dis- 
appointed. He read scarcely any book but the Bible, 
but this he studied closely and with much prayer, and 
he was accordingly a mighty man in the exposition of 
scriptural truth, He repudiated all commentaries on 
the holy Scriptures, so far as his own practice was 
concerned, on the ground that God had said, " If any 
of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to 
all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and he shall re- 
ceive the needed wisdom." He therefore preferred to 
go directly to the great source or inspiration for light 
on the divine word, deeming that the God who first in- 
spired the sacred word was his own best expounder. 
He condemned not others, however, for consulting com- 
mentators, but judged the course he pursued the best. 
While it is true he may have erred in this instance, as it 
is no doubt proper to get all the help we can in studying 
the sacred record, and not to refuse the aid of commen- 
tators, yet is there no danger of relying too much on 
them ? and do not many of our talented and critical 
preachers, in their reliance on these uninspired sources 
of wisdom, to a great extent ignore that divine illu- 
mination which comes in answer to devout and humble 
prayer ? Mr. Gassaway gained such an influence over 
Bishop Capers in his earlier days — who speaks of him 
as " that most godly man and best of ministers " — as to 
induce him to lay aside his classical studies, which he 



In South Carolina. 195 

did not resume for several years, and to give up en- 
tirely the advantages of any previous preparation for 
the work of the ministry. Says the Bishop : 

What appeared to me desirable, and even necessary for ray suc- 
cess, was a regular course of divinity studies, which I should pursue 
without interruption for several years, till I had acquired a sufficient 
fund of knowledge for preaching. The brief Methodistic course of 
Brother Gassaway was to study and preach, and preach and study, 
from day to day. It was several weeks before I could be brought to 
acquiesce in his opinion, and for most of that time so clearly reason- 
able and proper did it appear to me to desist from all pulpit exercises 
till I should have qualified myself to perform them in a maimer 
worthy of the sacred office, and it was a point so closely concerning 
conscience, that I must have caused my excellent friend some un- 
easiness. However, his patient spirit was sufficient for the trial, and 
most kindly and affectionately did he argue on. One point which 
he made, and a capital one, I thought he carried against me. I had 
supposed two years to be necessary for the study of divinity before 
I should exercise at all in public, and that the qualification gained 
for more effective service in future by these two years of close study 
would more than compensate for the loss of time from such imperfect 
efforts as I might essay in the meantime on his plan of studying and 
preaching, and preaching and studying. And the point he made 
was, as to the qualification to be gained for future usefulness at the 
lapse of two or more years, by the one course or by the other, hold- 
ing it probable that a student on his plan would become a better 
preacher at the end of a term of years than he would on mine. He 
admitted that on ray plan he might learn more theology and be able 
to compose a better thesis, but insisted he would not make a better 
preacher. In this argument he insisted much on the practical 
character of preaching, that to reach its end it must be more than 
a well-composed sermon, or an eloquent discourse, or able disserta- 
tion. It must have to do with men as a shot at a mark, in which 
not only the ammunition should be good, but the aim true. The 
preacher must be familiar with man to reach him with effect. And 
the force of preaching must largely depend, under the blessing of 
God, on the naturalness and truthfulness of the preacher's postulates, 
arguing to the sinner from what he knows of him, the necessities of 
his condition, appealing to his conscience, and recommending the 
grace of God. But he quite overcame me with this final remark. 



196 History of Methodism 

It was as we were riding along that dreary sand-hill road in Chester- 
field District, leading from the court-house toward Sumterville, and 
I seemed more than usually earnest in my objections, that after quite 
a speech on my side of the question, he thus answered me : "Well, 
Billy, it is only supposition, after all ; and if you are called to preach, 
and sinners are daily falling into hell, take care lest the blood 
of some of them be found on your skirts." Sure enough, it was 
only "supposition." The true question was as to usefulness, not 
eminence ; and with respect to that matter, at least, I could only 
suppose, and could not certainly know, that it might be better for 
me to desist from my present course and adopt another. Here then 
ended that difficulty about the exclusive study of divinity. I in- 
stantly gave it up, and thanked my friend for his pains and patience 
with me. 

Mr. Gassaway was a man of very devotional spirit; 
in fact, lie carried all his matters in prayer to God, en- 
joying a sweet confidence that God would manage 
every thing for him. In this he not only manifested 
a humble, child-like spirit of prayer, but also a strong 
and steady faith which faltered not in the day of trial. 
When traveling the circuit which then embraced the 
town of Camden, a very powerful and extensive work 
of grace broke out in the community, and a considera- 
ble number of persons at that appointment were awak- 
ened and converted to God. Among these was a Mrs. 
Fisher, who was powerfully converted and joined the 
Church. Her husband was not at home at the time 
of his wife's conversion. He was a very ungodly man; 
and when he returned and heard of what had taken 
place, he became furious, ordered his wife to take her 
name off the Church-book, and swore he would cow- 
hide the preacher on sight. Many of Mr. Gassaway's 
friends, who knew the violence of the man's temper, 
begged him to keep away from his presence, assuring 
him that from their knowledge of Fisher's character 
they had no doubt he would carry his threat into ex- 



In South Cabolina. 197 

ecution. According to the preacher's wont, he car- 
ried this matter to God in prayer, and came to the 
conclusion that in the order of God he was on that 
circuit, and as Camden was in his circuit, it was his 
duty to go there and preach, and leave God to manage 
consequences. At the appointed time, accordingly, he 
was in his place. He arose to preach, and there sat 
Fisher before him with a countenance of wrath and 
storm, and a cowhide in his hand, just prepared to ex- 
ecute his threat. Mr. Gassaway gave out his hymn, 
and sung it; he knelt in prayer, and God was with 
him. He arose from his knees, took his text, and pro- 
ceeded to the sermon ; but before he concluded he saw 
that his persecutor was yielding, and at the close the 
angry man, with an aching heart and streaming eyes, 
knelt and cried for mercy as though his last hour was 
come. It was not long before he was happily con- 
verted, and united with his wife to urge their way to 
heaven, and became one of Mr. Gassaway's warmest 
friends. On another occasion a young man and his 
sister were in attendance at one of his appointments 
in the low country. They belonged to a proud and 
gay family, and probably came to the Methodist meet- 
ing-house that they might find some sport. It pleased 
God that if they came to scoff, they should remain to 
pray. The word of God took effect on them both; 
they knelt in prayer, and before the meeting closed 
they were both powerfully and happily converted. 
The meeting continued long; but when the new con- 
verts were about to start home, they begged Mr. Gas- 
saway to accompany them, as they knew their parents 
were proud and irreligious, and would be greatly in- 
censed when they heard what had occurred; and they 
thought, if he should accompany them, his presence 



198 History of Methodism. 

would break the first fury of the storm. He felt deeply 
for them, but circumstances did not admit of his go- 
ing with them. He, however, earnestly commended 
them to God, and felt sure that all would be right. 
The preacher went on his way, and when he came 
round to that place again the two young people were 
there accompanied by their parents. When they re- 
turned home on the day of their conversion they found 
the old people on the door-steps, looking for them, for 
it was late. The young man fell at his father's knees, 
weeping, and told the whole story; the daughter threw 
her arms around her mother's neck, and told what the 
Lord had done for her, and the result was that the old 
people melted into tears, and begged their children to 
pray for them. And so they had quite a little camp- 
meeting scene, and the issue was that both the parents 
were converted, and resolved to go with their children 
to heaven. In relating the incident, Mr. Gassaway 
said: "I knew it would be so that day when I prayed 
for them, and was not at all surprised to hear the re- 
sult; for such feelings as I had in that prayer never 
deceive me." (Bishop Andrew.) Mr. Gassaway con- 
tinued to the end of life the same laborious, zealous, 
and holy minister of the gospel. He lived to a mature 
old age; "and he died full of faith and the Holy 
Ghost." 



CHAPTER IX. 



Not in the tombs we pine to dwell, 
Not in the dark monastic cell, 

By vows and grates confined ; 
Freely to all ourselves we give, 
Constrained by Jesus' love to live 

The servants of mankind. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

BY the plan of visitation for 1789, Bishop Asbury 
preached at Green Pond, in Marlborough Dis- 
trict, February 3, and the next day at Beauty Spot; 
thence he traveled down the country on the east side 
of the Great Pedee River, crossed it at Port's Long 
Ferry, and came by Georgetown and Wappetaw to 
Charleston. He remained in the city from Saturday, 
the 14th, to Tuesday, the 24th, preaching to the peo- 
ple, making out his plans, and arranging his papers 
for the two Conferences now soon to be held. On the 
last-named day he set out for the Edisto Circuit, jour- 
neying up the south side of Ashley River. " Here," 
says he, " live the rich and great who have houses in 
the city and country, and go backward and forward in 
their splendid chariots." 

Dr. Coke, who, by previous appointment, was to 
meet Bishop Asbury in Charleston, landed in the city 
about three hours after he had left, and by extraordi- 
nary exertions overtook him on the evening of the 
third day, at Mr. Bruten's, and became his companion 
through the remaining part of the journey. In trav- 

(399) 



200 History of Methodism 

ersing the wilds, before they could reach the seat of 
the second Georgia Conference, they found themselves 
exposed to very serious difficulties and dangers. Some- 
times they were compelled, after traveling through 
the day, exposed to all the rigors of the season, to take 
up their abode in houses made of logs, which admitted 
through their crevices the piercing spirit of the north- 
ern breeze, and, after obtaining a slender repast, to 
find repose on the unyielding floor. Sometimes they 
missed their way through the trackless forest, and oc- 
casionally traveled sixteen or eighteen miles without 
seeing a human being but themselves — in their prog- 
ress fording many deep, rapid, and dangerous rivers. 
Sometimes, although they carried provisions with 
them, they could not find it convenient to take any re- 
freshment from an early hour in the morning until 
night had gathered her sable mantle around them. To 
relieve the solitude of their journeys they were occa- 
sionally intercepted by large congregations that as- 
sembled in stated places to wait their arrival. To these 
they preached the word of life, sometimes in houses, 
as Bishop Asbury describes them, " open at the bot- 
tom, top, and sides;" yet much success seemed to 
ci own their labors. The scenery, also, with which they 
were surrounded, sometimes appeared romantic and 
highly picturesque. Extensive vistas, expanded wa- 
ters, towering pines, rustling breezes, the flight of 
birds, and the starting of trembling fawns, all con- 
spired to impart an exhilarating solemnity to their 
spirits, and to raise their thoughts from nature "up 
to nature's God." On one occasion they found them- 
selves illuminated at a late hour of the night by the 
blaze of pine-trees that had been accidentally set on 
fire. At certain seasons of the year the planters find 



In South Carolina. 201 

it necessary to burn the decayed grass, the dried 
leaves, and the little shrubs, that the surface of the 
ground may be prepared for approaching vegetation. 
The fire thus communicated spreads with inconceiva- 
ble rapidity, so that several acres are almost instantly 
covered with a sheet of flame. In passing by the 
trunks of the pine-trees, the fire occasionally seizes on 
the oozing turpentine that exudes from their sides. 
Pursuing this combustible matter, the flame mounts 
to their summits and spreads along their branches, 
and frequently lodges in their decayed limbs, so that 
sometimes the forest is in a blaze. 

By the light of one of these fires Dr. Coke and 
Bishop Asbury traveled while pursuing their jour- 
ney through the forests from Charleston to Georgia. 
" It was," says he, " the most astonishing illumination 
that I ever beheld. We seemed surrounded with ex- 
tensive fires, and I question whether the King of 
France's stag-hunt in his forest by night, which he 
has sometimes given to his nobility, would be more 
wonderful or entertaining to a philosophic eye. I 
have seen old rotten pine-trees all on fire ; the trunks, 
and the branches which looked like so many arms, 
were full of visible fire, and made a most grotesque 
appearance." 

They entered Georgia at Augusta, and reached Mr. 
Grant's, in the county of Wilkes, where the Confer- 
ence was to be held on the 8th of March. Having 
passed through the business with order and unanim- 
ity, they directed their hasty steps back to Charles- 
ton, riding two hundred miles in five days, to hold the 
third session of the South Carolina Conference, ap- 
pointed to begin on Tuesday, the 17th of March, 1789. 
They found the work of God in a prosperous condition, 



202 History of Methodism 

■nine hundred and seven members having been added 
t< > the Church during the preceding year. From mobs 
they met with no riotous molestation, as .at the last 
session, but the public newspapers teemed with invec- 
tives of the most virulent nature, and the bishops were 
represented as men who were attempting to subvert 
the established order of things. But "a soft answer 
turneth away wrath." The irritation of the writers 
was not inflamed by the replies which were given, so 
that the tempest, having spent its force, a general calm 
succeeded, and peace was once more established. 

After the Conference, Bishop Asbury visited the 
Santee and Pedee circuits, traveling one hundred and 
fifty miles within the first four days, and preaching 
four sermons. He filled appointments at Gibson's, at 
Bradford's, and at Rembert's, and preached a funeral- 
sermon near Statesburg. He served the congregation 
at Jackson's, and discoursed to the people on the way 
to Threadgill's and to Handle's; and thus continued 
on to McKnight's, on the Yadkin, the seat of the North 
Carolina Conference. 

Richard Whatcoat and Ira Ellis accompanied Bish- 
op Asbury in his visit to hold the fourth Conference 
in South Carolina. They entered the State, calling at 
Beauty Spot, and passing down through Marlborough 
and Marion, crossed the Great Pedee at Port's Ferry, 
and came by the same route as the year before to 
Charleston. The session was opened on the 15th of 
February, 1790, and the business was conducted in great 
peace and love. The powers of the Council which 
convened the year before, and which was expected to 
meet again, in lieu of a General Conference, to give 
uniformity to the administration o'f the Church, were 
taken into consideration. It was determined, first, to 



In South Carolina. 208 

invest the Council with authority to act decisively in 
all matters concerning the Cokesbury College, and the 
printing of books; second, to withhold the power to 
make new canons, or to alter old ones, without the 
consent of the Conference; so that whatever was done 
on this head should come in the shape of advice only. 
It was furthermore resolved to establish Sunday- 
schools for poor children, white and black. And the 
following minute was adopted, viz.: 

What can be clone in order to instruct poor children (white and 
black) to read? 

Let us labor as the heart and soul of one man to establish Sun- 
day-schools in or near the place of public worship. Let persons be 
appointed by the bishops, elders, deacons, and preachers, to teach 
(gratis) all that will attend, and have a capacity to learn, from six 
o'clock in the morning till ten, and from two o'clock in the after- 
noon till six ; where it does not interfere with public worship. The 
Council shall compile a proper school-book to teach them learning 
and piety. 

The congregations for public worship were favored 
with quickening seasons and lively meetings; several 
young persons came under awakenings. The reports 
from the several appointments showed an aggregate 
increase of six hundred and thirty members. Mr. 
"Whatcoat preached every night, and Bishop Asbury 
twice on Sunday, and on the last day of the Confer- 
ence from Jeremiah xv. 19: "If thou take forth the 
precious from the vile, thou shalt be as my mouth." 
Says the Bishop, in his journal: 

It was a searching season ; several spoke and prayed, and we bad 
noise enough. The evening before an extract of sundry letters from 
New York and Baltimore was read in the congregation, at which 
saints and sinners were affected. But we have not a sufficient breast- 
work. Our friends are too mute and fearful, and many of the out- 
doors people are violent and wicked. I have had a busy, trviiw 



201 History of Methodism 

time for about nine days past ; and I have hopes that some hundreds 
in this city will be converted by this time next year. 

As the ensuing Georgia Conference was again to be 
held at Mr. Grant's, they traveled over the same route 
as the year before. 

Friday, February 19. We rode to Edisto. At Giveham's I 
preached on the " Great Salvation." There appeared to be atten- 
tion, and some were affected. 

Saturday, 20. Was a dry time at Lynder's. Brother Whatcoat 
preached. I was very unwell with a headache. 

Sunday, 21. We had a better season at Cattle Creek, on Malaehi 
iii. 1. May God arise to help these people, and revive and work 
mightily for and amongst them ! 

Monday, 22. We had a heavy ride. It was more so when we 
came to preaching. Poor souls ! the Antinomian leaven brings 
forth death here. Some appeared hardened ; others, nevertheless, 
appeared a little melted. May God help these people ! 

Tuesday, 23. We found people of another spirit. We had a 
large congregation, but very blind, deaf, and dumb. O Lord, can 
these dry bones live? I spoke very close, but to little purpose. 
May the Lord help and stand by the preachers who labor on this 
side Edisto! • 

Wednesday, 24. At Chester's, and next day at P 's, there 

was a small stir. Some have been awakened ; but they lean to Cal- 
vinism, and the love of strong drink carries almost all away. My 
spirit was bowed down amongst them. I spoke a little, and so did 
Brother Whatcoat, We appointed a night-meeting. There came 
only two men, and they were drunk. 

Friday, 26. There came about a dozen people to hear us at 
Treadwell's, to whom Brother Whatcoat preached on " The works 
of the flesh" and "The fruits of the Spirit." After riding thirty 
miles through heavy sands, we came to Dr. Fuller's. I am strongly 
inclined to think I am done with this road and people. They pass 
for Christians. A prophet of strong drink might suit them. I was 
clear in not receiving any thing without paying for it. 

Saturday, 27. Kocle to Campbelltown. Since Friday, the 19th, 
we have ridden about one hundred and sixty miles. 

Sunday, 28. 1 preached on 1 Timothy i. 15. I had a very still 
and unfeeling congregation. The inhabitants of this little town 



In South Carolina. 205 

(Campbelltown) seem to be sober and industrious ; but even here I 
found some drunkards. 

The next clay they crossed the Savannah Elver at 
Augusta, and, after the Conference at Grant's, re- 
turned to South Carolina through Abbeville and Lau- 
rens, to the widow Bowman's, on Reedy River, and 
crossing the Ennoree River at Musgrove's Mill, passed 
up the country, sounding the alarm through Spartan- 
burg, Rutherford, and Burke, to Mr. White's, on John's 
River, in North Carolina. 

Says Mr. Allen, in letters to Mr. W esley : 

At the Conference in Charleston, 1789, I -was appointed to Georgia, 
where I spent part of my time. I had, as formerly, large congrega- 
tions, and sometimes very lively meetings. But the appearance of 
an Indian war occasioned me to spend most of my time in South 
Ca rolina ; and as it was nearly similar to what occurred the year be- 
fore, I shall close this narrative with a few observations on the year 
1790, when I settled at Liberty H i I I,. near Aug usta. As it is the 
close of those eleven years which I have devoted to the work of the 
ministry, I shall give a more particular account of places and cir- 
cumstances. In the year 1790 , whilst I was in Georg ia, it pleased 
God to begin a gracious work in and about Campbelltown, which, 
when I remove d, greatly revived. Several were delivered from the , 
bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of 
God. There were also a number who began to feel their lost condi- 
tion, both in Georgia and South Carolina. Mav the 8th I attended 
a quarterly-meeting on Saluda. The first da y there was a consider- 
able work among the people ; but on the second we had a large, at- <? 
tentive congregation, to whom I spoke freely. All were still, and 
attended to what I said till toward the close of the sermon, when the 
word caused a trembling and weeping in the whole assembly. Soon 
after they cried for mercy ; and the poor distressed creatures fell on 
their knees, beseeching us to pray for them, which we did, nor 
would they suffer me to leave them without promising, if possible, 
to visit them again. Some found mercy and peace to their souls, 
and others were under deep distress. On my way the day following 
I preached in Edgefield Court-house to a very considerable number 
of attentive people, to whom T declared the oath of God, that he hag 



206 His ronr of Methodism 

no pleasure in the death of a sinner. Toward the conclusion, one 
woman sitting on a lofty seat dropped to the floor, and soon after a 
number of others came and fell on their knees, crying for mercy, 
and several found deliverance. After preaching six sermons and 
riding one hundred and ten miles in four days, I preached a few 
times round about in my neighborhood , and then with my famil y y & 
set out for Wilkestown in Georgia. On our way we had some very ' 
lively meetings ; but most of all on- our return at a quarterly-meet- 
ing held in CjusrokeeCircuitj S outh C arolina, where, before I had 
preached one-half of my sermon, my voice could scarce be heard for 
the cries of some and rejoicing of others. The second day it was 
more so. I suppose there were near two hundred on their knees 
desiring to be prayed for. The number of those who found salva- 
tion at this season I know not. Many such seasons as this we were 
favored with in the course of the summer. Monday, June the 7th , 
I preached a funeral-sermon, on the death of a godly friend, to a 
large congregation. The people were deeply affected, and just be- 
fore I concluded more than one-half of the congregation drew near, 
and fell on their knees to be prayed for. It was a very solemn sea- 
son indeed. Tuesday, the 8th , I preached in Ca mpbelltown . After 
1 had concluded, one woman damped on her knees, and requested 
me to pray for her. I did so; and as soon as we rose her husband 
began to praise God that he had that morning found the Lord. 
Wednesday, the 9tJL I preached in Georgia ; where, as soon as I 
concluded, a young lady came with joy and told me that three days 
before the Lord had converted her soul and the soul of her little sis- 
ter. Now my soul felt as in days past. On Friday, the 11t h, I_set 
out for B urke quarterly-meeting, in Georgi a, where, on Sunday, the 
12th, we had a very quickening season. The whole assembly of 
hearers were dissolved in tears, while I enforced these words, "The 
eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and his ears are open unto 
their cry." On Sunday, t he 13th , we had a large number of our 
friends to attend the love-feast in the morning. But all seemed dull 
to me till just about the conclusion. I felt a desire to speak to th 
people, and in a few minutes a flame broke out in a most rapid man- 
ner ; the doors were opened and the people thronged in till the large 
church could receive no more, but there was room enough in the 
hearts of the people. They truly looked like men drunken with new 
wine ; poor, hardened sinners were cut to the heart, and some that 
came cursing and swearing went away praising and glorifying God. 
This work began about eleven o'clock, and we waited more than an 



In South Carolina. 207 

hour and strove to quiet them that we might preach to the people, 
but it was all in vain. I therefore went into the woods and preached 
to about one thousand hearers, some of whom we left on the ground, 
or floor, about four o'clock ; and I was informed by Brother Hull 
(one of our preachers who continued with them after my departure) 
that some of them were obliged to be carried home by their neigh- 
bors. After riding twelve miles to Captain Walker's, I preached 
again, and the same power attended the word. I was assisted by 
one of our preachers, and the people never broke up till near eleven 
o'clock at night ; some were praising God, others lamenting their 
undone condition. The same divine power attended our quarterly- 
meeting at Campbelltown , where some of the gay were brought to 
their knees to be prayed for. On the 27th also, at the Tabernacle , 
we had nearly the same display of divine power. Many were the 
meetings of a similar kind which we had during the year. Much 
more might be said on this pleasing subject, but, being much hur- 
ried, I must conclude, praying that the work may still increase till 
the knowledge of God be spread through the whole earth. 

Bishop Asbury extended his travels in all directions, 
and reentered the State again by very nearly the same 
route pursued in 1786. Leaving Lockwood's Folly, in 
North Carolina, February 7, 1791, and passing through 
Horry and Georgetown, after resting a night with 
his friend and brother Saint Clair Capers, he reached 
Charleston on the 15th, to be in readiness for the fifth 
Conference, which was to convene on the 22d of this 
month. His soul was made glad by the mighty change 
wrought since his first missionary visit made ir 1785. 
"I rejoice," said he, "to find that this desert country 
has gracious souls in it. O how great the change in 
the night of six years ! We have now many friends, 
and some precious souls converted to God. Glory be 
to the Lord most high ! I feel power to bear all things, 
and leave events to God." The Little Pedee Circuit, 
where he gave expression to his exultant feelings, un- 
der the efficient labors of William Gassaway and his 
faithful predecessors, was then leading all the appoint- 



208 IF is tort of Methodism 

menta in respect of numbers, having an aggregate 
membership of eight hundred and twenty, while all the 
preachers were in readiness to report to the Confer- 
ence a total membership of four thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty-five, and a total increase of twelve 
hundred and seventy-seven over the preceding year. 
But lest he should be exalted overmuch, there was 
given him a thorn in the flesh. He says: 

Sunday, 13. I preached (at Georgetown) a plain, searching ser- 
mon, and some felt the word ; but it is a day of small things. In the 
afternoon I enlarged on, "How shall I give thee up, O Ephraim ?" 
The wicked youths were playing without, and inattention prevailed 
amongst those within. I was, and continued to be, under great de- 
jection during my stay. 

Monday, 14, Rode forty miles to Brother Saint Clair Capers's, 
under depression of spirits ; and here I received letters not at all cal- 
culated to relieve me. 

Charleston, Tuesday, 15. I went to church under awful distress 
of heart. My drooping spirits were somewhat revived in the house 
of God. We grow here, but slowly. 

Thursday, 17. I had a small congregation of whites. I feel the 
want of religion here ; indeed, the gross immoralities of the place 
are obvious to every passenger in the streets. I learn that in Georgia 
preachers of other denominations have had high disputes with ours. 
I am clear that controversy should be avoided ; because we have 
better work to do, and because it is too common when debates run 
high there are wrong words and tempers indulged on both sides. 

Sunday, 20. I read prayers in the morning, and Brother Ellis 
preached. In the afternoon Brother Askew preached his farewell- 
sermon, and at night I was very pointed to young people on, "Re- 
member now thy Creator in the days of thy youth, while the evil 
days come not, nor the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say, I have 
no pleasure in them." (Ecclesiastes xii. 1.) 

Wednesday, 23. Long looked-for Dr. Coke came to town. He 
had been shipwrecked off Edisto. I found the Doctor's sentiments 
with regard to the Council quite changed. James O' Kelly's letters 
had reached London. I felt perfectly calm, and acceded to a Gen- 
eral Conference for the sake of peace. 

Sunday, 27. Dr. Coke preached to a very large audience in the 



In South Carolina. 209 

evening; the poor sinners appeared to be a little tamed. I was 
much blessed in meeting the married and single men apart. I also 
met the married and single women. I trust there has been good 
done in Charleston this Conference. I want to be gone into the 
country to enjoy sweet solitude and prayer. 

Tuesday, March 1. At night I made my last effort for this time, 
and the people were more attentive. I let out freely against the 
races. I am somewhat distressed at the uneasiness of the people, 
who claim a right to choose their own preachers — a thing quite new 
amongst Methodists. None but Mr. Hammett will do them. We 
shall see how it will end. 

Bishop Asbury left the city March 2 for the fourth 
Georgia Conference, to be held at Scott's Meeting- 
house, in the county of Wilkes, March 16; and wish- 
ing to visit that portion of South Carolina in which he 
had not heretofore preached, went by way of Jackson- 
borough, Saltketcher, and Coosawhatchie, finding kind 
entertainment at Bonharn's, Allen's tavern, Lani- 
bright's, and Stafford's, and crossed the Savannah 
Biver at Hudson's Ferry. Dr. Coke took a different 
route, but arrived in time to open the Conference with 
a sermon. In returning, they traveled through Abbe- 
ville and Newberry, Dr. Coke preaching at Ninety-six, 
and Bishop Asbury at Mr. Finch's, after which they 
passed up the country, through Laurens, Union, and 
York, to visit the Catawba Indians. As they under- 
stood very little of the English language, the Indians 
were informed by an interpreter that the Bishops in- 
tended to preach among them through this medium. 
To this they consented, and a rude tent was accord- 
ingly erected for their accommodation. At this serv- 
ice most of the tribe attended; but they did not appear 
to be interested in the truths that were delivered. The 
principal solicitude which they expressed was to pro- 
cure, if possible, some military assistance from the 
14 



210 History of Methodism 

whites to strengthen their forces against another tribe 
with whom they were at war. " Their general," says 
Dr. Coke, " who is a tall, grave old man, walked with 
a mighty staff in his hand. Around his neck he wore 
a narrow piece (I think) of leather, which hung down 
before, and was adorned with a great variety of bits of 
silver. He also had a silver breastplate. Almost all 
the men and women wore silver nose-rings, hanging 
from the middle gristle of the nose, and some of them 
had little silver hearts hanging from the rings. In 
general they were dressed like the white people. But 
a few of the men were quite luxuriant in their dress, 
even wearing mines and very showy suits of clothes 
made of cotton." Their habitations he represents as 
appearing not uncomfortable, being far superior to the 
cabins of the Irish peasantry. Their household fur- 
niture was rather singular. They had chairs in abun- 
dance, but not a single table was to be procured from 
any of their cottages. It was intended to establish a 
school for the instruction of their children. But this 
attempt, like many others that have been made to civ- 
ilize savage nations, finally proved abortive. Having 
taken their leave of the Indians, they preached at the 
Waxhaw's Church, and passed on through Salisbury 
to hold the Conference at McKnight's, in North Car- 
olina. 

The Conference of 1791 is memorable for the schism 
in the Church which followed it, and which threatened 
for a time almost the ruin of Methodism in Charles- 
ton. James Parks, who was admitted on trial in 1788, 
had developed such eminent qualities as a preacher, 
in filling three prominent appointments in North Car- 
olina, that Bishop Asbury had brought him from Salis- 
bury, and put him in charge of the work in the city. 



In South Carolina. 211 

William Hammett, who, by faithful labor and patient 
endurance of persecution, had also purchased to him- 
self a good degree as a missionary in the West Indies, 
came to Charleston with Dr. Coke, after the business 
of the Conference had been completed, and the preach- 
ers were in readiness to enter upon their new work. 
He clamored for the appointment which had been 
given to Mr. Parks, and pursued Bishop As bury to 
Philadelphia and New York, with " a wonderful list 
of petitioners " in his behalf. Restless under a firm 
administration of discipline, he accused Bishops As- 
bury and Coke of tyranny, and headed a secession 
from the young Church of the city. His popularity 
and influence enabled him to secure a lot of land on 
the corner of Hasel street and Maiden Lane, and to 
erect on it a spacious chapel, with an adjacent parson- 
age and he proceeded to organize a Church of his own. 
He called his chapel Trinity Church, and his people 
" Primitive Methodists." This body continued a dis- 
tinct Connection till after the death of their leader. 
But alas! "man is born to trouble as the sparks fly 
upward;" and these good people found that ecclesi- 
astical difficulties followed them even into their " prim- 
itive " asylum. It is believed that their highly talent- 
ed leader found that he had undertaken a task to which 
he was not adequate — the task of arranging and bind- 
ing together the discordant materials which he had 
gathered from the Church, and from the world. Suf- 
fice it to say that before he went hence he had his 
troubles among his flock. Many of them returned to 
the fold where they had been formerly fed; some went 
to other Churches, and not a few went back to the 
world. After the death of Mr. Hammett, the congre- 
gation was served by a Mr. Brazier, who had formerly 



212 History of Methodism 

been a missionary also in the West Indies. This gen- 
tleman, after ministering to them a short time, con- 
cluded that his temporal interests might be better 
served by selling the church. He accordingly bar- 
gained it away to a Protestant Episcopal clergyman. 
The Protestant Episcopalians took possession of it, 
built pews in it, and had it dedicated according to 
their forms. But the original trustees were not dis- 
posed to submit tamely to these proceedings. A law- 
suit was the consequence, which resulted favorably to 
the trustees; the church was restored to them, and the 
congregation was served sometimes by one, and some- 
times by another, until at length they remembered the 
days of old, and invited the Methodist preachers to 
occupy the pulpit, which at first they did only a part 
of the time. But finally an amicable arrangement 
was made by which they became identified with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The union so happily 
formed has been most graciously cemented by God's 
blessing; and we may only say further on this point 
that all the churches and parsonages built by the 
"Primitive Methodists" have passed to our own use. 
(Bishop Andrew.) 

Mr. Hammett built a second church in the city, and 
his party erected churches in Georgetown, Savannah, 
and Wilmington in North Carolina. William Mere- 
dith had charge of the latter, and gathered to it a large 
congregation of blacks; he afterward withdrew from 
Hammett, and when he died, in 1799, left his church, 
parsonage, and society to the care of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Mr. Hammett died in 1803, about 
eleven years after his secession, and the schism be- 
came extinct. 

The sixth session of the South Carolina Conference 



In South Carolina . 213 

began Tuesday, December 14, 1792, in Charleston. 
Bishop Asbury reached the city on the 11th, by very 
nearly the same route, through Marlborough, Marion, 
and Georgetown, traveled in 1791. He says: 

Tuesday, 14. I preached at night on Luke xxiv. 17, "And he 
said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye 
have one with another as ye walk and are sad?" and endeavored to 
show the low estate of the interest of Christ at that time. In our 
Conference we were unusually close in examination of characters, 
4pctrine j_ and experien ce. We had great peace and some power 
amongst ns, and received the good news of eighty souls converted in 
Philadelphia, and of a revival in Connecticut. I preached a ser- 
mon to the preachers on 2 Timothy ii. 3 : " Endure hardness as a 
good soldier of Jesus Christ." 

Saturday, 18. I received an abusive anonymous letter (I believe 
from Mr. S.) on several subjects. My spirits were low ; I came from 
my knees to receive the letter, and having read it I returned whence 
I came. I judged it prudent and expedient, and I think I was 
urged thereto by conscience, to tell the people some things relating 
to myself. I related to them the manner of my coming to America ; 
how I continued during the war; the arrival of Dr. Coke, and the 
forming of the American Methodists into a Church; and, finally, 
why I did not commit the charge of the society in Charleston to Mr. 
Hammett, Avho was unknown, a foreigner, and did not acknowledge 
the authority of, nor join in connection with, the American Con- 
ference. 

Sunday, 19. I preached on Exodus xxxii. 26: "Who is on the 
Lord's side?" Mr. Math ews sent in his resignation. For certain 
reasons we were led to pass over his character, but we were wrong ; 
it might have been better to subject it to scrutiny, although some 
grieved at his going from us. 

He "came out of the fire" Monday, 20th, and went 
to Georgia by way of Parker's Ferry, Lambright's, 
Maixer's, and Hudson's Ferry on the Savannah. From 
Washington, the seat of the Georgia Conference held 
March 1st, he returned, accompanied by Hope Hull 
and Hardy Herbert, and went by way of White Hal] 
in Abbeville, Finch's in Newberry, Odeli's in Laurens, 



214 History of Methodism 

and Watters in Spartanburg, to North Carolina. From 
Mr. Jackson's by way of Mr. Blakeney's on the waters 
of Lynch's Creek in Chesterfield, Mr. Horton's near 
Hanging Rock in Lancaster, Mr. Rembert's in 
Sumter— "a dear brother, kind and good, rich and 
liberal, who has done more for the poor Methodists 
than any man in South Carolina "—Mr. Bowman's near 
Santee, and Mr. Browing's, Bishop Asbury came to 
hold the seventh session of the South Carolina Con- 
ference in Charleston. He says: • 

Sunday, December 30. Brother Isaac Smith preached in the 
forenoon. In the afternoon I said a little on Isaiah ix. 6, 7: "For 
unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government 
shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful, 
Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of 
Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be 
no end, npon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom to order it, 
and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth 
even forever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts will perform this." 
The blacks were hardly restrained from crying out aloud. O that 
God would bless the wild and wicked inhabitants of this city! I am 
happy to find that our principal friends have increased in religion. 

January 3, 1793. From Wednesday, December 26, to this day, 
Sunday excepted, we sat in Conference in this city. The preachers 
reported a total membership of four thousand seven hundred and 
thirty-one, an increase of fifty-three over the preceding year. Wash- 
ington in Wilkes, the seat of the Georgia Conference, was reached 
by way of Augusta. 

Thursday, 10. Met our dear brethren in Conference. We had 
gieat peace and union; the Carolina preachers came up to change 
with those in Georgia; all things happened well. Bless the Lord, 
O my soul ! We now agreed to unite the Georgia and South Caro- 
lina Conferences, to meet in the fork of Saluda and Broad rivers on 
the 1st of January, 1794. Our sitting ended in exceeding great love. 

From Washington, Bishop Asbury rode the whole 
length of Georgia to Savannah, to survey the field of 
operations occupied in the beginning by the Oxford 



In South Carolina. 215 

Methodists. " I reflect," says he, "upon the present 
ruin of the Orphan House, and taking a view of the 
money expended, the persons employed, the preachers 
sent over, I was led to inquire, Where are they? and 
how has it sped? The earth, the army, the Baptists, 
the (Episcopal) Church, the Independents, have swal- 
lowed them all up at this windmill end of the continent. 
A wretched country this — but there are souls, precious 
souls, worth worlds." 

Crossing the river, and preaching at Black Swamp 
and Purysburg, he returned by Saltketcher Bridge 
and Parker's Ferry to Charleston, whence after spend- 
ing from the 8th to the 21st of February in ministerial 
and pastoral labors, he passed up the Santee, Congaree, 
and Broad rivers, to hold a quarterly-meeting across 
the Pacolet in Union Circuit. " There were no elders 
present," he writes. " I preached on Ephesians vi. 
10-18, and felt great dearth among the people. Sun- 
day, 17th, we administered the sacrament and held 
love-feast. I desired Daniel Asbury to preach, and 
Brother Gassaway to exhort whilst I retired to write 
to Isaac Smith, desiring him to take the presidentship 
of Union, Catawba, Little Pedee, Great Pedee, Anson, 
and Santee circuits." 

In due time Bishop Asbury came back by way of 
Mr. Blakeney's on Lynch's Creek, Mr. Horton's at 
Hanging Bock, and Mr. Cook's on Broad Biver, in 
Fairfield, to Mr. Finch's in Newberry, to hold the 
eighth session of the South Carolina Conference, and 
to connect with it the Georgia Conference in its seventh 
session, on January 1, 1794. About thirty preachers 
from South Carolina and Georgia, including members 
and those who had business witli the United Confer- 
ence, attended and " were straitened for room, having 



210 History of Methodism. 

only twelve feet square to confer, sleep, and for the 
accommodation of those who were sick." The Bishop 
says: 

Wednesday, January 1, 1794. We removed Brother Bruce — who 
was attacked with dysentery — into a room without fire. We hastened 
the business of our Conference as fast as we could. After sitting in 
a close room with a very large fire, I retired into the woods nearly 
an hour, and was seized with a severe chill, an inveterate cough and 
fever, with a sick stomach; with difficulty I sat in Conference the 
following day, and I could get but little rest; Brother Bruce's mov- 
ing so frequently, and the brethren's talking, disturbed me. Sick as 
I was, I had to ordain four elders and six deacons, never did I perform 
with such a burden. I found I must go somewhere to get rest. The 
day was cloudy and threatened snow ; however, Brother Reuben 
Ellis and myself made out to get seven miles to dear old Brother 
A. Yeargin's house. The next day came on a heavy fall of snow, 
which continued two days, and was from six to ten inches deep. 

A total membership of six thousand six hundred 
and sixty-seven was reported. 



CHAPTER X. 



My talents, gifts, and graces, Lord, 

Into thy blessed hands receive, 
And let me live to preach thy word, 

And let me to thy glory live ; 
My every sacred moment spend 
In publishing the sinner's Friend. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

rriHE following appointments were made for the 
1 year 1794, viz.: Philip Bruce, elder; Great Pe- 
dee, Enoch George, Josias Handle; Little Pedee, 
Joseph Moore; Santee, James Jenkins; Union, Tobias 
Gibson one quarter, William McKendree, Nicholas 
Watters; Catawba, William Fulwood; Charleston, 
Joshua Cannon, Isaac Smith; Bush River, Samuel 
Kisher; Broad River, John Clark, Coleman Carlisle; 
Saluda, Abner Henley; Cherokee, James Tolleson; 
Washington, John Russell, Richard Posey; Richmond, 
George Clark, John King; Burke, Benjamin Tarrant, 
James Douthet; Black Swamp, Jonathan Jackson. 

The name of Philip Bruce will ever hold a bright 
place in the annals of Methodism. He was born 
in North Carolina, near King's Mountain, December 
25, 1755. His grandfather was a French Protestant, 
and fled to this country with the persecuted Hugue- 
nots. The family-name was originally De Bruise, 
but was corrupted into Bruce by a Scotch teach- 
er, from whom Philip received his education. He 
was the first of the family that became a Methodist. 

(217) 



218 History of Methodism 

When lie was quite a youth the pioneer preachers 
reached the wild region of his home, and a powerful 
revival broke out under their preaching. Many were 
brought to God, and among them was Philip Bruce, 
who was soon after licensed as an exhorter. He was 
present at the battle of King's Mountain, but as he 
was looked upon as a sort of chaplain the officers 
would not allow him to go into the engagement, and 
he was left with the sick and baggage. In person, 
Philip Bruce was commanding. He was tall, perfectly 
straight, very grave and dignified in his manners ; his 
hair was black and worn long, his visage thin, his 
complexion dark, and his eyes bright and piercing; 
his countenance was open and expressive, his features 
well developed and indicative of a high degree of in- 
tellectual power. In the pulpit he was graceful and 
impressive. His sermons were usually short, but 
powerful, and he excelled in the application of gospel 
truth. His appeals were often irresistible. The esteem 
in which he was held was not confined to his own Con- 
ference; it is stated on good authority that twice at a 
General Conference he came within three votes of be- 
ing elected Bishop. Like most of the early preachers, 
he never married. It is said, however, that at one 
time he entertained very serious thoughts on the sub- 
ject, and had actually selected the lady, if he had not 
broached the subject, but on consulting Bishop Asbury, 
that good man persuaded him to remain as he was. 
The opposition of Bishop Asbury to his preachers' mar- 
rying may be accounted for by the fact that few consent- 
ed after marriage to subject their families to the priva- 
tions and hardships of the itinerancy. He thus lost 
many of his best and strongest men from the itinerant 
ranks. A tradition has floated down to us to the effect 



In South Carolina. 219 

that on a certain occasion, when he heard that one of 
his favorites in the "thundering legion" was a captive 
fast bound in love's golden fetters, he exclaimed, "I 
believe the devil and the women will get all my preach- 
ers! " For thirty-six years Philip Bruce stood in the 
front rank of the itinerancy. Faithful in every posi- 
tion, and successful in every field, he might well 
adopt the motto, "In labors more abundant." He 
lived in the days that tried the souls of men, and from 
every trial he came forth like gold well refined. Borne 
down at length by labors and by the weight of years, he 
reluctantly consented to be placed in a superannuated 
relation, and in 1817 his name disappeared from the 
effective list. The closing years of his life were spent 
among his kindred in Tennessee. Calmly and peace- 
fully he descended the vale of life, venerated and loved 
by all the Church, a veteran soldier of the cross, 
patiently awaiting his discharge from the militant 
Church on earth, and his call to join the triumphant 
host beyond the flood of death. He died on the 10th 
of May, 1826, surrounded by his friends, at the house 
of his brother Joel Bruce, in Giles county, Tennessee. 
At the time of his death he was the oldest traveling 
preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church, with the 
exception of the Eev. Freeborn Garrettson. 

Enoch George was born in Lancaster county, in 
Virginia, in the year 1767 or 1768, but which of the 
two he was unable to determine, because the family 
records had been consumed by fire. He was brought 
up chiefly among Episcopalians, and was accustomed 
to sit under the preaching of the Eev. Devereux Jar- 
ratt, of Bath, but was converted to God through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Easter, and identified himself 
with the Methodists, whom he had affected to despise. 



220 History of Methodism 

In due time lie was thrust into the ministry, for through 
diffidence he with reluctance obeyed the heavenly call. 
He traveled first with the Rev. Philip Cox, who was at 
that time "book-steward," and who was a father to 
young George at this critical point in his ministerial 
career. In introducing him to Bishop Asbury, whom 
they soon met, Mr. Cox said: "I have brought you a 
boy, and if you have any thing for him to do, you may 
set him to work." Mr. George says: " Bishop Asbury 
looked at me for some time ; at length, calling me to 
him, he laid my head upon his knee, and, stroking my 
face with his hand, said, ' Why, he is a beardless boy, 
and can do nothing.' I then thought my traveling was 
at an end." The next day the Bishop accepted his 
services, and sent him to assist Daniel Asbury in 
forming a circuit on the head- waters of the Catawba 
and Broad rivers, in the South Carolina Conference. 
In due time he reached his field of labor and began 
his work. The circuit embraced a vast extent of ter- 
ritory, and some of the highest and roughest mount- 
ains in the United States, to cross which, even at the 
most favorable season, required no ordinary resolu- 
tion and perseverance. When he saw the difficulties 
he had to encounter, his courage began to fail, and he 
had even formed the purpose of relinquishing his 
work and returning to his friends in Virginia. In 
this, however, he was frustrated by his colleague ; and, 
as a last resort, he wrote to Bishop Asbury, stating to 
him the difficulties and necessities of his situation, 
and begging that he would transfer him to some other 
field to which he was better adapted. The good Bishop 
replied that it was good for him and all others to bear 
the yoke in their youth; that itinerant labors must be 
hard if properly performed; that it was better for him 



In South Carolina. 221 

to become inured to hardships while he was young, 
and when he was old and gray-headed his task would 
be easy. With this answer he was quite satisfied, and 
forthwith resolved that he would not shrink from oc- 
cupying any field which the providence of God might 
assign him. Mr. George's name appears on the Min- 
utes for the first time in 1790, when he was admitted 
on probation, and sent to Pamlico Circuit, in North 
Carolina, with Henry Ledbetter in charge. The next 
year (1791) he was appointed to Caswell Circuit; in 
1792, to Guilford; in 1793, to Broad Eiver; in 1794, to 
Great Pedee; in 1795, to Edisto; in 1798, to the South 
Carolina District; in 1797, to the Georgia District. In 
consequence of failing health, he was called northward 
by Bishop Asbury, and became his traveling compan- 
ion. Finding, in 1799, that his strength was still in- 
sufficient for the duties of the itinerancy, he asked and 
obtained a location, resolved not to burden the cause 
which he could not assist. He soon reentered the 
work, but was obliged in 1801 to ask a second time for 
a location. After resting a few years — teaching school 
and visiting the Virginia Springs—he again, in re- 
stored health, entered with joy the itinerant ranks in 
1803, and never ceased to travel till death. 

At the General Conference held in Baltimore, in 
1816, Bishop Asbury having died a short time before, 
and Bishop McKendree being too feeble to attend to 
all his official duties, while the itinerant field was con- 
stantly enlarging, it was resolved to elect two new 
bishops. Messrs. George and Boberts were chosen, 
and at once entered their new field of labor. Bishop 
George, in journeying from one Conference to another, 
was accustomed to preach as often as opportunity of- 
fered, and he frequently delayed his tour for a few 



222 History of Methodism 

clays, or turned aside from the course he had marked 
out for himself, to be present at a quarterly or a camp 
meeting. While his administration at the Conferences 
was unusually acceptable, his preaching everywhere 
attracted great attention, and some of his pulpit efforts 
on these tours are represented as having been sur- 
passingly eloquent. The Rev. Samuel Luckey thus 
describes his preaching on a pleasant Sabbath morn- 
ing in June, 1816, in John Street Church, New York: 
" The subject of the discourse was the conquest 
which Christ had achieved over sin and death. He 
announced his text — ' When he ascended up on high, 
he led captivity captive ' — and, from the moment he 
uttered it, had complete command of his audience. 
The picture he drew of sin, and the desolations it has 
wrought, was truly terrific. Like a mighty cataract, 
he rushed on with constantly increasing impetuosity, 
till every nerve that had braced itself to resist was un- 
strung, and his hearers seemed passively to resign 
themselves to an influence which was too strong for 
them. At a felicitous moment, when the feelings of 
his audience would bear to be directed into a different 
channel, he exclaimed, in the language of holy tri- 
umph, and in a manner and tone peculiar to himself, 
'But Redemption smiled, and smiled a cure! ' His train 
of thought was now changed, but the power of his elo- 
quence was not at all diminished. Sin had been per- 
sonified as the tyrant-monster, swaying his demon- 
scepter over our race, and death in his train, dragging 
the conquered millions to their dark abode. A might- 
ier than these was now introduced — the sinner's Friend, 
and the Conqueror of death. He came to destroy the 
works of the devil, and to delive'r those who, through 
fear of death, were all their life-time subject to bond- 



In South Carolwa. 222 

age. The risen, ascended Saviour was represented as 
coming up from the empire of death, having seized the 
tyrant upon his throne ; and then as triumphantly pass- 
ing the portals of heaven, amidst the acclamations of 
heaven's shining hosts. The description was so vivid 
as to be almost overwhelming. The audience, which 
had just before seemed like a terror-stricken multi- 
tude, almost within the very grasp of the destroyer, 
now exhibited countenances relumed with returning 
smiles. The whole assembly was actually in a com- 
motion. As the speaker poured forth, in strains of 
highly pathetic eloquence, the most awful and de- 
lightful truths of God's word, and struck at every turn 
some sympathetic chord in the hearts of his audience, 
it really seemed as if the very fountains of feeling 
throughout the whole assembly were broken up." 

"I wish," says the Rev. Charles Giles, "I could 
give the reader his sermon, preached at the General 
Conference of 1820, with all its beauty, power, and 
eloquence; but it is beyond my reach. Near the close, 
as he was bringing the strong points in his discourse 
together, that their united strength might impress 
the assembly effectually, he produced a climax the 
most sublime and thrilling I ever heard. He ascended 
from thought to thought in his towering theme, like 
an eagle soaring and wending up the distant sky. I 
heard with admiration, and almost trembled to see 
him rising to such a fearful eminence. Several times 
I imagined that he could go no higher, but he would 
suddenly disappoint me. At the very point where 
imagination fixed his return he seemed to inhale new 
fire, and soared away on the wing of thought again; 
then higher and higher still, till it seemed that his in- 
spiration would become his chariot, and by the grasp 



224 It is tohy of Methodism 

he held on the enchained assembly, would take us all 
with him to the third heaven. Some of the hearers 
appeared motionless as statues, absorbed in thought, 
and charmed with the grand scene before them, while 
strong emotions were rolling in waves through the ex- 
cited congregation; and as the man of God was about 
to descend from his lofty elevation, thrilling shrieks 
burst out from the awakened crowd in the gallery. 
Immediately, some of the preachers who were ac- 
quainted there pressed through the multitude to con- 
duct these sighing penitents down to the altar; and 
soon they were seen weeping and trembling, and urg- 
ing their way along to the consecrated spot, where a 
prayer-meeting was immediately opened and ardent 
supplications offered up to Heaven in their behalf. It 
is believed that more than one hundred souls were 
awakened during the session of that Conference. Noth- 
ing could be calculated more effectually to touch the 
feelings of the human heart, to wither the shoots of 
pride springing up in it, and to melt down its hard- 
ness, than was the strain of original eloquence which 
characterized the preaching of this excellent man. 
Originality was indeed a prominent feature of his 
preaching. Endowed with all the qualifications which 
are necessary to constitute an impressive, natural pub- 
lic speaker, he imitated no one, and drew always from 
his own resources. The ornaments and flowers which 
embellished his sermons were not gleaned from the 
fields and gardens cultivated by any scientific master, 
but were the natural production of his own fertile 
mind. His style was a mixture of the sublime and the 
pathetic, and might be considered alternately a very 
good specimen of each in purely extemporaneous 
productions. To ihe rules of rhetoric, or the arts of 



In South Carolina. 225 

studied eloquence, lie paid little regard; but if the 
true eloquence of the pulpit be, as Blair defines it, 
to make an impression on the people, to strike and 
seize their hearts, he was a master, and, in compari- 
son with thousands who claim to be such, more than 
a master. No man ever succeeded more uniformly to 
move his congregations to tears, and sometimes even 
to trembling and loud cries, than did Bishop George. 

" Bishop George was a man of great humility. He 
could not be ignorant of his own powers and popular- 
ity as a preacher; and yet I never knew that he be- 
trayed, even to his most intimate friends, the least in- 
dication of self-complacency, but always seemed more 
than willing to be ranked with the most ordinary of 
his brethren in the ministry. To be the instrument of 
advancing his Master's cause he regarded as of infi- 
nitely more importance than to enjoy the highest meas- 
ure of human praise. 

"Bishop George possessed a sound judgment and 
great energy of character. His labors were immense, 
and his duties greatly varied. In all these he was 
prompt, prudent, and successful in maintaining order 
and superintending the interests of the Church. His 
own spirit, deeply imbued with true piety, and always 
inclining him to peace and good-will, eminently qual- 
ified him to harmonize conflicting minds, and soften 
the asperities which controversy often generates. In 
the heat of debate, when the spirit of brotherly love 
seemed to be somewhat in jeopardy, a young man arose 
to express his decided opposition to the proposition 
under discussion, and declared himself resolutely de- 
termined not to go a step with the friends of the meas- 
ure, unless it was essentially mollified. The good Bish- 
op seized upon the brother's mistake, which he, in the 
15 



22P> History of Methodism 

heat of his zeal, did not perceive, and interrupted him 
in the most pleasant manner — ' Good, good, brother,' 
said he; 'that is just what it wants; pour on a little 
oil; it will go easier; let it be mollified.' The effect 
was what might be expected : all asperity of feeling at 
once subsided. 

" The secret of Bishop George's eminent usefulness 
as a Christian minister lay chiefly in his deep and 
earnest piety. Amidst all his cares and labors, he 
never neglected his private devotions. When he was 
deprived of the privilege of the closet, by the restrict- 
ed circumstances of the families with whom he so- 
journed, he would retire to some grove, and seek ont 
there a solitude where he might commune with his 
God. Often, when traveling with him, have I accom- 
panied him in the twilight of evening, or in the dawn 
of the morning, and witnessed the fervor of his devo- 
tions. He seemed fully aware that without that love 
to God and man, which can be kept alive only by con- 
stant watchfulness and prayer, all human efforts are 
but as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. 

"Perhaps the most marked feature in Bishop 
George's character was his extreme diffidence. Al- 
though he possessed fine colloquial powers, and was 
ready enough to bring them into exercise in a circle of 
his intimate friends, he studiously avoided the company 
of strangers, or maintained a distant and reserved man- 
ner, which not unf requently left an unfavorable impres- 
sion. No persuasion could induce him to leave his 
chamber to mingle in the social circle, whose object 
he suspected to be merely to spend an hour in com- 
monplace conversation, or, what he dreaded still more, 
to gratify the ancient Athenian propensity, ' to tell or 
to hear some new thing.' From every thing of this 



In South Carolina. 227 

kind lie instinctively shrunk, and often made it diffi- 
cult for his friends to offer a satisfactory apology for 
his declining to see company. He had no confidence 
in his qualifications to appear as might be expected of 
him in circles convened principally on his account, and 
no disposition to spend the brief intervals he was per- 
mitted to enjoy, amidst his excessive labors, in this 
way. 'O no,' he used to say; 'excuse me to the com- 
pany. Poor old man, who has hardly time to be re- 
ligious — they can't wish it. And then he must be the 
target for a whole platoon of question-mongers; and 
his old shattered brains must be put on the rack to 
answer them. Do excuse me, and leave me to my- 
self.' I have known him to quit the family circle, 
and hasten to his room several times in one evening, 
when it was announced that company was coming. In 
one case, when I sent a friend to accompany him on a 
journey of some forty miles, and directed him to a 
highly respectable family, who would expect him to 
dine with them, he absolutely refused to call, and fin- 
ished his journey without refreshment, sus^jecting that 
he might meet a degree of attention and ceremony 
that would be burdensome to him. Those who knew 
him best could trace this kind of conduct to its prop- 
er source, as many others probably did not. ' Stop,' 
said the Bishop to me (Rev. John Luckey), when he 
espied a New England farmer on his horse on the side 
of the road; ' stop, bub, and let me get out; for I per- 
ceive that old body is preparing to fire a platoon of 
questions at me, which I can never answer.' I of 
course complied with his request, and the Bishop was 
off at a double-quick step. The farmer was off also, 
belaboring his old nag's sides with his boot-heels, 
most unmercifully. The Bishop, looking over his 



228 II ix tory of Methodism 

shoulder, perceived the increasing speed of his perse- 
cutor. The Bishop traveled still faster, but all to no 
purpose; his tormentor was close upon his track; there 
seemed to be no way of escape; he must be made pris- 
oner, for the enemy was upon him, and about to open 
his battery and shoot his questions at him, which he 
feared more than some men do arrows and bullets. 
Just as he thought he must surrender, when there ap- 
peared to be no hope and no alternative^ an unf enced 
thicket came in view. Hope sprung up in the Bish- 
op's bosom, and he darted into the thicket with the 
swiftness of a hunted hare, and was soon where his 
pursuer could not find him. While the Bishop was 
rejoicing that he had thus fortunately made his escape 
and found a refuge, the farmer paused, looked cheap, 
and, muttering his disappointment in monosyllables, 
passed slowly up the hill. The Bishop positively re- 
fused to leave his asylum, till he could be assured 
that his disappointed pursuer was fairly out of sight. 
When he was satisfied of this, he consented to leave 
the thicket, to which he was so deeply indebted for his 
protection. ' Did I not tell you,' said the Bishop, ' he 
was preparing to catechise me? ' The Bishop added: 
' It is very annoying to me, as I cannot answer their 
principal questions, which generally are these: First, 
Where do you live when you are at home? Now, the 
truth is, I cannot answer this question, for I have no 
home. The second question is, How old are you, if 
I may be so bold? This question I cannot answer, as 
the family records were destroyed at the commence- 
ment of the Revolutionary War. Therefore, as I can- 
not answer their principal questions, neither can I 
others, and I do not wish to be perplexed by a con- 
stant catechetical course; and I will run at any time, 



In South Carolina. 229 

if I can only avoid such tormentors.' His character- 
istic self -distrust and humility prompted him to avoid, 
as far as possible, every occasion of notoriety. He 
would never allow his name to be used in a newspa- 
per, if he could prevent it, and no consideration could 
induce him to sit for his portrait, though requested, I 
think, several times by the Conference to do so. 

" Bishop George had never the advantage of a lib- 
eral education; but his fine intellectual, moral, and 
religious qualities gave him great influence in his de- 
nomination, and have caused his memory to be most 
respectfully and gratefully embalmed." 

" Bishop George has gone to heaven," wrote Wilbui 
Fiske in a lady's album in 1828. " He left this world 
for glory on the 23d of August last; and from the 
known tendency of his soul heavenward, and his joy- 
ous haste to be gone, there can be little doubt that his 
chariot of fire reached the place of its destination 
speedily, and the triumphant saint has long ere this 
taken his seat with the heavenly company. And since 
he is gone, the owner of this, to whom I am a stranger, 
will pardon me if, upon her pages, I register my affec- 
tionate remembrance of a man whom 1 both loved and 
admired, and at the report of whose death my heart 
has been made sick. I loved him, for he was a man 
of God, devoted to the Church with all his soul and 
strength. I loved him, for his was an affectionate 
heart, and he was my friend. But the servant of God, 
the servant of the Church, and my friend, is dead. 
I admired him, not for his learning, for he was not a 
learned man, but nature had done much for him. She 
had fashioned his soul after an enlarged model, and 
had given it an original cast and an independent bear- 
ing; into the heart she had instilled the sweetening 



230 History of Methodism 

influences of a tender sympathy, and infused into the 
sou] the fire of a spirit-stirring zeal, sustained by a 
vigorous and untiring energy; but to finish his char- 
acter, grace comes in and renews the whole man, and 
the Spirit anointed him to preach the gospel, and 
the Church consecrated him to be one of its bishops. 
He superintended with dignity and faithfulness; he 
preached the gospel with the Holy Ghost sent down 
from heaven. The unction that attended his word 
was not merely like the consecrating oil that ran down 
Aaron's beard, but it was like the anointing of the 
Spirit that penetrates the heart. He preached with 
his soul full of glory. No wonder, then, that his 
dying-words were, ' I am going, and that 's enough ! 
Glory! Glory!' Yes, thou triumphant spirit, that is 
enough. May I die the death of the righteous, and 
may my last end be like his ! " 

Josias Handle was admitted on trial in 1791, and 
devoted the whole of his itinerant life to the South 
Carolina Conference. In 1799 he was forced to locate, 
but reentered in 1802, and was abundant in labors for 
seven more years, the last three of which were given 
to the Ogeechee and Oconee districts. This last- 
named district was immense and perilous, extending 
from the Oconee to the Tombigbee River, over an 
Indian country of four hundred miles, and embracing 
the field occupied by Messrs. Sturdevant and Burdge 
in laying the foundations of the Alabama and Missis- 
sippi Conferences. The noted Lorenzo Dow, who was 
converted through the instrumentality of Hope Hull, 
wandered into this wilderness in 1803 and 1804, and 
preached the first Protestant sermon on the soil of 
Alabama. Mr. Handle was a la'borious and successful 
pioneer preacher, and his retirement from the regular 



In South Carolina. 231 

work was deeply felt by the Conference. He was on 
the committee in the General Conference of 1808 that 
framed the report for a delegated General Conference 
in 1812. He located a second time in 1809, and re- 
moving to the territory of Illinois, occupied a high 
place among the people because of his usefulness as 
a preacher and citizen, and died in holy triumph in 
1824. 

Joseph Moore was born in Virginia in 1767. In 
his childhood his parents removed to Rutherford 
county in North Carolina. He enjoyed the advantages 
of early religious training, and in youth became the 
subject of divine grace. He was licensed to preach 
in his nineteenth year, and five years afterward was 
admitted into the traveling connection, and became 
one of the pioneers of Southern Methodism. He was 
appointed in 1791 to Pamlico Circuit in North Car- 
olina; in 1792, to Yadkin; in 1793, to Union; in 1794, 
to Little Pedee; in 1795, to Washington, in Georgia; 
in 1796, to Broad River. During the ten following 
years he filled appointments in North Carolina and 
Virginia, and in 1806 asked and obtained a location. 
In 1826 he reentered the South Carolina Conference, 
and was appointed to the Lincoln Circuit; in 1827, to 
Pedee; in 1828, to Sandy River; in 1829, to Reedy 
River; in 1830, to Lynch's Creek; in 1831, again to 
Reedy River; in 1832, to Hollow Creek; in 1833, to 
Saluda; in 1834 he was supernumerary; in 1835 with- 
out an appointment at his own request; in 1836 he 
was superannuated, and held that relation until death 
released him from his toils and sufferings. Whether as 
a traveling or local preacher, he sustained the char- 
acter of a workman that needeth not to be ashamed. 
Though athletic in body and vigorous in mind, yet 



232 History of Methodism 

both failed him under protracted years of toil and 
disease. His worn-out body sleeps in a peaceful grave 
in Edgefield District, and his sainted spirit has flown 
to its home in the skies. He died in peace, on the 
14th of February, 1851, in his eighty-fifth year, hav- 
ing been sixty-seven years a worthy member of the 
Church, and about sixty-five an effective minister of 
the gospel of Christ. 

Servant of God, well done ! 

Rest from thy loved employ; 
The battle fought, the vict'ry won, 

Enter thy Master's joy. 

James Jenkins was one of the links which connected 
the preachers of the present generation with the pio- 
neers of Southern Methodism. He was received on 
probation into the South Carolina Conference in 1792, 
and appointed to the Cherokee Circuit; in 1793, to 
Oconee; in 1794, to Santee; in 1795, to Broad River, 
and for the third quarter to Edisto ; in 1796, to Great 
Pedee; in 1797, to Washington, in Georgia; in 1798, 
to Bladen, in North Carolina; in 1799, to Edisto; in 
1800, to Santee and Catawba; in 1801, presiding elder 
of the South Carolina District; the three following 
years, presiding elder of the Camden District; in 1805, 
superannuated; in 1806, located. He reentered the 
Conference in 1812, and was appointed to the Wateree 
Circuit; in 1813, again located. From 1831 to 1847 
his name stood on the superannuated list of the South 
Carolina Conference. Mr. Jenkins was tall and com- 
manding in person, with a face even in old age ex- 
pressive of great courage and energy, and a voice, till 
impaired by long use, clear and trumpet-toned. He 
was known among the people by the name of " Thun- 
dering Jimmy " and " Bawling Jenkins." His preach- 



Ix South Carolina. 233 

ing, however, was far from being mere sound and fury, 
signifying nothing; when he thundered from the pul- 
pit, there was the lightning-stroke of conviction among 
the people; when he called aloud upon the wicked to 
forsake their ways and spared not, there was the ac- 
companying power of conversion. "In 1801," says 
Dr. Lovick Pierce, " the Edisto Circuit was extended 
as far as to Edgefield. With great difficulty James 
Jenkins obtained leave to preach in my uncle's dwell- 
ing-house, which was about a mile from my father's 
residence. My brother (Reddick) and myself asked 
permission to go to my uncle Weatherby's and Jiear 
Mr. Jenkins. He preached with a tone and manner, 
and power and spirit, that were perfectly new to us, 
and everybody else that happened to be out on the 
occasion — as the voice of an angel would have been. 
Indeed, although I had heard something that was 
called preaching a few times before, yet, without any 
glorification of Methodism or Methodist preachers, 
I have believed from that day to this that it was the 
first pure sermon that ever fell on my ears. I re- 
member well his text, Psalm cxliv. 15: ' Happy is that 
people that is in such a case : yea, happy is that people 
whose God is the Lord.' My brother and myself were 
both deeply convicted. We set out for our home; it 
was then the new road from Augusta to Charleston, 
and we walked one after the other, as the Indians do 
in their natural track. He did not speak to me, nor 
did. I speak to him. He had been very anxious to 
learn how to play cards, and I opposed it. He had a 
deck in his pocket, but on reaching home, finding a 
good large oak fire burning, he made a place in it as 
if to roast a potato, and laying the cards in he care- 
fully covered them up with the hot embers, and that 



234 History of Methodism 

was the last of the cards. Afterward God made of 
him the best and truest Christian I ever knew." Mr. 
Jenkins was 'jealous for Zion with great jealousy, 
and he was jealous with great fury;' his ministry was 
emphatically a ministry of rebuke. He attacked with 
boldness sin in every form, and in every place, and set 
his face as Hint against every thing that threatened the 
purity of the Church. His vigilant supervision of the 
young preachers, and his prompt correction of their 
errors, caused him to be known among them as " the 
Conference curry-comb." "Here" (Sawney's Creek, 
in 1§09), says Bishop Capers, " lived that most remark- 
able man James Jenkins, whose goodness no one ever 
doubted, but whose zeal was always brandishing in the 
temple a scourge of not very small cords, as if for fear 
that some one might be present who did not love the 
temple well enough to take a scourging for it, and who 
ought therefore to be driven out; and in full faith that 
the more men were beaten the better for them, as it 
would make them more humble and less worldly-mind- 
ed. His was the first house I entered in my new field 
of labor (his first circuit), and if I might have been 
driven off by the first discouragement, that might have 
been my first and my last appearance in that quarter. 
I seemed to be younger, greener, and a poorer pros- 
pect for a preacher in his estimate than even in my 
own; and he was an old preacher, and withal a famous 
one. That first introduction to the responsibilities of 
my new charge was after this sort: 'Well have they 
sent you to us for our preacher? ' 'Yes, sir.' 'What 
you? and the egg-shell not dropped off of you yet! 
Lord have mercy upon us! And who have they sent 
in charge?' 'No one, sir, but -myself.' 'What, you 
by yourself? You in charge of the circuit? Why, 



In South Carolina. 235 

what is to become of the circuit? The Bishop had 
just as well have sent nobody. What can you do in 
charge of the circuit?' 'Very poorly, I fear, sir; but 
I dare say the Bishop thought you would advise me 
about the Discipline, and I am sure he could not have 
sent one who would follow your advice more willingly, 
Brother Jenkins, than I will.' ' So, so; I suppose then 
I am to take charge of the circuit for you, and you are 
to do just what I tell you.' 'I would be very glad, 
sir, to have you take charge of the circuit.' 'Did 
ever! What, I, a local preacher, take charge of the 
circuit? And is that what you have come here for? 
Why, man, you know nothing about your business. 
How can I take charge of the circuit? No, no; but I 
can see that you do it, such a charge as it will be; and 
if I do n't, nobody else will, for these days the Disci- 
pline goes for nothing.' And he groaned deeply." 
Again: "It was on my second or third round, that 
coming to Brother Jenkins, he asked me in his usual 
earnest manner how many members I had turned out 
at H. meeting-house. 'None, sir.' 'What, do you 
let the people get drunk, run for the bottle, and turn 
up Jack, and keep them in the Church? ' 'My dear 
sir, I hope nobody does so at H. ; I am sure I never 
heard of it.' 'A pretty piece of business,' rejoined 
he; 'why, at Polly H.'s wedding, a whole parcel of 
them ran for the bottle, and old J. A. held it and got 
drunk into the bargain. And now you, the preacher 
in charge, come here and tell me that you never heard 
of it, though I can hear of it forty miles off.' This' 
was a poser for me. With feelings too sad for society, 
I took the earliest hour for retirement. My bed was 
in an upper room, the floor of which was made of 
loose plank, without ceiling of any kind at the lower 



236 History of Methodism 

edges of the joist, which might have obstructed the 
passage of sound from the room below. And I had 
not been long in bed before I heard my kind-hearted 
sister say: 'Q Mr. Jenkins, you do not know how 
much you have grieved me ! ' ' Grieved you, Betsy,' re- 
plied he; ' how in the world can I have grieved you? ' 
' By the way you have talked to Brother Capers. I 
am afraid he will never come here again. How can 
you talk to him so?' 'Why, Betsy, child,' returned 
he, ' do n't you reckon I love Billy as well as you do ? 
I talk to him so because I love him. He '11 find peo- 
ple enough to honey him without my doing it; and 
he's got to learn to stand trials, that's all.' Sister 
Jenkins seemed not to be satisfied, but wished to ex- 
tort a promise that he would not talk so roughly to 
me any more. But his conscience was concerned in 
that, and he would not promise it. ' You may honey 
him as much as you please, but I go for making him 
a Methodist preacher.' 'Well, then,' thought I, ' it is a 
pity, my old friend, that you should spoil your work 
by not tightening your floor. You might as well have 
promised, for I will take care that you shall not make 
any thing by the refusal.' The next morning it was 
not long before something fetched up the unpleasant 
theme, and as he was warming into the smiting spirit, 
I looked in his face and smiled. 'What,' said he, 
' do you laugh at it ? ' 'As well laugh as cry, Brother 
Jenkins,' I returned; 'did you not tell Sister Jenkins 
that you loved me as well as she did, and only wanted 
to make a Methodist preacher of me ? I am sure you 
would not have me cry for any thing that is to do me 
so much good.' It was all over; he joined in the laugh, 
and threw away his seeming ill-humor. But as for 
the matter of the immoralities at H., it turned out to 



In South Carolina. 237 

be all a hoax. Some wag, knowing how much such a 
circumstance would trouble him, probably originated 
the tale just for that purpose." 

At a protracted-meeting in one of the larger towns, 
a talented minister, who a few days before had been 
married to a most excellent young lady of the place, 
preached a carefully prepared sermon to a large con 
gregation — in which the bride, the family, and divers 
friends were included — on the " Frailty of man and 
the immutability of the gospel," from 1 Peter i. 24, 25. 
In the discourse, which, was throughout highly rhe- 
torical and excessively ornate, there occurred, in par- 
ticular, a passage in which the pyramids of Egypt 
were made to stand out very conspicuously to view. 
Mr. Jenkins, who had been trained in a widely differ- 
ent school of homiletics, and who had been requested 
to close the exercises after him, began his exhortation 
by saying: "Brethren, the hour is gone, and nobody 
profited. I should like to know what the pyramids of 
Egypt have to do with the converting of souls. Eire- 
Holy Ghost — -power — is what we want." And he pro- 
ceeded to criticise in unsparing terms of severity a style 
of preaching so revolting to his taste, and so foreign 
from his conception of the proper object of the pulpit. 
Notwithstanding the mortification on the one side, 
and the merriment on the other, produced for a time 
by the severity of his strictures, yet, by his honesty 
of purpose and earnestness of spirit, which all were 
obliged to recognize, he brought the service to a close 
amid feelings of deepest solemnity and awe on the part 
of the congregation. 

During the session of one of the Conferences, Mr. 
Jenkins felt bound by his conscience to make com- 
plaint against a young preacher who had allowed him- 



238 IT is toe r of Methodism 

self to be detained with a wedding-party after the 
dancing had been introduced. The young brother 
pleaded in excuse that he had not been notified before- 
hand that there was to be dancing, and that he was 
imprisoned in a room from which there was no way 
of exit without going through the hall in which the 
dancing was going on, and withal the door was kept 
fast closed. The defense was not at all satisfactory to 
Mr. Jenkins, who insisted on an honest application 
of discipline, on the ground that it was a mil on the 
part of the young brother, and not a way of egress, 
that was wanting. " If I had been there," said he, 
" I would have gotten out of the house if Satan himself 
had been the door-keeper." 

The main endowment of Mr. Jenkins was a large 
measure of the "spirit of power;" and in the fullness 
of this spirit, he braved the scorn and allurements of 
the world alike, while he denounced popular vices, or 
challenged the formalist, or pushed his searching 
probe into the heart of the hypocrite, or tore off the 
outward decorations of the "whited sepulcher." In 
doing this, he may not at all times have been discrim- 
inating in his analysis of character; he may some- 
times have wounded unnecessarily some tender con- 
science. But who ever doubted that it was the love 
of Christ, who purchased the Church with his own 
blood, which informed and animated all his ministry 
of rebuke, however terrible ? Indeed, the theme he 
loved more than all others to dwell upon in his clos- 
ing years was the theme of perfect love. The rest- 
less, passionate, toilsome love which fired the energies 
of his youth, and flashed up in the latest gleams of 
thought and consciousness on 'his dying-couch, was a 
direct endowment from heaven; a principle engen- 



In South Carolina. 239 

derecl in his bosom by the vital faith which united him 
to Christ and made him in his measure emulous of 
the love which in infinite fullness dwells in the bo- 
som of " our faithful and compassionate High-priest," 
When the time of his departure came, he hailed the 
approach of death not only with composure, but with 
the gush of indescribable joy. The conqueror's shout, 
so familliar to his lips when in health, lingered upon 
those lips now fast losing the power of utterance. 
Along with this triumphant mood, he maintained and 
manifested, to the last, a remarkable degree of that 
profound self-abasement so often observed in the 
dying-moments of the most eminent and useful men. 
His language was: "I have never done any thing; 
don't mention these things to me; I am nothing but a 
poor, unworthy sinner, saved by grace. Christ is all; 
to him be all the praise." Without a struggle or 
groan, lie fell asleep in Jesus, at Camden, in South 
Carolina, on the 24th of January, 1847, in the eighty- 
third year of his natural life, and in the fifty-fifth year 
of his ministry. " His witness is with God, and his 
record on high." 

William McKendree was born in King William 
county, Virginia, July 6, 1757; converted under the 
ministry of John Easter in 1787, and the next year 
admitted on trial in the traveling connection. He was 
elected and ordained a bishop in Baltimore in 1808, 
and during the eight following years acted as joint 
superintendent with Bishop Asbury, and after his 
death, March, 1816, shared the weight and responsi- 
bility of the office with Bishops George and Roberts. 
It was said by Johnson of Edmund Burke that if any 
man should meet him under a tree in a shower of 
rain, he would at once conclude that he was in the 



240 History of Methodism 

presence of no ordinary man; and no one, learned or 
unlearned, ever saw Bishop McKendree under any 
circumstances without being struck with the dignity 
of his personal appearance. He was about the com- 
mon height, and his form was finely proportioned. 
The prominent characteristics of his mind were the 
power of analysis and the faculty of drawing correct 
conclusions. He was not a classical scholar, and yet 
there never appeared in the Connection a finer model 
as a preacher. He was eloquent in the true sense of 
the term. Few men ever filled the pulpit with greater 
usefulness, and there was a beautiful simplicity in his 
sermons. His common theme was the love of God, 
and in so persuasive a manner did he commend this 
love to the hearts of his hearers that he never, per- 
haps, preached a sermon in vain. He was eminently 
qualified to fill the important office he occupied in the 
Church. It could boast of no wiser or better man. 
He suffered no occasion to pass without recommending 
the religion of his Master, and fixed in the mind of 
all with whom he came in contact a remembrancer of 
his deep and unaffected piety. Prayer — solemn, fer- 
vent prayer — was the element in which he moved and 
had his being. The last words that trembled upon his 
pallid lips thrilled the heart of the Church, as they 
went over the hills and valleys where the good Bishop 
had traveled and preached. They inspired the min- 
isters everywhere with fresh courage; old men, lean- 
ing on the top of their staves, repeated them; youths 
in their prime echoed them ; and even childhood lisped 
forth the last words of the departing Bishop: "All 
is well." He died March 5, 1835, and now sleeps in 
peace beside Bishop Soule on the campus of Vander- 
bilt University, and near to Wesley Hall, to recall to 



In South Cabolina. 241 

the memory of successive generations of young preach- 
ers those great principles of character and usefulness 
which have rendered the names of both immortal in 
the annals of Methodism. 

Nicholas Watters was born in Maryland on the 20th 
of November, 1739. He descended from an ancient 
and resj)ectable family, and was one of seven brothers 
who were among the first to open their hearts and 
houses to receive the Methodist preachers when they 
came into Harford county. His youngest brother, Will- 
iam "Watters, was the first American preacher who en- 
tered the traveling connection. Nicholas Watters was 
received on probation in 1776, and besides the labors 
bestowed on Maryland and Virginia, he traveled the 
Union, Saluda, and Broad River circuits, in the South 
Carolina Conference, and was stationed in Charleston 
in 1804, where he died of the yellow fever on the 10th 
of August, in the sixty-fith year of his age. He was a 
man of courage, and ready in conversation upon the 
things of God. His life was uniform, his temper 
gracious, his manners simple and good, and his dying- 
words will ever cheer the hearts of his brethren: "I 
am not afraid to die, if it be the will of God ; I desire 
to depart, and to be with Christ. The Church will sus- 
tain no loss by my death, for the Lord will supply 'my 
place with a man that will be more useful. Thanks be 
to God, through his grace I have continued to live and 
to labor faithfully to the end. 

Farewell, vain world, I'm going home; 
My Jesus smiles and bids me come." 

Tobias Gibson was born in Liberty county, in South 

Carolina, on the Great Peclee Eiver, November 10, 

1771. He was admitted on trial in 1792, and after 

seven years of laborious service in the South Carolina 

16 



242 History of Methodism 

Conference, volunteered, in 1799, to go as a missionary 
to the Natchez settlement on the Mississippi, in which 
field he continued to labor until his death, April 5, 
1804. He was a great friend of Bishop Asbury, and 
in return had his warm affection and unlimited confi- 
dence. Mr. Gibson traveled six hundred miles to the 
Cumberland River, and taking a canoe and placing his 
few effects on board, paddled himself out of the Cum- 
berland into the Ohio, and taking his passage for six 
or seven hundred miles more in the meandering course 
of the Mississippi, he at length arrived in safety at 
Natchez. Four times he traveled by land through 
the wilderness, a journey of six hundred miles among 
various savage tribes, from Natchez to the Cumberland 
settlement. He tasked his powers of labor and en- 
durance to the utmost in this field, occupied by him 
alone until 1803, when the Western Conference, before 
which he presented himself in great feebleness, in 
response to his urgent application, sent to his assist- 
ance Moses Floyd. He preached his last sermon on 
the first day of the year 1804, and instead of shrink- 
ing from the approach of death, anticipated it with 
joy, in the full confidence that it was to bring him into 
the immediate presence of his beloved Saviour. 

He did not possess extraordinary talents, but he did 
have extraordinary zeal, and the most heroic devotion 
to his Master's cause. His preaching was sensible, 
fervent, and impressive, without evincing any great 
logical power, or being embellished by a splendid or 
graceful elocution. His grand aim was to bring God's 
living truth in contact with the hearts and consciences 
of those whom he addressed, and if this purpose were 
only gained, he cared little .for any thing besides. 
There was no sacrifice, however great, that he was not 



In South Carolixa. 243 

ready to make — no obstacle, however appalling, that he 
was not willing to encounter — in order to sustain and 
carry forward his Master's cause. 

James Tolleson was also a native of South Carolina. 
He was admitted on trial in 1791, and labored as a 
traveling preacher between eight and nine years, dur- 
ing which time he filled several important stations 
with dignity and usefulness, and moved in the circuit 
of his appointments from Georgia to New Jersey. 
He was a man of ability, and with him originated the 
plan of a delegated General Conference, which he 
proposed and advocated in May, 1800; but what is of 
infinitely more importance, he was a man of piety, 
and uniform in his religious deportment. He died in 
August, 1800, of the malignant fever, in Portsmouth, 
Virginia, with due preparation and great resignation 
of mind, manifesting that he possessed a lively sense 
of his acceptance with God. 

William Fulwood entered the traveling connection 
in 1792, and after rendering acceptable service for 
four years, located in 1796. 

Joshua Cannon was admitted on trial in 1789, and 
continued in the traveling connection about nine years, 
during which he was appointed to Charleston and 
Georgetown in 1791 and 1795, respectively; the other 
seven years were occupied in filling prominent ap- 
pointments in North Carolina and Virginia. 

Samuel Kisher was in the traveling connection 
twelve years; he was admitted in 1793, and located in 
1805. His first three years were given to the South 
Carolina Conference ; the remaining nine were devoted 
to North Carolina and Virginia. 

John Clark traveled in South Carolina from 1791 
to 1796, when he withdrew from the Connection, on 



244 History of Methodism 

account of slavery, and removed to Illinois. He was 
the second Methodist preacher in that territory, being 
preceded by Joseph Lillard, who entered in 1793. Mr. 
Clark was the first man that preached the gospel west 
of the Mississippi Kiver — in 1798. 

Abner Henley was admitted on trial in 1791, and 
gave two years to the Sonth Carolina Conference; the 
remainder of his itinerant labors were devoted to 
North Carolina. He located in 1796, but was appoint- 
ed to Salisbury in 1800. 

John Russell entered the traveling connection in 
1789, and devoted nine years to South Carolina, and 
one to Virginia. 'He located in 1799. 

Richard Posey was admitted in 1794, and located in 
1799. His itinerant life of five years was given to South 
Carolina. 

George Clark gave nine years of itinerant labor to 
the South Carolina Conference, entering in 1792, and 
locating in 1801. He settled in Union District, and 
lived to an advanced age. He was a good man, char- 
acterized by plainness of dress and manner, though 
possessed of wealth, and did much to advance the in- 
terests of the Church. 

John King was admitted in 1794, and located in 
1803, dividing his nine years of itinerant labor be- 
tween the Carolinas and Virginia. 

Benjamin Tarrant entered in 1792, and gave two 
years to the Burke Circuit in Georgia, and two to the 
Edisto Circuit in South Carolina. He located in 1796. 

James Douthet was admitted on trial in 1793, and 
located in 1803. He gave six years to South Carolina, 
one to Virginia, and three to North Carolina. 

Coleman Carlisle joined the itinerancy in 1792, and 
was sent to Broad River Circuit; in 1793, to Tar River; 



Tn South Carolina. 245 

in 1794, to Broad Eiver. At the end of this year he 
located; but in 1801 he rejoined the Conference, and 
was sent to Broad River; in 1802, to Saluda; in 1803, 
to Sandy River. This year, compelled by domestic 
necessities, he again located; but he ]oved the itiner- 
ancy, and whenever he could leave his helpless family 
to travel, he did so. In 1819 he again joined the Con- 
ference, and was appointed to Bush River Circuit. In 
the latter part of 1823 he finally located; not from 
choice, but from absolute necessity. " I have known 
him," says Mr. Travis, "after returning home from 
preaching several miles distant, after supper to take 
the same horse (having but one) and plow with him by 
moonlight until nearly midnight, and then go off next 
morning to his appointments. He neither owned nor 
hired servants." He was a very popular preacher, 
and when local was sent for far and near to preach 
funeral-sermons; but for his long rides and good ser- 
mons received no compensation. He endured hard- 
ness as a good soldier of Christ. He often hungered 
and thirsted. He labored, working with his own 
hands; being reviled, he reviled not again; being per- 
secuted, he suffered it; being defamed, he entreated. 
He endeavored, as far as in him lay, to preach Christ 
crucified to rich and poor, to white and colored, to 
young and old. The day of judgment will reveal many 
who were brought home to God and to glory through 
his instrumentality. Peace to his remains. 

Jonathan Jackson was admitted on trial in 1789, and 
located in 1815. He filled some of the most important 
appointments in the South Carolina Conference, and 
fifteen years of the twenty-six of his itinerant minis- 
try he was a presiding elder. " He was one that could 
bear acquaintance. The more you were with him, the 



246 History of Methodism. 

more you were brought to love and admire him. He 
was emphatically a man of God. His piety was deep, 
his fervent zeal was governed by knowledge, and his 
walk was in accordance with the Bible. His preach- 
ing talents were not the most brilliant, but his ser- 
mons were orthodox, scriptural, practical, and experi- 
mental; and on the prophecies of Daniel he was pro- 
found." (Travis.) In his local sphere of action he 
was still the same untiring and persevering servant of 
God. Just before his death a preacher present asked 
him, "Brother Jackson, do you know me? " The re- 
ply was, "No." Sister Jackson being present, the 
brother asked him if he knew his wife. The answer 
was, "No." " Do you know Jesus? " again asked the 
preacher. "Jesus! " says he; "yes, I have known my 
Jesus for better than forty years." "Blessed are the 
dead which die in the Lord." (Revelation xiv. 13.) 



CHAPTER XL 



Thou who knowest all our weakness, 

Leave us not to sow alone; 
Bid thine angel guard the furrows 

Where the precious seed is sown, 
Till the fields are crowned with glory, 

Filled with yellow ripened ears — 
Filled with fruit of life eternal 

From the seeds we sowed in tears. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

BLADEN Circuit in North Carolina was formed 
in 1787 by Daniel Combs, who entered the trav- 
eling connection the same year, and after serving the 
Huntingdon Circuit, in Pennsylvania, in 1788, and the 
Flanders Circuit, in New Jersey, in 1789, retired from 
the itinerant work. He w r as succeeded on the Bladen 
Circuit in 1788 by Thomas Hardy, who w r as also in 
the first year of his itinerant life, and who, after serv- 
ing the Orange Circuit, in Virginia, in 1789, desisted 
from traveling. As the result of these tw r o years of 
faithful labor was a membership of only thirty-five 
whites, the circuit — under a rule adopted by the Confer- 
ence in 1784, to discontinue those appointments for pub- 
lic preaching which did not improve, but still to meet 
the societies — was taken from the list of appointments, 
and the societies visited by the preachers from the 
Little Pedee Circuit until 1790, when it was restored, 
and Methodism, under the blessing of God upon tlio 
zealous labors of Jonathan Bird and his successors 

(247) 



248 History of Methodism 

of like faith and patience, achieved a gratifying suc- 
cess. The Bladen Circuit soon came to embrace in 
its regular appointments the entire country from Long 
Bay, in South Carolina, to the Cape Fear River, in- 
cluding Kingston (Conwayboro), Lumberton, Eliza- 
beth, Smithville, Old Brunswick Court-house, and 
Wilmington. The numbers in society constantly in- 
creased; many families of the first respectability and 
influence joined the Methodist Church, and Bishop 
Asbury became highly delighted with his annual visits 
to this portion of the work. The settlements on the 
Cape Fear were first entered by the preachers on the 
New Hope Circuit, in North Carolina, which took its 
name from a creek which runs through Orange county 
and empties into Haw River, in the southern part of 
Chatham, a few miles above its junction with Deep 
River to form the Cape Fear. 

As early as 1779, James O'Kelly, to whose distin- 
guished ability and energetic service as a pioneer 
preacher Methodism was greatly indebted for its early 
success in many fields of labor, entered and explored 
this region and became well known to Colonel John 
Slingsby, a commissioned Tory officer in the Revolu- 
tionary War, who resided on the lower Cape Fear, 
and who was deeply and most favorably impressed 
by his preaching. A granddaughter of Col. Slingsby 
writes : 

The anecdote of the Methodist preacher (James O'Kelly) which 
you wish me to relate, I had from the old gentleman's own lips. 
Mr. O'Kelly, then a young Methodist preacher, when traveling over 
the country and preaching, was taken at the house of a friend or 
acquaintance by a small party of Tories. His horse, saddle, and 
saddle-bags were taken from him, and he was tied to a peach-tree. 
A party of Whigs coming up just at thetime, a skirmish ensued, and 
although he was between the two fires, he was not hurt. Before this 



In South Carolina. 249 

skirmish was ended, Col. Slingsby came up with a larger party of 
men, and the Whigs were dispersed. Recognizing Mr. O' Kelly, the 
Colonel asked him to preach for them, which he did; and drawing 
up his men in good order, he stood with his head uncovered during 
the whole of the service. Mr. O'Kelly said, when relating this 
anecdote to me, "Ah, child, your grandfather was a gentleman!" 
An old lady, who was well acquainted with Mr. O'Kelly, tells me 
that the man at whose house he was taken was also taken, bound to 
the same tree, and killed in the skirmish. She had heard him re- 
late the anecdote frequently — I only once. 

The preachers on the Bladen Circuit in 1798 found 
the names of the New Hope missionaries still fresh 
in the memory of the people, and conversed with those 
who had listened with delight to the preaching of 
James O'Kelly, and had been received into society by 
Philip Bruce, who was appointed to the New Hope 
Circuit in 1781. Says Beverly Allen : 

C In May, 1778, I began to preach the go spel. During the summe r 
I only preached about home, but being earnestly pressed by the cir- 
cuit preachers to travel, after many sore conflicts, I consented to ride 
in New Hope Circuit, in North Carolina, including my own place 
and some people in the county of Wake. During the winter Ave had 
a considerable work in the circuit, for Brother James O'Kelly trav- 
eled as my assistant, whose labors were greatly owned of God. Num- 
bers joined our "society, and many professed faith in the Redeemer. 
In February, 1779, I took a journey to the South, at the earnest and 
repeated entreaties of Mrs. D. (a daughter of General Robert Howe), 
who was under very great distress of mind. It pleased God, soon 
after we arrived, to give her a clear sense of the forgiveness of sins, 
and she praised- God with holy boldness. Her husband had gone 
to Charleston, and knew nothing of this great change till he arrived 
at home, when, to his great astonishment, he found her praying with 
her children and servants. The first letter I received from her gave 
me the pleasing information that he was under deep distress, and 
wished very much to see me. I accordingly went in autumn, but 
on my way I called on a society which I had some time before formed 
in Cumberland county, where many were groaning for redemption. 
It pleased God to convince a number of them (I think fifteen professed 



'250 History of Methodism 

faith), and many others were deeply wrought upon. Brother James 
llinton (one of our preachers), who has rested from his labors, was 
one of the number who experienced salvation at that time. He for- 
sook all and traveled with me, and remained a pattern of piety to the 
day of his death. AVhen we arrived at Mr. D.'s, he met me with ex- 
ceeding great joy, nor did he leave me till I had traveled more than 
two hundred miles ; nay, he said he would forsake all and go with me 
till he found mercy. It pleased God, the second day after we arrived 
in Cumberland, to give him power, in the midst of a large congrega- 
tion, to stand up and praise the Almighty. It resembled the time 
when Nehemiah laid the foundations of the temple, such was the 
shouting by the believers and weeping by the mourners. Here I 
must not forget to mention another circumstance which happened in 
the course of this journey. When I arrived at Mr. D.'s, I found 
Mr. M. and his lady (this gentleman had married a sister of Mrs* 
D.). Mrs. M. had got some gracious impressions by conversing 
with her sister. She and her husband heard the word, and it was 
not in vain. They both felt deep convictions, and soon after ex- 
perienced the power of redeeming love. Hundreds of other people, 
in the course of this journey, Avere truly alarmed. Another brother 
of Mr. D. also turned to the Lord Jesus. Such a change had never 
been seen in that part of the country. Since that time, a circuit 
has been formed, now known by the name of Bladen Circuity Being 
unable to travel at large, I spent most of the summer ,(1780) on 
I\ew Hope Circuit and on Bladen, during which time we had some 
happy seasons ; but the troubles of the war began so to affect the 
people that I was obliged to retire tp„ Virgin ia in thg beginning of 
the wi nter. (Letter to Mr. Wesley, Charleston, May 4, 1791.) 

The relentless Tory war, that desolated the country- 
watered by Deep Kiver and the Cape Fear, as late as 
1782, suspended the visits of the preachers to this 
region till after the conclusion of peace, September 
3, 1783, when Beverly Allen and James Hinton were 
sent (1784) to form the Wilmington Circuit. A gen- 
tleman of intelligence, residing in Duplin county in 
1810, just north of New Hanover, in which Wilming- 
ton is situated, in giving an account of the religion, 
number of churches and communicants in his county, 



In South Carolina. 251 

says: "The first Methodist preacher who visited this 
county was the noted Beverly Allen, a celebrated 
preacher who visited this county immediately after 
the Revolutionary War (1784). He was followed by 
sundry other itinerant and circuit Methodist preach- 
ers. They were at first successful. They formed 
several societies and classes in the county. These, 
however, were not all permanent. Many who had 
joined and professed themselves members of that 
Church began to think the rules and discipline of it 
too strict to be by them constantly adhered to. Many 
fell off and resumed their former practices, and some 
joined other Churches." 

Mr. Allen was succeeded by John Baldwin in 1785; 
but the prestige of the old-established Church of En- 
gland, and an obstinate and avowed infidelity in the 
most influential circles of society, made the country 
around Wilmington so unfavorable to the development 
of Methodism, or, indeed, of any form of vital relig- 
ion, at this period, that under the rule of the Confer- 
ence before recited, the circuit was discontinued, and 
substituted in 1787 by the Bladen Circuit. Method- 
ism, however, continued to progress on the Upper Cape 
Fear and Deep River, under the active labors of the 
preachers on the New Hope Circuit and on the Haw 
River Circuit, and after 1796 of the preachers of the 
South Carolina Conference, until at length the grow- 
ing numbers and prosperity of the Methodist Church 
awakened an apprehension that it would become the 
dominant religion in a territory strongly preoccupied 
by the Presbyterians and the Baptists. A writer of 
intelligence, giving an account of the religious condi- 
tion of Moore county in 1810, says : " There are at pres- 
ent but three regular Presbyterian congregations in 



252 History of Methodism 

Moore county. The number of communicants are 
about two hundred. The Baptists have a number of 
societies and churches, but are likely to be soon out- 
numbered by the Methodists, whose popular doctrines, 
plans, zeal, and diligence are better calculated than 
any other profession to make proselytes of the com- 
mon people. Within the orbit of their circuits are a 
number of places for stated preaching in the county. 
We have also a few Quakers — orderly, industrious, and 
worthy members of the community." Four years sub- 
sequent to this prediction of the growth of Methodism 
in the Deep River country, the whole territory in 
North Carolina, south of the Cape Fear, was covered 
with a net-work of appointments for preaching, con- 
veniently accessible to the people, and embraced in 
well-arranged circuits, extending from the sea-board 
westward to the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. 

The old Bladen Circuit, in the twenty-fifth year of 
its history, was in the pastoral care of a young man, 
in the second year of his ministry, whose name has 
become immortal in the annals of Methodism. James 
Osgood Andrew was born May 3, 1794, near the town 
of Washington, in Wilkes county, Georgia. His fa- 
ther was a native of Liberty county, in the same State, 
and was a member of the Midway Church (Congrega- 
tionalist), of which the Rev. Mr. Osgood was at the 
time pastor. As a mark of the high regard he felt for 
this minister, he named his son after him. Having 
lost the greater part of his property in the War of the 
Revolution, he removed to the up-country, where 
James was born and brought up. The country was 
then almost a wilderness, and of course afforded very 
few educational facilities. Such,'however, as were in 
reach were assiduously improved by the lad, whose 



In South Carolina. 253 

mind was athirst for knowledge. His parents were 
devout Christians, and lie was trained up in the nurt- 
ure and admonition of the Lord, with all the blessed 
sanctities of a Christian home shedding their influ- 
ences on his mind and character. At an early period 
he was brought under deep religious concern, sought 
the pardoning mercy of God through Christ, and 
reached a comforting sense of acceptance in the full, 
unreserved commitment of his soul to Christ crucified 
as the only source of salvation to the sinner. Not 
long afterward he felt an impression distinct and deep 
that he was called by the Holy Spirit to the work of 
the gospel ministry. It was the judgment of his 
brethren that he was not mistaken in this, and he was 
accordingly licensed to preach in 1812. At the ses- 
sion of the South Carolina Conference, which was held 
in Charleston in December of that year, he was ad- 
mitted on trial into the traveling connection, in his 
nineteenth year, and sent for 1813 to Saltketcher Cir- 
cuit, in South Carolina; 1814, Bladen in North Car- 
olina; 1815, Warren in Georgia; 1816, Charleston; 
1817-18, Wilmington; 1819, Columbia; 1820-21, Au- 
gusta; 1822-23, Savannah; from 1824 to 1826, presid- 
ing elder of Charleston District; 1827-28, Charleston; 
1829, Athens and Greensborough; 1830, Athens and 
Madison; 1831-32, Augusta. At the General Confer- 
ence held in Philadelphia in 1832 he was elected, with 
Dr. John Emory, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and for three quadrennial terms met with 
distinguished ability the claims of the high office 
conferred upon him. In 1844 the proceedings of the 
General Conference, which convened in the city of 
New York, rendered the name of Bishop Andrew very 
notable beyond the sphere even of his own ecclesias- 



254 History of Methodism 

tical relations. He was the only Southern Bishop in 
the Episcopal College. The force of circumstances 
had made him a slave-holder, as were many of the 
leading ministers and members generally of his Com- 
munion; but the book of Discipline covered with a 
shield of broad protection all grades in the ministry 
as well as the membership at large in those States of 
the Union where emancipation was prohibited by stat- 
ute. The General Conference, notwithstanding this, 
suspended Bishop Andrew from the episcopal office, 
but before adjournment adopted a Plan of Separation 
to be acted upon at discretion by the Southern Con- 
ferences. At the meeting of a convention at Louis- 
ville, in Kentucky, in 1845, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, was organized on the basis of this 
plan, and Bishops Soule and Andrew were cordially 
requested to unite with and become its constitutional 
bishops. From that time until 1868 Bishop Andrew 
continued in the. active work of his high office, though 
with powers and activities gradually diminishing as 
time went on and the burden of years pressed upon 
him with increasing weight. At the General Confer- 
ence of 1866, at New Orleans, he requested, in a brief 
address, replete with profound and affectionate feel- 
ing, to be relieved of the active duties of his office 
and placed on the retired list. This was accordingly 
done, and the following resolutions were adopted by a 
unanimous rising vote: 

Besolved, That the General Conference has heard with profound 
emotion the request made by our honored and beloved friend, Bishop 
Andrew, that he be allowed, on account of advanced years and grow- 
ing infirmities, to retire from the responsibilities connected with an 
active participation in the Episcopal administration. While the 
General Conference cannot be indifferent to the important consider- 
ations, and cannot but approve of the high and delicate motives 



In South Carolina. 255 

which prompt this course, at the same time the representatives of 
the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
cannot allow the occasion to pass without expressing, as they now 
take pleasure in doing, the respect and affection universally felt for 
the venerable Bishop, the honor in which his past services are held, 
and the luster which his spotless character lias shed on Southern 
Methodism. They devoutly pray that the evening of his life may 
be serene — full of the consolations of that gospel he has preached 
for more than a half century — bright with the unspeakable hope of 
eternal life through Jesus Christ. 

Resolved, furthermore, That Bishop Andrew be, and he is hereby, 
released, according to his request, from active participation in the 
responsibilities of the episcopal office. At the same time the Gen- 
eral Conference beg that he will, as far as his health and circum- 
stances allow, give to his colleagues and the Church at large the 
benefits of his experience and counsels, and highly appreciated vis- 
its to the Annual Conferences. 

Whenever his strength allowed he continued to visit 
Annual and District Conferences; and his farewell 
words, delivered with patriarchal tenderness, were apt 
to insist upon these points: maintain spiritual re- 
ligion, love one another, and keep united. From his 
dying-bed he sent a farewell message to his colleagues 
in the episcopal office. To the ministry of the Church 
at large his parting words were: "Live right, main- 
tain the discipline of the Church, meet me in heaven." 
Again: "Write; tell the preachers to remember the 
Sunday-schools; feed my lambs." Then, after a part- 
ing valediction to the whole Church, he closed his 
eyes, and his spirit joined the innumerable company 
of the redeemed in the city of God. He died at Mo- 
bile, Alabama, March 2, 1871, in the fifty-ninth year 
of his ministry, and seventy-seventh of his age. As 
a preacher, Bishop Andre w was eloquent and power- 
ful. Some of the most effective sermons ever preached 
in the Carolinas and Georgia were preached by him 
at camp-meetings, where an audience of thousands 



25G History of Methodism 

gave tlie necessary stimulus to the great orator, and 
nerved the arm that wielded the thunderbolt. His 
ministry everywhere was instrumental in bringing 
souls to the knowledge of salvation and building up 
the Church of the living God. He had the power of 
eloquent speech on the platform, as well as in the pul- 
pit, and was often exceedingly happy in addresses to 
the young preachers. The following was made to the 
deacons at the Charleston Conference in 1858: 

My Beloved Young Brethren: — You have been for two years 
known as Methodist preachers. Whatever may have been your early 
advantages, or your educational training, your business has been to 
preach the gospel — to live it and preach it — to preach the gospel as 
itinerant Methodist preachers, who have no fixed home, who are 
evangelists, going from place to place preaching Christ. 

It is fair to infer that before you entered this ministry you had 
the experience of the grace of God in your souls ; that before you 
went out to publish to others the way of salvation you had learned 
it yourselves. If this be not the case, you are not fit to preach. No 
man is fit to preach who does not know Christ. 

Have you faith in God? that faith which justifies, which brings 
you into communion with the whole Trinity? — that faith which i s 
followed by the witness of the Spirit of God, which recognizes him 
that is invisible, and which walks by and in communion with him? 

Without this faith you cannot be preachers — you cannot get to 
heaven ; without it, you cannot get others there. If you have it, 
what are the fruits of it? Do you in your own souls have com- 
munion with God ? 

If a minister does not mind, the fact that he is so often at church, 
and ministering in holy things, will become a sort of routine busi- 
ness without the spirit. It is so common a thing with many to sing, 
preach, pray, go to the communion-table, etc., that they rest in that 
which is outward, and fail of the grace of God in their individual 
experience. 

If you have this faith it will stir you up to seek larger measures of 
this grace than you have yet known. Mr. Wesley taught the doc- 
trine of Christian perfection. We ask the young ministers: Do you 
expect to attain perfection in love in this life? Do you intend to 
seek it, and never cease till you obtain it? Do you believe it is pos- 



In South Carolina. 257 

sible for you to obtain this blessing? How does it come? The an- 
swer is, By faith. I wish as Methodist preachers we read Mr. 
Wesley and Mr. Fletcher more. I sit down and read Mr. Wesley's 
articles, and it seems to me I get at the truth better than when I 
read what book-makers have said since his time. 

I have seen Methodist preachers who said they did not believe in 
this doctrine of Christian perfection. But these same men, once 
when they stood before me, said they did believe it. Now, how- 
ever, they are afraid of being thought too Methodistic, or too old- 
womanish, or something else. They have been influenced by other 
Churches, doubtless, in this matter. 

If ever you do much good as preachers, you must seek that bless- 
ing. He who loves God with all his heart cannot but love his 
neighbor, and he who loves as he should will labor for souls with 
an undying zeal. 

Do not expect to get this blessing by works, but by faith. 

In traveling, I frequently meet with men who enjoy perfect love, 
and who live it. They live as the gospel teaches. There is a power 
in the ministry, and I want you to get hold of it. 

I may seem a little rambling, but I am talking as a father would 
talk to his children, and I hope my own son will in due time stand 
before one Avho shall talk to him on this subject. When I look at 
the power we have now, and compare it with the influence we once 
wielded, I am led to fear that our present power is not equal to what 
we formerly had. He who has power with God will have power 
with men, as Jacob had. 

In order that you may be the better prepared to look into this 
matter, let me suggest another thing. What made you become 
preachers ? [Answer (by the class), A sense of duty, and the love of 
souls.] Very well. A very important matter. 

I love to read the history of the old-time preachers of Wesley's 
day. They shook the whole empire. They did it, and why ? Be- 
cause the burden of souls was upon them. Sinners were dying. 
These holy men did not merely seek for the favor of the people, but 
they were distressed because souls were being lost. The burden of 
the Lord ! The prophets called it so, and so it is in reality. 

Start right, my young brethren. Let your foundation be properly 
laid. Begin under proper influences, and then there is a prospect 
of success. When I look and see what Methodist preachers can do 
— when as an old man I look over all our Church's machinery, and 
see how beautiful this machinery is, and when I see it occasionally 
17 



258 History of Methodism 

getting out of fix, and not doing its work — T get distressed, audi say 
Gracious God, how can we repair the working of such a glorious 
scheme as this? And yet we can do it. Our preachers may do 
much harm. Every pin must do its part, every wheel must move 
in its place. 

You are young men ; I am, as you see, old. My head is bald, and 
my eyes dim. Age is upon me. I shall soon pass away, and my 
associates — those who have been with me shoulder to shoulder in 
the battle — will soon pass away. 

When some one said to Asbury, "What will we do when you are 
dead?" he replied : "The Church can always do very well without 
me, but I never could have done without the Church." That has 
always been ray feeling. I am a child of the Church. I could not 
do without the Church. 

There is to me no trial so great as to be unable to work. Last 
fall I felt that my work was about done. I lay down in a steam-boat 
and said, " Well, old man, your work is about done ; what is the 
prospect before you ? " I looked back upon the past, and felt that 
all was well. For forty-six years I have never been any thing but 
an effective traveling preacher. I have been going from December, 
1812, to this day. I have never been a supernumerary, have never 
superannuated nor located. I wish I had done better work, and 
more of it. 

Do you feel this morning that you have made up your mind to 
live and die in this work? Are you willing to trust God for bread, 
and clothes, and every thing, while you do your duty? You have a 
good deposit in a bank that never suspended. 

In the days when I began to be a traveling preacher it was cus- 
tomary for a preacher to locate when he married. Hodges and my- 
self married. We talked the matter over. Shall we locate? was 
the question. No, said he ; and we concluded to try it in the itin- 
erancy with our families. Somebody must break the ice. And now 
what has been the result? I recollect talking to my good wife (who 
has gone to heaven long ago) on the subject, and she said, Do yon 
stick to the work. I followed her advice, and God provided. I have 
often had but very few dimes left, and sometimes none ; but when I 
really needed money, it came somehow. Go on and do your duty, 
and God will take care of you. 

Capacity for the management of affairs, alertness, 
urbanity, tact as a presiding officer, characterized him 



In South Carolina. 259 

as a bishop. In a word, lie was gifted with great 
powers of sagacity, strength, energy, activity, and nsed 
them well — enjoyed great opportunities of influence, 
and was equal to them. Let his memory be ever hon- 
ored by his successors in office, and let his name be 
embalmed in the affectionate veneration of the Church. 

Methodism was introduced into Lincoln and the 
adjoining counties in Western North Carolina by the 
preachers from the Yadkin Circuit, which was formed 
by Andrew Yeargin in 1780, and was made to embrace 
the entire territory from the head-waters of the Dan 
and Uwharie rivers, westward, to the French Broad 
and Nolachucky. Among the pioneer preachers who 
first occupied this laborious and trying field were 
Reuben Ellis and Henry Willis, Philip Bruce and 
John Fore, Daniel Asbury and John McGee, Henry 
Bingham and Robert J. Miller. The last named was 
sent in 1786 as a missionary from the Yadkin Circuit, 
to occupy the territory west of the Catawba River, and 
to form a circuit in the county of Lincoln. He visited 
a large settlement of Germans, was kindly entertained 
by them, and at length induced to become the pastor 
of a congregation of LutheiTiiis at " Old White Haven 
Church," on the Catawba River, about eight miles 
south of Beattie's Ford. In a few years, however, he 
became dissatisfied with his German friends, and, 
changing his Church relations, became a clergyman 
in the Protestant Episcopal Church, and settled and 
died in the vicinity of Lenoir, in Caldwell county, 
greatly respected and honored by the people. 

In 1787 a number of Methodists moved from the 
Brunswick Circuit in Virginia, and settled in Lincoln 
county, in North Carolina, near the Catawba River. 
As they journeyed to a new home, in the spirit of true 



2G0 History of Methodism 

pilgrims, they were not unmindful of " a better coun- 
try, that is, a heavenly." Morning and evening the 
incense of prayer and praise ascended to God from 
the altar of their devotions; and occasionally an experi- 
ence-meeting, or love-feast, was held by night in their 
camp. Such a meeting chanced to be held by them 
on the banks of the Roanoke River, when it pleased 
the Lord to visit and bless this pious band in a man- 
ner so remarkable that the deep forest was made vocal 
with their triumphant songs of joy, crying, Glory to 
God in the highest! A planter of intelligence and 
wealth, attracted by the sound, came with his servants 
to investigate the unwonted scene. "Friends," said 
he, "this is indeed a strange proceeding; what is the 
meaning of all this?" John Turbefield, for the rest, 
answered in the spirit of meekness and love: " Sir, 
we are all professors of religion, members of the 
Methodist Church, journeying to a new home; we 
have been engaged in our accustomed devotions; the 
King has come into our camp, and we have been made 
very happy — glory be to God!" The planter was 
overwhelmed by a divine influence; conviction seized 
his mind, and a genuine conversion crowned his inves- 
tigation of this experience-meeting in the forest — the 
first he had ever witnessed among the Methodists. 
Settled in their new home, they were without a preach- 
er until the fall of 1788, when they were visited by the 
Rev. Mr. Brown, a young local preacher, who came 
out also from Virginia, to inspect the country with a 
view to ultimate removal. On application, liberty was 
readily granted him by the Rev. Mr. Miller to preach 
to the people in the Old White Haven Church. He 
spoke with great zeal and fervor; his words were in 
demonstration of the Spirit and in power; the Meth- 



In South Carolina. . 261 

odists did not feel the obligation to hold their peace 
and disguise their joyous emotions; and the widow 
Morris indulged i: . a shout on the occasion that would 
have done credit to one of George Shadford's revival- 
meetings on the Old Brunswick Circuit, in Virginia. 
The congregation were panic-stricken; the old German 
ladies pressed their way to Nancy L. Morris, the wid- 
ow's daughter, and exclaimed in the utmost fright, 
"Your mother has a fit, indeed she has; and she is 
going to die." The daughter, not at all alarmed, 
answered with surprising calmness, " My mother is 
quite subject to such fits; she will soon recover from 
them." 

This Nancy^K Morris subsequently became the wife V 
of Daniel Asbury, who was sent with Enoch George 
(afterward made bishop) in 1789, and with Jesse Rich- 
ardson in 1790, to form the Lincoln Circuit. This 
circuit was made to embrace not only Lincoln, but 
also Rutherford and Burke, with portions of Mecklen- 
burg and Cabarrus counties in North Carolina, and 
York District in South Carolina, and that part of 
Spartanburg and Union Districts which lies north of 
the Pacolet River. It took the name of Union Circuit 
in 1793, which was retained until 1805, when it was 
again called Lincoln; and the circuit of that name, 
though with constantly changing limits, remains to 
the present day. The young George was at first ap- 
palled by this laborious and in some of its parts even 
dangerous field, and made request of Bishop Asbury 
to be changed from it; but the wise Bishop reminded 
him, in great kindness and love, that it was good for 
him to bear the yoke in his youth, and he patiently 
endured to the end. Mr. Asbury had already become 
a veteran in frontier service, and came well fitted to 



2G2 History of Methodism 

his new work, by the special training to which he 
had been subjected the preceding year 1788, on the 
French Broad Mission. In that rude and semi-bar- 
barous region, four years before the territory west of 
the Blue Ridge was erected into the county of Bun- 
combe — in the midst of a population scattered in their 
settlements along the banks of the streams and in the 
coves of the mountains, not a few of whom were as hos- 
tile to ministers of the gospel as the Indians were to 
the whites — he faced dangers and endured hardships 
scarcely credible by those who have been reared in 
the silver age of Methodism. He was often forced to 
subsist solely on cucumbers, or a piece of cold bread, 
without the luxury of a bowl of milk or a cup of cof- 
fee. His ordinary diet was fried bacon and corn- 
bread; his bed, not the swinging hammock, but the 
clapboard laid on poles supported by rude forks driv- 
en into the earthen floor of a log-cabin. A safe guide 
was necessary to direct his devious footsteps from set- 
tlement to settlement through the deep forest, and a 
trusty body-guard to protect his life from the deadly 
assault of the lurking Indian. 

The attempt made in the county of Rutherford, in 
1789, to - overthrow and destroy by persecution the 
man who had passed life amid scenes like these re- 
sembled the movement of the feeble wind to upheave 
the sturdy oak whose firmness and strength have been 
developed by the violence of a hundred storms. A 
■ruffian band of men, headed by one Perminter Mor- 
gan — a Baptist preacher — seized Daniel Asbury and 
hurried him for trial before Jonathan Hampton, a 
worthy justice of the peace and a gentleman of intel- 
ligence. " What crime has be^en committed by Mr. 
Asbury," said the just and prudent magistrate, "that 



In South Carolina. 263 

you have thus arrested him and brought him in the 
presence of an officer of the law?" "He is going 
about everywhere through the country preaching the 
gospei, and has no authority whatever to do so," re- 
sponded Mr. Morgan for the rest. " We believe he is 
nothing but an impostor, and we have brought him 
before you that you may do something with him, and 
forbid him to preach any more in future." "Why, 
does he make the people who go to hear him preach 
any worse than they were before? " further asked the 
magistrate. " We do not know that he does," answered 
Mr. Morgan, " but he ought not to preach." " Well," 
said the magistrate, " if he makes the people no worse, 
the probability is he makes them better; so I will re- 
lease him and let him try it again." And Mr. Asbury 
departed fi'bm the presence of the court rejoicing that 
he was counted worthy to suffer persecution for the 
name of Christ. 

Daniel Asbury was born in Fairfax county, in Yir- ^js 
ginia, on the 18th of February, 1762. His parents dif- 
fered in their views of Christian doctrine, and, as a 
consequence, his religious education was too much 
neglected. At the age of twelve he became deeply 
concerned in regard to his spiritual welfare, and if 
suitable instruction and counsel had, at that time, been 
given, there is reason to believe that he would have 
become a decided Christian; but in consequence of the 
want of this, he relapsed into a course of youthful 
thoughtlessness and folly. On the 8th of February, 
1778 — being at that time in Kentucky — he was seized 
by a prowling band of Shawnee Indians, and carried 
away beyond the Ohio Kiver. They adopted him and 
treated him kindly, and from a residence of several 
years among them he became quite expert in the va- 



264 History of Methodism 

rious employments of savage life. But lie had not 
forgotten the home of his boyhood, and often sighed 
for the society of his own much-loved kindred. At 
length, the Indians, in their wanderings, took him 
with them to Canada, and as the War of the Revolu- 
tion was then in progress, he became a prisoner to the 
British, and was treated by them with great barbarity. 
By a bold stroke, he at length made his escape, and 
after a long and tedious journey, reached his father's 
house in Virginia on the 23d of February, 1783. He 
called professedly as a traveler, and conversed with 
his mother for some time before she had the slightest 
suspicion that he was her son; and when, at length, 
the revelation was made, no pen can describe the over- 
whelming tenderness of the scene that followed. His 
course of life during his wanderings was most un- 
favorable to the cultivation of a serious habit of mind, 
and hence not a vestige of any previous religious im- 
pression seemed to remain with him. He was es- 
pecially opposed to the Methodists who had begun to 
preach in his father's neighborhood, and yet their min- 
istrations became the means of bringing him to a deep 
sense of his guilt, and ultimately to an acceptance of 
the great salvation. In due time, he joined the Meth- 
odist Society, and at length resolved to give himself 
fully to the work of the ministry. He was admitted 
into the itinerant connection in 1786, and appointed 
to the Amelia Circuit; in 1787, to Halifax; in 1788, to 
French Broad; in 1789, to Yadkin for three months, 
when he was removed to Lincoln and Rutherford 
counties to form a new circuit. Here he entered into 
a matrimonial connection with Nancy L. Morris, who 
survived him for many years.- In 1790 he was con- 
tinued on the Lincoln Circuit, which he had formed 



In South Carolina. 265 

the year before. In 1791 lie located and settled in 
Lincoln county, but still labored in the minis fry as 
his circumstances would permit. In 1801 he was ap- 
pointed to the Yadkin Circuit, where he continued 
two years, laboring with great success; in 1803, to 
Union; in 1804, to Enoree. The year 1805 he spent 
chiefly at home. From 1806 to 1810 he was presiding 
elder on the Savannah District; from 1810 to 1814, on 
the Camden District ; from 1814 to 1818, on the Cataw- 
ba District; from 1818 to 1822, on the Broad Eiver 
District. The two following years he traveled the 
Lincoln Circuit, and in 1824 the Sugar Creek Circuit, 
after which he took a superannuated relation. But it 
was not long before the Master, whom he had served 
so long and so faithfully, called him to his reward. 
On Sunday morning, April 15, 1825, he arose ap- 
parently more vigorous and cheerful than usual; con- 
versed on various subjects, and noted down a passage 
of Scripture on which he intended to preach a funeral- 
sermon. But the moment of his ascension had now 
come. The silver cord was loosed so gently that the 
transition from earth to heaven was made without a 
pang. He was walking through his yard, when sud- 
denly he stopped, looked up to heaven, and, with an 
unearthly smile, uttered indistinctly a few words, and 
then fell breathless to the ground. It was on the 
Sabbath — a fitting time for an old pilgrim to enter his 
Father's house above. It is somewhat remarkable 
that he was born on the Sabbath, carried off by the 
Indians on the Sabbath, returned to his father's house 
on the Sabbath, was converted on the Sabbath, and on 
the Sabbath went to his eternal rest. Mr. Asbury 
possessed, naturally, an intellect much above the com- 
mon order, but his early opportunities for culture 



266 History of Methodism 

were exceedingly limited. He used humorously to 
say that " when he was a boy, he never heard talk of a 
grammar-book;" and of the rules of rhetoric and log- 
ic, he was as ignorant as he was of grammar. And 
yet he was an able expositor of the word of God. 
He studied the Bible most diligently, and delighted 
especially in exhibiting its doctrinal truths; and his 
preaching showed that he was deeply imbued with the 
spirit of Wesley, and Fletcher, and Baxter, and others 
of kindred mold, with whose writings he was very 
familiar. Some of his forms of expression, and his 
pronunciation, might have been improved, but his 
general style and manner in the pulpit were by no 
means unacceptable to persons of cultivated minds. 
There was always so much. of sterling scriptural sense 
in his discourses, and they were delivered with such 
earnestness and simplicity, that it was impossible that 
he should be otherwise than an effective preacher. 
His reasoning, which was always founded on the Bible 
and common sense, was direct and forcible ; and his 
illustrations, generally taken from nature and ordinary 
life, were well fitted to arrest and hold the attention. 
In advanced life he was quite bald, and his face thin 
and furrowed, but in its expression always kindly, and 
giving unmistakable indications, especially in the eye, 
of a rich fund of humor. In his intercourse with his 
friends, he dealt much in interesting and amusing an- 
ecdotes which had been supplied by his extensive and 
varied experience. 

He was preaching one night in Columbia, South 
Carolina, just after the people had returned from camp- 
meeting, and it was evident that the congregation was 
rather drowsily disposed. The old gentleman, per- 
ceiving what the state of things was, suddenly paused 



In South Carolina. 267 

in his discourse and said, "Just see what the devil is 
doing here — these dear people want to hear the word 
of the Lord, and do you think the devil is n't getting 
them to sleep already! " and then he resumed his dis- 
course, and proceeded as if nothing had happened. 
He was a great lover of strong coffee, and this pro- 
clivity of his was well understood where he had often 
lodged, and the good sisters directed their coffee ar- 
rangements with reference to it. But once on a time 
he was traveling with a junior brother, who knew that 
at the house where they were to breakfast the good 
lady was rather economical in the use of the precious 
berry; so he rode on ahead and informed the hostess 
that Brother Asbury would relish a cup of coffee of 
much more than the ordinary strength. At length 
breakfast was announced, and the junior brother ap- 
proached the table, congratulating himself that he too 
should get a good dish of strong coffee, and on the old 
gentleman's credit; but what was his disappointment 
and mortification when he espied two coffee-pots on 
the table, from one of which Brother Asbury Avas 
served with good, strong coffee, while the junior had 
to take his portion from the family coffee-pot! This 
joke on his young traveling companion the old man 
used to tell with great zest — and no one had a keener 
relish for a good joke than he, while yet he had an 
eminently spiritual mind; and no one who knew him 
could doubt for a moment that his conversation and 
his treasure were in heaven. 

Jesse Bichardson , who was the colleague of Mr/ 
Asbury on the Lincoln Circuit in 1790, entered the 
traveling connection in 1788, and was appointed to the 
Greenbrier Circuit, in Virginia; 1789, New River; 
1791, Yadkin; 1792, Cherokee; 1793, Georgetown; after 



* 



268 History of Methodism 

which lie located. He was a good preacher, well fitted 
for frontier service, and very successful in winning 
souls to Christ. While traveling the Lincoln Circuit, 
he filled, on one occasion, his appointment for preach- 
ing on an exceedingly cold day, and afterward rode 
through snow, which had fallen to the depth of eight- 
een inches, till about sunset, in order to reach, on the 
way to his next appointment, the only house where he 
could hope to find shelter before the darkness of night 
should overtake him. When he arrived at the place he 
hailed the proprietor and politely asked the privilege 
of spending the night Avith him. "No, you cannot 
stay," responded he, promptly and gruffly; "you are 
one of these lazy Methodist preachers, going about 
everywhere through the country, who ought to be en- 
gaged in honest work." Mr. Richardson maintained 
his self-possession, and did not wholly despair of final 
accommodation, notwithstanding this rude and in- 
sulting rejection at the first. He thought the man 
must have some natural feelings of sympathy for the 
suffering which patient management and tact might 
evoke. His case, moreover, was one of most pressing 
necessity. He therefore, after a little, renewed his re- 
quest, setting forth at the same time such considerations 
as he thought must move the hardest heart, and con- 
cluding with an offer to reward him liberally for all the 
trouble and expense that might be incurred by allowing 
him to pass the night under his roof. " No," again 
responded the unfeeling man in ruffian tones, "you 
shall not pass the threshold of my house this night," 
and, quickly entering, slammed the door in the face of 
the man of God shivering in the cold. As the next 
house was twelve miles distant, and a high mountain 
intervened over which no open road conducted, but 



In South Carolina. 2G9 

only a narrow path, now hidden by the snow which was 
beginning to fall afresh, Mr. Richardson had no al- 
ternative left him but to stay or to freeze to death by 
the way; he therefore deliberately dismounted, tied 
his horse to a stake, and sat down on the door-sill of 
the house. At length he began to sing one of the 
songs of Zion; the proprietor listened in profound 
silence, his savage nature began to grow tame, his 
heart softened, and he showed a disposition to engage 
in conversation: "You seem to be quite merry," said 
he, "and you must be very cold, too; would you not 
like to have a little fire?" "Thank you," said the 
preacher; "it is of all things what I most want just 
now, for I am indeed very cold." The fire was brought ; 
the yard contained a plentiful supply of wood, and 
soon there was a conflagration that made Boreas fairly 
tremble on his icy throne. This brought out the man 
of the house. " What are you doing out there," said 
he, "burning up all my wood? put out that fire and 
come into the house." The preacher took him at his 
word, extinguished the fire, and entered. "And now," 
said he, " my horse has had nothing to eat since early 
this morning; if you will let me put him in the stable 
and feed him, you shall be well paid for it." With 
this request he obstinately refused to comply, with- 
holding food from man and beast, as he also forbid 
the offering of prayer for the family before retiring. 
They slept in their beds, and the preacher, wrapped 
in his overcoat, lay down to rest as best he could before 
the fire. The next morning, at early dawn, hungry 
and cold, he threaded the uncertain pathway over the 
mountain to seek refreshment at the twelve-mile house. 
On another occasion, Mr. Richardson lost his horse. 
The spirited animal, from a feeling of resentment for 



270 II/sroi.T of Methodism 

the supposed neglect of his owner in leaving him 
bound to a stake all night without food in a snow-storm, 
or from some other motive quite satisfactory to him- 
self, made his escape from the stable and ran away. 
Mr. Richardson, going in search of him, passed by 
where two men were clearing land. Being wearied by 
his journey, he sat down on a log to rest and to make 
inquiry of the men concerning the route his horse 
might have taken. One of them abused him with 
great bitterness of speech, threatened to kill him, and 
with clenched fists struck him with such violence as 
to cause him to fall from his seat, and he was perhaps 
saved from death only by the intervention of the other 
man. Having found his horse, it was necessary for 
him, the next day, to pass by the house of the man 
who had assaulted him with such violence. The 
man's wife hailed him and requested him to stop and 
come in. He told her that her husband had abused 
him the day before and threatened to take his life, 
and he did not, therefore, deem it safe to comply with 
her request. She replied, " My husband is at home, 
and says you must come in; he is very anxious to see 
you; there is no cause for fear." Thus assured, he 
went in and found the man in the deepest mental dis- 
tress, and the tears streaming from his eyes. He 
begged the preacher most importunately to pray for 
him; said he, "I feel that I am a miserable and lost 
sinner." After some words of instruction and en- 
couragement they kneeled down in prayer, and their 
united petitions ascended to heaven. The man was 
most earnestly engaged, and after awhile was power- 
fully converted. He sprung to his feet, threw his 
arms around Richardson with such violence, being a 
man of uncommon size and strength, that he came 



In South Caeolina. 271 

well-nigh finishing in love the work which the day 
before he began in wrath. He exchanged a noble 
horse with Richardson, and taking another, went with 
him to eight of his appointments before returning 
home. 

The moral and religious condition of the country, 
implied in these anecdotes of Mr. Richardson, is 
described by Bishop Asbury a few years afterward. 
Having crossed the Pacolet River, which was then 
(1795) the south-western boundary of the Lincoln Cir- 
cuit, he says: "My body is weak, and so is my faith 
for this part of the vineyard. God is my portion, saith 
my soul. This country improves in cultivation, wick- 
edness, mills and stills; a prophet of strong drink 
would be acceptable to many of these people. I be- 
lieve the Methodist preachers keep clear both by 
precept and example; would to God the members did 
so too! Lord, have jnty on weeping, bleeding Zion! " 

The first Methodist church in North Carolina west 
of the Catawba River was built in Lincoln county in 
1791, in the neighborhood in which Daniel Asbury 
settled wdien he located, and was called Rehoboth. 
Before the erection of this church, the congregation 
were accustomed to worship in the grove in the midst 
of which it was built, and these meetings in the forest 
resulted in great good, and were often continued 
throughout the day and night. In 1794 the leading 
male members of the Church consulted together and 
agreed to hold a camp-meeting in this forest for a 
number of days and nights. The meeting was ac- 
cordingly appointed, and was conducted by Daniel 
Asbury, William McKendree (afterward made bishop), 
Nicholas Watters, and William Fulwood, who were 
efficiently aided by Dr. James Hall, a celebrated 



272 IT [story of Methodism 

pioneer preacher among the Presbyterians in Iredell 
county. The success of this first camp-meeting, at 
which it was estimated that three hundred souls were 
converted, led to the appointment of another the fol- 
lowing year (1795) at Bethel, about a mile from the 
famous Rock Spring, and subsequently of yet another 
by Daniel Asbury and Dr. Hall, which was known as 
the great Union Camp-meeting, at Shepherd's Cross 
Roads, in Iredell county. The manifest blessing of 
God upon these meetings, resulting in the conversion 
of hundreds of souls, gave them great favor with both 
the Presbyterians and Methodists, and caused them 
to be kept up continuously in the South Carolina Con- 
ference. The camp-ground established for the whole 
circuit was changed in 1815 from Bethel to Robey's 
Church (Friendship), and in 1828 to the Rock Spring, 
where such meetings continue to be held to this day. 
John McGee, whose name is associated with the 
origin of camp-meetings in the West, was born on the 
Yadkin River below Salisbury, in North Carolina, and 
in the upper part of the Little Pedee and Anson cir- 
cuits in the South Carolina Conference, and entered the 
traveling connection in 1788. He was associated with 
Daniel Asbury in the work in 1789, placed in charge of 
the Lincoln Circuit in 1792, and located in 1793, and 
remained in a section of country where camp-meetings 
had become well known and popular until 1798, when 
he removed and settled in Sumner county, in Tennes- 
see. It was a great service rendered the Church at 
large when he transferred these meetings from the Ca- 
tawba River to the banks of the Red River, in Ken- 
tucky, and the Cumberland River, in Tennessee, and 
five years after their origin made known practically 
to the Western country an instrumentality by which, 



In South Carolina. 273 

under the blessing of God, thousands were brought to 
the knowledge of salvation. 

The first camp-meeting in Rutherford county was 
held in 1802 about eight miles above the court-house, 
and near a Presbyterian church called Little Brit- 
ain. It was conducted by Dr. Hall and Dr. Wilson, of 
the Presbyterian Church, who, however, welcomed the 
labors both of Baptist and Methodist preachers. Thos. 
L. Douglas, from the Swannano Circuit, attended this 
meeting, became a great favorite of Dr. Hall, and 
preached with great power and effect. David Gray, 
a gentleman of piety and intelligence, who lived and 
died near Rutherfordton, and who was present at 
this first camp-meeting, as also at others held at the 
same place, gave, by request, the following account 
of it: 

There was a powerful work among the people, such as had never 
been witnessed before in this part of the country. Many were as- 
tonished beyond measure, and appeared to be frightened almost to 
death. They would fall sometimes, under preaching, their whole 
length on the ground, and with such suddenness and violence as 
seemed almost enough to kill them. Some of my neighbors fell at 
my feet like men shot in battle. This the people called being 
" struck down," and when they professed religion, they called that 
" coming through." Persons of all ages were " struck down " and 
"came through ;" and even little boys and girls, not more than ten or 
twelve years old, were subjects of this work; and their exhortations 
to the people were calculated to melt the hardest heart. Those who 
had no religion looked like condemned criminals before the judge, 
waiting to hear the sentence of death pronounced against them. A 
married lady, during one of the services, sat under deep conviction, 
and cried for mercy in the greatest distress of mind for an hour or 
two, when at length she was powerfully converted and shouted the 
praises of the Lord until she was exhausted. After a little she 
called for her child, about four months old, and when it was brought 
and laid in her arms, she dedicated it, like Hannah of old, wholly 
to the Lord, and raising both her hands, uttered one of the most fer- 
vent and touching prayers I ever heard, that the Lord would spare 
IS 



274 History of Methodism 

his life and call him to preach his gospel. I thought at the time, if 
I lived long enough, I would note particularly the history of this 
child. When about twelve years of age, the Lord converted his 
soul and he joined the Methodist Church. Soon after, his father 
moved to Tennessee. When he grew up, the Lord called him to the 
ministry ; he became an able preacher in the Tennessee Conference ; 
represented the Church in the General Conference and in the Lou- 
isville Convention, and died beloved and honored by the people. 
The child was Ambrose Driskell, grandson of Mr. Kilpatrick, the 
tirst man in Rutherford county, although a Presbyterian, to open 
his house for preaching by the Methodists, and who afterward, with 
his wife, four daughters, and two sons, became members of the Meth- 
odist Church. 

One of the most mysterious exercises among the people was what 
was called the jerks. I saw numbers exercised in this way at a 
camp-meeting held in Lincoln county. Sometimes their heads 
would be jerked backward and forward with such violence that it 
would cause them to utter involuntarily a sharp, quick sound sim- 
ilar to the yelp of a dog; and the hair of the women to crack like a 
whip. Sometimes their arms, with clenched fists, would be jerked 
in alternate directions with such force as seemed sufficient almost to 
separate them from the body. Sometimes all ^heir limbs would be 
aflected, and they would be thrown into almost every imaginable 
position, and it was as impossible to hold them still almost as to 
hold a wild horse. When a woman was exercised in this way, other 
women would join hands around her and keep her within the circle 
they formed ; but the men were left without constraint to jerk at 
large through the congregation, over benches, over logs, and even 
over fences. I have seen persons exercised in such a way that they 
would go all over the floor with a quick, dancing motion, and with 
such rapidity that their feet would rattle upon the floor like drum- 
sticks. 

1 will mention a strange fanaticism which, in these early days, 
showed itself in the congregation at Knob Creek Church in this 
(Rutherford) county, which was originally a Presbyterian Church, 
but was finally cut off because nothing could be done with the mem- 
bers. Every impression made upon the mind, they professed to be 
lieve, proceeded directly from the Lord, and they endeavored to 
obey it, no matter what might be its character. For example: One 
man said that he had an impression from the Lord that he must sow 
his corn broadcast, and cultivate it with a wooden plow and wooden 



In South Carolina. 275 

lioe; lie did accordingly, and made an exceedingly small crop. An 
o)d lady said that siie had an impression that one of her neighbors 
ought to break her crop of flax for her ; he accordingly did as she 
said the Lord had directed. I was well acquainted with a man 
among these people who told me that he went one day to hunt his 
cows, and looked all over the woods in which they generally grazed 
but did not find them. "At last," said he, "the Lord came upon me, 
and a light appeared before me ; I started right after it through the 
woods, over the logs and over the brush, till at length I came to my 
cattle in a place where I never would have thought of looking for 
them; then the divine power left me; the light disappeared, and I 
understood the whole matter." These fanatics held night-meet- 
ings two or three times a week, and would often visit several houses 
in one night, because some one would, have an impression aftei 
assembling at a particular place that they ought to go elsewhere. 
They would sometimes gather around the roots of a tree and bark 
as dogs, saying that they had treed the devil. They pretended to 
administer the sacrament among themselves, and used a kind of tea 
instead of wine. Some who were regarded as men of intelligence 
and worth in the community, fell into this strange and deplorable 
delusion. 

There was another exercise among these people called the mar- 
rying exercise. A young man would go to a young lady and tell her 
that the Lord had given her to him for a wife, and they must get 
married or be lost ; and sometimes the young lady would have the 
same kind of impression. Three couples were married in this way 
at one prayer-meeting, and many were so married on other occasions. 
I believe the people have these kind of impressions at the present 
day and try to obey them, but not exactly in the same way as did 
these fanatics. 

The Rev. Joseph Moore encountered these fanatical 
extravagances, and thus speaks of them in a letter ad- 
dressed to Jesse Lee: 

May 16th, 1806. 
Some of the Presbyterians got into some extremes and brought a 
reproach upon the good work. They got into what they called the 
dancing exercise, the marrying exercise, etc. Sometimes a whole 
set of them would get together and begin dancing about at a most 
extravagant rate. Sometimes they would be exercised about getting 
married, and one would tell another he or she' had a particular rev 



276 History of Methodism 

elation that they must be married, and if the one thus addressed 
did not consent, he or she must expect to be damned. Thus many 
got married, and it was said some old maids, who had nearly gotten 
antiquated, managed in this way to get husbands. But this was 
condemned by the more sober part among Presbyterians and Meth- 
odists, and it has now nearly subsided." 

Among the early preachers who made a deep and 
lasting impression on the public mind, and to whom 
Methodism is greatly indebted for its planting in por- 
tions of Rutherford and Burke, and what is now Cald- 
well county in North Carolina, was John Fore, who 
entered the traveling connection in 1788, and located 
in 1797. The celebrated Dr. Thomas Hinde, who ap- 
plied the blister- plaster to his wife as a remedy for the 
Methodism with which she was incurably infected, 
was induced to attend one of his appointments in 1789 
— four years before he preached in North Carolina — 
and having taken a central position in the church, to 
watch the movements of the young pulpit-orator and 
afterward to make his observations, thus reports: "At 
length a stripling appeared with his saddle-bags on 
his arms — he looked like a school-boy — entered the 
church and ascended the pulpit. He stretched his 
neck, surveyed the congregation, and I thought he 
fixed his eye on me. As he proceeded to address the 
congregation a kind of shivering seized my frame; his 
very look had pierced my heart, and now, alas ! I was 
exposed to the full view of the whole congregation; 
tears flowed, and it was a vain attempt to stop them. 
I wiped and wiped my eyes till my handkerchief failed 
to stop them; it was wet with tears. I was confound- 
ed and overpowered, and left the house after service 
under feelings of mortification and distress." 

He was soon soundly converted, opened his house 
for Methodist preaching, and like a persecuting Saul 



In South Carolina. 211 

of Tarsus came forth a bright and zealous advocate of 
the cause of truth. And ever afterward, in class-meet- 
ings and in love-feasts, he never failed to move the 
whole audience to tears with the affecting story of 
the blister-plaster, and of John Fore's searching and 
powerful preaching. 



CHAPTER XII. 



I have well considered my journal ; it is inelegant, yet it conveys 
much information of the state of religion and country. I make no 
doubt the Methodists are, and will be, a numerous and wealthy peo- 
ple, and their preachers who follow us will not know our struggles 
but by comparing the present improved state of the country with 
what it was in our day, as exhibited in my journal and other 

records of that day. 

(Francis Asbury.) 

THURSDAY, December 25, 1794, from Jackson's 
(in Anson county, North Carolina) we took the 
grand Camden road to great Lynch's Creek, thirty 
miles, and came to Evan's. Friday, 26th, made forty 
miles to Pnblius James Eembert's. James Rogers and 
Sanmel Cowls were my faithful attendants. The land 
we. came through yesterday is poor and but thinly set- 
tled — a plantation once in three or four miles. The 
long-leaved pines have a grand appearance. Sunday, 
28th, rode, after preaching, to Brother Bradford's; 
.Monday, 29th, to Bowman's. Tuesday, 30th, we had 
to wrestle with Santee Swamp for three hours, but 
through mercy got over safe at last, and came, in the 
evening, to the house of a very kind Frenchman. 
"Wednesday, 31st, with the main body of the preachers 
came into the city of Charleston. 

Thursday, January 1, 1795. Being New-year's-day, 

I was called upon to preach, which I did on Psalm xc. 

12. We entered on the business of our Conference, 

and continued until Wednesday, 7th. We had preach- 

(278) 



History of Methodism. 279 

ing every niglit during the sitting of Conference. It 
was the request of the Conference that I should preach 
them a sermon on Tuesday night, with which I com- 
plied, and made choice of Jer. xxiii. 29-32. In times 
past I have endeavored to keep on traveling all the 
year, but I now judge it meet to stay in Charleston a 
little longer, and then take t^e field; yet it is with 
fear and trembling. 

Sunday, 11. Brothers Joshua Cannon and Enoch 
George being about to leave the city, I gave place to 
them to perforin the services of the Sabbath. I heard 
part of a discourse by Mr. Furman on partial and total 
backsliding. I thought he spoke well, and that it was 
an excellent sermon. I doubt if he had more than 
seventy white hearers; a vast number in the city do 
not attend to the worship of God anywhere. 

Monday, 12. The remaining members of Confer- 
ence left the city. Brother Bruce and myself must 
now lay our shoulders to the work. 

Tuesday, 13. Had a comfortable season in the 
church on Gal. iv. 16: "Am I therefore become your 
enemy, because I tell you the truth? " 

Wednesday, 14. Preached at Brother Wells's on 
Psalm cxix. 71: "It is good for me that I have been 
afflicted, that I might learn thy statutes." 

Sunday, 18. Preached in the morning on Exod. xx., 
the first and second commandments; in the after- 
noon on the affliction and conversion of Manasseh, 2 
Chron. xxxiii. 12, 13. One young man behaved amiss, 
for which I reproved him ; perhaps he might be among 
those in the evening who made a riot, broke the win- 
dows, and beat open the doors. 

Sunday, 25. Preached morning and afternoon. 

Sunday, February 1. Lectured on second table of 



280 'History of Methodism 

the law, attending particularly to our Lord's comment 
on each precept. In the afternoon enlarged on Jer 
xxxi. 33. 

Thursday, 5. Deeply dejected ; the white and world- 
ly people are intolerably ignorant of God; playing, 
dancing, swearing, racing — these are their common 
practices and pursuit^. Our few male members do 
not attend preaching, and I fear there is hardly one 
who walks with God. The women and Africans attend 
our meetings, and some few strangers also. There is 
some similarity between my stay here and at Bath, in 
Virginia. O how I should prize a quiet retreat in 
the woods! 

Sunday, 8. Preached on Psalm viii. 4; Brother 
Bruce on 1 Cor. ii. 5. I met the society, read the 
rules of discipline, and gave a close talk about con- 
formity to the world. 

Sunday, 22. Our congregations are uncommonly 
large. 

Friday, 27. Observed a general fast; met the peo- 
ple in the Church, and read Joel i. 12-18. Fasted 
from two o'clock on Thursday until half-past five on 
Friday. Wish we could have solemn monthly fasts 
and love-feasts before sacrament. 

Sunday, March 1. Preached in the forenoon and 
afternoon; my parting subject was 1 Cor. xvi. 23, 24. 
The congregation was very large, and if the people are 
prudent and the preachers faithful, we shall have a 
work in this place. 

After laboring two months in Charleston, Bishop 
Asbury devoted another month to visiting the Edisto, 
Saluda, Broad Biver, and Union circuits, preaching 
at divers places in each, and concluding with a quar- 
terly-meeting on Saturday, 4th, and Sunday, 5th April, 



In South Carolina. 281 

at Daniel Asbury's church, in Lincoln county, North 
Carolina. 

Thursday, December 24, 1795. We came to Kings- 
ton (Conwayborough), where I preached in an old 
Presbyterian meeting-house, now repaired for the use 
of the Methodists. I spent the evening with Yv r . 
Kogers, formerly of Bristol, where our wants were 
richly supplied. 

Christmas-day, 25. Came to Georgetown. The 
vanity of dancing in this place is, in a good degree, 
done away, and they have no play-house, and the peo- 
ple are very attentive. After ten years' labor, we have 
done but little, but if we could station a preacher here 
we might hope for success. I found Brother Cannon 
had not labored in vain. Brother Blanton, my faith- 
ful friend and companion in travel, preached in the 
evening. I preached on Psalm xii. 1, and on the 
Sabbath I preached on Deut. v. 12-14. In the after- 
noon the people were attentive and somewhat moved. 
I find the scene is changed in Georgetown; we have 
a number of very modest, attentive hearers, and a 
good work among the blacks. The Methodists begin 
to stand on even ground with their antagonists. 

Wednesday, 30. We reached Charleston. My soul 
felt joyful and solemn at the thoughts of a revival of 
religion in the city. 

Thursday, 31. We had a melting time at the love- 
feast at Brother Wells's. 

Friday, January 1, 1796. I gave them a sermon 
suited to the beginning of the year, and the sacred 
fire was felt. 

Saturday, 2. We began our Conference. 

Lord's-day, 3, was a day of extraordinary divine 
power, particularly at the sacrament. 



282 History of Methodism 

Monday, 4. We again entered on the business of 
Conference ; present, about twenty preachers and seven 
graduates. 

Tuesday, 5. Continued our business; we have great 
peace and love — see eye to eye and heart to heart. 

Thursday, 7, we observed as a day of fasting and 
humiliation, to seek the blessing of the Lord on the 
Conference. We began, continued, and parted in the 
greatest peace and union. We concluded to send 
Jonathan Jackson and Josias Handle alternately as 
missionaries to Savannah and the ancient parts of 
Georgia. 

Sunday, 10. Gave a discourse on Hab. ii. 1, 2. At 
noon Brother Hill made an attempt to preach in the 
street opposite St. Michael's Church, but was pre- 
vented by the guard; however, it wrought right, for 
many were led to attend the church in the afternoon 
and evening meetings. 

Sunday, 17. Preached to a full congregation and 
had a solemn season, and in the afternoon I preached 
on Luke viii. 10. 

Sunday, 24. Made out to deliver two discourses to 
large congregations. 

Sunday, 31. Was much taken up with the work of 
the Lord. I preached in the morning and afternoon. 

Wednesday, February 3. Had near two hundred 
and fifty of the African society at the love-feast held 
for them in the evening. 

Friday, 5. Was happy last evening with the poor 
slaves in Brother Wells's kitchen, whilst our white 
brother held a sacramental love-feast in the front par- 
lor up-stairs. 

Sunday, 7. "We had an awful, solemn season while 
I discoursed on the two thieves that suffered with our 



In South Carolina. 283 

Lord, and still more so in the afternoon on our Lord's 
comment on the sixth commandment. My soul is 
truly happy in the Lord, and his work is reviving 
amongst us. 

Sunday, 14. Began the solemnity of the day by 
opening and applying our Lord's comment on the 
seventh commandment. 

Wednesday, 17. The city now appears to be run- 
ning mad for races, plays, and balls. My soul longeth 
to be gone as a bird from a cage. I have been em- 
ployed in visiting from house to house, and lament the 
superficial state of religion among the white people 
who are called Methodists. I have thought if we had 
entered here to preach only to the Africans, we should 
probably have done better. 

Monday, 21. Delivered two discourses on our Lord's 
sermon on the mount, and was loud, long, alarming, 
and not very pleasing. 

Sunday, 28. My morning subject was Phil. i. 8, 9. 
In the evening, treated on wolves in sheep's clothing: 
some laughed, some wept, and some were vexed. I 
feel for these souls: many of them, who have been sit- 
ting under my ministry, appear to be more hardened 
now than when I began to preach to them; and no 
wonder, seeing they have so insulted the Spirit of 
God. 

Wednesday, March 2. And now, what have I been 
doing? I have preached eighteen sermons, met all 
the classes, fifteen in number, written about eighty 
letters, read some hundred pages, visited thirty fam- 
ilies again and again. But who are made the subjects 
of grace? I am apprehensive God will work more in 
judgment than in mercy, and that this will be an event- 
ful year to the inhabitants of this place. 



284 His toby of Methodism 

Thursday, 3. Left the city and directed our course 
toward Augusta- 
After giving a month to the work in Georgia, they re- 
turned to South Carolina, traveled through Abbeville, 
Newberry, Laurens, Union, and Spartanburg districts, 
and passing the Cowpens, " where Morgan and Tarle- 
ton had their fray," they went through Eutherford to 
Morganton, in Burke county, North Carolina. The 
Conference of 1797 was attended by Doctor Coke, who 
lias left the following interesting account of his visit: 

"From Mr. John Handle's (in Montgomery coun- 
ty, North Carolina) I rode the next day to his broth- 
er William's, where, the weather being cold and the 
congregation small, I preached in his large parlor in 
preference to our chapel; and the next day went to 
Brother Threadgill's, a local preacher and justice of 
the peace, who had a congregation ready to receive me 
on my arrival. Our next engagement was at Anson 
Court-house ( Wadesboro), which I reached about noon, 
after being wet to the skin. Here I had a small con- 
gregation on account of the rain, and after preaching 
rode about eighteen miles to Brother Plante's, where 
a little company awaited me in his dwelling-house. 
The next day I preached in our chapel about half a 
mile from Brother Plante's to a considerable audience, 
and was favored of the Lord with one of my best times. 
After preaching I rode about twelve miles, and lay at 
the house of a pious Baptist. In the morning we 
breakfasted at a tavern on the road, and at night reached 
another tavern where the pious landlady, being ap- 
prised of my coming, provided for me a little congre- 
gation, and gave us tea, supper, lodging, and breakfast 
gratis. The next day we rode fo Camden, in South 
Carolina, a tolerable town containing; about two hun- 



In South Carolina. 285 

clred houses. I lodged at the house of Brother Smith, 
formerly au eminent and successful traveling preach- 
er. It is most lamentable to see so many of our able 
married preachers (or rather I might say, almost all 
of them) become located merely for want of support 
for their families. I am conscious it is not the fault 
of the people; it is the fault of the preachers, who, 
through a false and most unfortunate delicacy, have 
not pressed the important subject as they ought upon 
the consciences of the people. I am astonished that 
the work has risen to its present height on this conti- 
nent, when so much of the spirit of prophecy, of the 
gifts of preaching — yea, of the most precious gifts 
which God bestows on mortals, except the gifts of his 
only-begotten Son and his spirit of grace — should thus 
miserably be thrown away. I could, methinks, enter 
into my closet and weep tears of blood on the occasion. 
Many of the inhabitants of Camden, as I was informed, 
are Deists, so I endeavored to suit my discourses ac- 
cordingly. After preaching two sermons in this town, 
and one at Brother Lenoir's, a planter, who lives a few 
mil es from Camden, we set out for Brother Bembert's, 
who is descended from French ancestors, and of con- 
siderable property. On Christmas-day I preached at 
our chapel in the neighborhood, on the history of the 
wise men, and afterward administered the Lord's Sup- 
per. About dinner-time a son of Brother Bembert re- 
lated to us the following interesting anecdote : 'A (skep- 
tical) gentleman of Columbia (the seat of government 
for South Carolina, not far distant from Mr. Bembert's) 
had (about a fortnight past) drunk immoderately for 
three successive nights, by which he brought on a fe- 
ver, which ended in his death. A little time before he 
died, he asked his physician whether there were any 



286 History of Methodism 

hopes of liis recovery. On the physician answering 
in the negative, and that he had probably but a few 
days at farthest to survive, lie ordered the people 
around him to lay him out as a corpse. When this 
was executed, he desired them to go to several of his 
(skeptical) friends and to inform them that he was 
dead, and that he had made it his dying request that 
they would come immediately after his decease, and 
take a parting view of his dead body. His friends ac- 
cordingly came; and while they were making their 
remarks on the supposed corpse, he sprung up out of 
bed in a moment, threw his arms around their necks, 
and gave each of them a smart kiss, immediately after 
which he returned into bed, and the next morning ex- 
pired.' It is astonishing what force there is in the 
modern philosophy, to make the conscience as hard as 
a stone! From Mr. Eembert's, we set off for Brother 
Moore's, who was once also a very useful traveling 
preacher. The location of so many scores of our most 
able and experienced preachers tears my very heart in 
pieces. Methinks almost the whole continent would 
have fallen before the power of God had it not been for 
this enormous evil. At Brother Moore's we had a room 
full of precious souls, all alive to God. On the next day, 
I preached at one of our chapels, not far distant from 
Brother Moore's, and administered the Lord's Supper. 
We permitted a good many to remain spectators at 
their own earnest importunity, and observing that sev- 
eral young women, who were not communicants, were 
under deep concern, we invited them, when the sacra- 
ment was over, to draw near to the table, that we might 
pray particularly for them. They did so, with tears 
streaming down their cheeks, and we were favored 
with a most profitable time, not only for them, but for 



In South Carolina. 287 

all who were present. I find it a common custom for 
our elders, on such occasions, to invite those who do 
not choose to communicate to draw near to be prayed 
for, and that almost always some accept of the invi- 
tation. After the service, we mounted our horses in 
order, if possible, to reach a village called the Corner 
(Monks). But there was a great swamp, as well as a 
broad ferry, in our way. When we came into the mid- 
dle of the swamp, it was almost night. In one place, 
the planters had laid down about a hundred logs of 
wood, which they call puncheons, in order to mend the 
road: these, owing to the heavy rains, were loosened 
and floated on the water which covered the road. We 
first endeavored to drive our horses over them, but all 
in vain; we then ventured into a deep ditch, in order 
to go round them, but in this also we failed, so that 
we were obliged to turn back in the dark through a 
miserable road, till we arrived at the house of a little 
planter. He very kindly took us in, and gave us a 
roasted turkey for our supper, and the best beds in his 
house to lie on. In the morning, he took us five miles 
round through the woods, and brought us into the 
road beyond the puncheons; when, to our great sur- 
prise, we met a gentleman who had driven his horse 
over the puncheons; however, he was thoroughly wet, 
for the poor beast had fallen with him two or three 
times. Soon afterward we crossed the broad ferry; 
and then, as usual, I saw the hand of Providence, for 
my horse was exceedingly restive, and would, very 
probably, have overturned the boat if we had crossed 
in the dark the evening before. When we arrived at 
the Corner, I expected to preach, but no notice had 
been given by the preacher who went before me to 
make my publications; and being much fatigued with 



2S3 History of Methodism 

a long journey, I rested that evening, but was after- 
ward yery much grieved when I was informed that 
the people expected to be called together, and have a 
sermon in the parlor of the tavern, and that they had 
not had divine service for twelve years! O what a 
blessing it is to enjoy the sound of the gospel! How 
little value do too many fix on the privileges they en- 
joy! From the Corner, we set off for Charleston, and 
in the evening arrived among our dear friends in that 
city. Brother Asbury came in the same day (January 
2, 1797) from his route by the sea-side; and we mutu- 
ally rejoiced to see each other's face. On this day's 
journey we saw a noble eagle, standing on the top of a 
tree and looking calmly at us. This whole journey 
was very pleasing. The weather was continually mild, 
a few days only excepted. The lofty pine-trees, through 
which we rode for a considerable part of the way, cast 
such a pleasing gloom over the country that I felt my- 
self perfectly shut up from the busy world, at the same 
time that I was ranging through immeasurable forests. 
How many blessings of a temporal kind does our good 
God mix in our cup, besides that crowning blessing — 
the consciousness of his favor! How inexcusable, 
therefore, would it be to murmur when enjoying so 
many comforts, even in a state of probation ! O what 
must the rivers of pleasure be which flow at his right- 
hand forevermore! While I continued at Charleston, 
we had our Annual Conference for the States of South 
Carolina and Georgia, and for a part of North Caroli- 
na, in which every thing was settled with the utmost 
harmony and concord. In the Virginia Conference 
there was a great deficiency of preachers, which was 
nearly made up by the surplus in the present. Here 
we received a pressing invitation to send missionaries 



In South Carolina. 289 

to Providence Island, one of the Bahamas, but were 
all of the opinion that the British Colonies should be 
supplied from Britain or Ireland. Indeed, our Amer- 
ican societies have neither men nor money to spare. 
O that God would, of his infinite mercy, raise up more 
faithful laborers for his work, and incline the hearts 
of the rich to assist us in carrying on our extensive 
plan for the enlargement of his kingdom ! Charleston 
has lately suffered extremely by two conflagrations, 
both of which happened in the course of a month. 
About six hundred dwelling-houses, besides ware- 
houses, and a large quantity of valuable effects, were 
destroyed. In Savannah, in Georgia, also, they have 
had three conflagrations, the last of which nearly con- 
sumed the small part of the town which the two former 
had left remaining. Surely, the judgments of God are 
upon the earth! But alas! the greatest part of its 
inhabitants, it is to be feared, have refused to learn 
righteousness. Poor William Hammett is now come 
to nothing. When he began his schism, his popular- 
ity was such that he soon erected a church, nearly if 
not quite as large as our new chapel in London, which 
was crowded on the Lord's-day. But alas! he has 
now upon Sunday evenings only about thirty white 
people, with their dependent blacks. He has indeed 
gained a sufficiency of money to procure a plantation, 
and to stock it with slaves, though no one was more 
strenuous against slavery than he while destitute of 
the power of enslaving. During his popularity, we lost 
almost all our congregation and society; but blessed be 
God, we have now a crowded church, and a society, in- 
clusive of the blacks, amounting to treble the number 
which we had when the division took place; and our 
people intend immediately to erect a second church. 
19 



290 History of Methodism 

I can truly say that the more I am acquainted with 
the devices of Satan, the more I detest the spirit of 
schism. Our society of blacks in the city are, in gen- 
eral, very much alive to God. They now amount to 
about five hundred. The Lord has raised up a zealous 
man in Mr. McFarlan, a merchant, and partner with 
the late Mr. Wells. He amply supplies the place of 
his valuable deceased partner. His weekly exhorta- 
tions to the blacks are rendered very profitable. It 
is common for the proprietors of slaves to name their 
blacks after the heathen gods and goddesses. The 
most lively leader among our negroes in this place has 
no other name but Jupiter: he has a blessed gift in 
prayer, but it appears to me extremely odd to hear 
the preacher cry out, ' Jupiter, will you pray?' A lady 
of the name of Hopeton lives in this city, a woman of 
large fortune, and between seventy and eighty years 
of age. Mr. Wesley dined with her, as he was return- 
ing home from Georgia. When she heard of Mr. 
Hammett's introducing Methodism on Mr. Wesley's 
original plan, she sent him an invitation to her house ; 
and when he entered her parlor, she took him by the 
hand and informed him of the honor she had received 
in the company of Mr. Wesley, and that she was happy 
to show respect to one who so highly revered his mem- 
ory and trod in his steps. But alas! he has so sick- 
ened her of the gospel that I have no hopes that she 
ever will again attend a gospel ministry. In this city, 
which contains only about twenty thousand inhabit- 
ants, they have two public theaters, and the people 
in general are much more devoted to pleasure than in 
any part of Great Britain or Ireland. From all the 
observations I have been able to make, I can perceive 
that the inhabitants of the United States are verging 



In South Carolina. 291 

rapidly into two grand parties— real Christians and 
open infidels. I confess I have my doubts whether 
religion has gained ground or not, on this continent, 
since my last visit." 

Tuesday, January 3, 1797. We began Conference, 
and sat some days six or seven hours. We had pleas- 
ing accounts of the growth of religion in Georgia, as 
well as in this State. We had a sermon every evening, 
and many to hear. 

Sunday, 8. My subject was John xiv. 21-23. 

Monday, 9. Our Conference rose. We have been 
blessed with some young men for the ministry. 

Sunday, 15. Preached on John vi. 66-69. We were 
much crowded, and more so when Dr. Coke preached 
in the evening. 

Monday, 16. This evening I prayed with Brother 
Wells, for the last time; he expressed his confidence 
in God, and freedom from guilty dread and horror. 

Tuesday, 17. Was called to the house of Brother 
Wells, just departed this life. His widow I found in 
prayers and tears, as also the dear children and 
servants. We appointed his funeral to be at four 
o'clock to-morrow. It is twelve long years next March 
since he first received Henry Willis, Jesse Lee, and 
myself, into his house. In a few days he was brought 
under heart distress for sin, and soon after professed 
faith in Christ; since that time he has been a diligent 
member of the society. About fourteen months ago, 
when there was a revival of religion in the society, and 
in his own family, it came home to his own soul; he was 
quickened, and remarkably blessed, and continued so 
to be until his death. His affliction was long and very 
severe. The last words he was heard to say that could 
be understood were that " he knew where he was, that 



292 History of Methodism 

his- wife was with him, and that God was with him.' 
He has been a man of sorrows, and has suffered the 
loss of two respectable wives, and a favorite son; sus- 
tained heavy loss by fire, and was subject to a great 
variety of difficulties in trade and merchandise. He 
was one much for the feeling part of religion ; a gen- 
tleman of spirit, and sentiment, and fine feelings; a 
faithful friend to the poor, and warmly attached to the 
ministers of the gospel. 

Wednesday, 18. We committed the dust of our dear 
Brother Wells to the Old Church burying-ground, in 
Cumberland street. Doctor Coke performed the funer- 
al-rites, and delivered an oration. I also gave a short 
one. 

Sunday, 22. I preached Mr. Wells's funeral-sermon 
on Rev. ii. 10: " Be thou faithful unto death, and I will 
give thee a crown of life." Observed, (1) Who it is 
that speaketh ; (2) to whom he was speaking ; (3) what 
might be supposed and granted concerning the Angel 
of the Church — that he had professed the convicting 
and converting grace of God — that he had suffered 
poverty, temptation, and persecution; (4) what it is to 
be faithful to God — to fear him, as also to trust in his 
grace and providence; faithful to Christ, and to the 
Church, to the Spirit of God, to his family and citi- 
zens; faithful unto death, even martyrdom. Gave a 
brief account of Mr. Wells's life and death. 

Wednesday, 25. No justice for Cumberland street 
Methodists. A young Scot shouted in the church, 
and after he was taken out of the house struck three 
or four men; no bill was found against him, and we 
are insulted every night by candle-light. 

Sunday, 29. Consulted a physician, who judged 
my disease to be intermittent fever. 



Ix South Carolina. 293 

Friday, February 10. This day Doctor Coke is 
waiting to sail for Ireland. Strangers to the delicacies 
of Christian friendship know little or nothing of the 
pain of parting. 

Sunday, 12. Stood upon my watch-tower. My 
subject was Eccles. v. 1: "Keep thy foot when thou 
goest into the house of God." I. The house of God — 
the temples, first and second, and synagogues were 
called houses of God. A place built for the service 
and worship of the Lord; the congregation and Church. 
II. The exercises and ordinances of the house of God; 
reading and preaching the word of God; prayer and 
praises ; baptism and the Lord's Supper. In his tem- 
ple every one shall speak of his glory. III. The 
manifestations that God is pleased to make of himself 
in his own house to the souls of his people. IV. How 
people should prepare for and behave in the house of 
God. To keep their eyes and ears — fix their attention 
on the Lord and Master of the house. V. The wicked 
called fools, and the sacrifice they make. Ignorant of 
themselves, of God, of Christ, and true religion, and 
the worship of the Lord, and do not consider it is God, 
Christ, and sacred things they make light of. 

Tuesday, 14. Met the stewards on the subject of 
the new house (Bethel). We have adjourned on the 
question. If materials fall in their price, and if we 
can secure £400, shall we begin? O we of little faith! 
It is a doubt if we had fifty in society and £100 on 
hand when we laid the foundation-stone of Cumber- 
land Street House, which cost us (including the lot) 
£1,300. The society has been rent in twain, and yet 
we have worked out of debt and paid £100 for two 
new lots, and we can spare £100 from the stock, make a 
subscription of £150, and the Africans will collect £100. 



291 History of Methodism 

Sunday, 19. Made an explanatory discourse on 
Isaiah lv. 1-7. It was a melting season. In the after- 
noon preached on Rom. viii. 31. 

Sunday, 26. Judged it best to be plain and explan- 
atory on the Lord's Supper, 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. Congrega- 
tion large, and the sacramental occasion very solemn. 
My farewell discourse was on 1 Sam. xii. 23, 24. Ob- 
served on the duty of those who have the charge of 
souls: (1) To pray for them; (2) to teach them the 
good and right way, which is, to fear the Lord, and 
serve him in truth, sincerity and parity of intention; 
(3) the motives to induce them — the consideration of 
the great things God has done for them. 

Monday, 27. Reached Monk's Corner, and were 
most agreeably entertained at Mr. Jones's. The next 
day came to Nelson's Ferry; the gentlemen were re- 
galing themselves with cards; blunt Frank Asbury 
asked for dinner, but told them he could not dine on 
cards. The cards were very politely put away, and 
every necessary mark of attention paid. Mr. Gour- 
din, who commands several ferries on the river, is a 
complete gentleman. We came off in the rain, and 
after riding four miles in the dark, dirt, and rain, came 
to the Widow Bowman's. 

Thursday, March 2. Had a cold day at Gibson's; 
subject 1 John v. 13-15. Bode five miles to Mark 
Moore's, and preached on 2 Peter iii. 18. 

Friday, 3. At Bradford's, on Heb. iii. 7, 8. 

Saturday, 4. At Bembert's new chapel, on Matt. xi. 
28-30. 

Sunday, 5. After love-feast and sacrament, preached 
on 2 Cor. vi. 6-10. 

Monday, 6. At Camden, in the court-house, on 2 
Cor. v. 11: "Knowing therefore the terror of the 



In South Carolina. 295 

Lord, we persuade men." I. The divine character of 
Christ as judge — his perfections, and relations to the 
persons who are to be tried. II. The characters to 
be judged — infidels, sinners, Pharisees, hypocrites, 
backsliders, believers, true and false ministers — these 
are to be tried, found guilty, or acquitted, sentenced, 
and punished, or approved and rewarded. 

Tuesday, 7. At Brother Horton's (Hanging Rock). 

Wednesday, 8. Rode thirty-two miles to the Wax- 
haws; at Wren's preached on 1 Thess. v. 6: "Let us 
not sleep as do others." The next day, at quarterly- 
meeting, on Isa. i. 9. Rode Friday and Saturday 
seventy miles. We passed through a large settlement 
of Presbyterians ; Mr. McCrea, their minister, gave us 
a kind invitation to lodge at his house, but we wished 
to cross the river (Catawba) at Martin's Ferry and 
stay at the Widow Featherston's. 

Sunday, 12. We were at Daniel Asbury's. I sat 
down and taught the people on Heb. xi. 6. We had a 
living meeting in the evening; some souls were great- 
ly blessed. 

Wednesday, November 29, 1797. I desired the ad- 
vice of the Conference (at James's Chapel, Virginia) 
concerning my health. The answer was, that I should 
rest until the session of the Conference to be held in 
April, in Virginia. 

December 4. I sent my papers to Brother Lee, who 
proceeds to Charleston; also my plan and directions 
how to station the preachers to Brother (Jonathan) 
Jackson. I believed that my going to Charleston 
this season would end my life, yet could I be per- 
suaded it was the will of the Lord, I would go and 
preach. 

Mr. Lee found a very different state of things from 



296 History of Methodism 

that wliich existed nearly thirteen years before, Febru- 
ary, 1785, when, in company with Bishop Asbury and 
Mr. Willis, he first visited the city of Charleston. 
There were at that time (January 1, 1798) two neat 
houses of worship, a goodly company of believers, and 
an Annual Conference in that city, to welcome him 
and wait on his ministry. He met all the demands of 
duty, and gave entire satisfaction in filling the appoint- 
ments of Bishop Asbury. The Conference commenced 
its session on the 2d of January, and after its ad- 
journment Mr. Lee spent twenty-seven days in Geor- 
gia, and preached twenty-one sermons ; and from the 
eagerness to hear the words of life, he was led to 
express the belief that God would soon and abundantly 
pour out his Spirit upon the people. 

Tuesday, February 6. I received a most loving 
letter from the Charleston Conference; there is great 
peace, and good prospects, there. 

January 1, 1799. Our yearly Conference assembled 
at Charleston. We kept our seats for four days; thirty 
preachers present. We had great harmony and good 
humor. I gave a short discourse, addressed to the 
Conference, from Heb. xiii. 17. I. Your guides— con- 
sequently governors. These how needful in the night 
if there be ignorance in the traveler and danger in the 
way, deep pits, wild beasts, or bad men. If it be in 
the morning or noonday, how natural it is to follow 
a guide ; how necessity and fear upon the part of the 
traveler will make him obedient. II. People are led 
into essential truth, duty, and experience. III. Min- 
isters are to watch for their souls as they that must 
give an account — the general and special accounta- 
bility to God, Christ, and the Holy Spirit, to the min- 
istry and to the Church, and to all men; they must 



In South Carolina. 297 

give an account for the loss of the Christian traveler, 
if that loss be a consequence of neglect in the guide. 
The joy faithful ministers have in the prosperity, 
spirituality, and happiness of the Church; their grief 
or groaning, when, so far from gaining other souls, they 
lose some already partially gained; how much the in- 
terest of souls is concerned in the prosperity of the 
ministry. Prat/ for us the great duty of the flock. 
The argument, we have a good conscience; that this 
being the case, their prayers might be answered. Let 
us live honestly, do our duty faithfully, and take what 
is allowed us as wages — paying our just debts to souls. 
I ordained three elders and seven deacons. The gen- 
erosity of the people in Charleston was great. After 
keeping our ministry and their horses, they gave us 
nearly one hundred dollars for the benefit of those 
preachers who were in want. 

Sabbath-day, 20. Preached at Bethel, on Mark xi. 
17, and at the Old Church, on 2 Peter i. 16. A group 
of sinners gathered around the door, and when I took 
the pulpit they went off with a shout. I felt what was 
coming. In the evening there was a proper uproar, 
like old times. 

Sabbath-day, 27. Preached at Bethel, on Heb. xiii. 
20, 21. 

Sunday, February 3. Preached at Georgetown, on 
Gal. v. 24-26. 

Friday, 10. Preached at William Gause's. Paid 
a visit to the sea, and saw the breakers — awfully tre- 
mendous sight and sound! but how curious to see the 
sea-gull take the clams out of the sand and bear them 
up into the air and drop them down to break them, and 
then eat the flesh! . This I saw demonstrated; and if 
they fail once in breaking the shell, they will take it 



298 Histoby of Methodism 

up again and bear it higher, and cast it down upon a 
hard spot of ground, until they effect their purpose. 
We are now in Bladen Circuit, and it seems as though 
old Brunswick, in North Carolina, would be a Method- 
ist county, and that most of the rulers would believe 
in Christ. 

Sunday, October 20, 1799. This is my American 
birthday; I have now passed twenty-eight years upon 
this continent. 

Tuesday, 22. We had a laborious ride of thirty 
miles to William White's, on John's River, Burke 
county. In this route we had to cross the Yadkin ten 
times; Elk and Buffalo each twice. I have renewed 
my acquaintance with these rivers; they afford valua- 
ble levels, with rising hills and high mountains on 
each side. The prospect is elegantly variegated. Here 
are grand heights, and there Indian corn adorns the 
vales. The water flows admirably clear, murmuring 
through the rocks, and in the rich lands gently gliding 
deep and silent between its verdant banks; and to all 
this may be added pure air. 

Wednesday, 23, and Thursday, 24. Our quarterly- 
meeting was held at William White's, grand patriarch 
of this settlement, whose family of children and grand- 
children are numerous and extensively established 
here. Jesse Lee preached each day. My discourse 
the first day was 1 Tim. iv. 12-16. 

Friday, 25. Came to Connelly's, twenty-five miles; 
saw a natural curiosity in the mountains: an old 
trunk of a poplar had fallen, and four limbs of it had 
taken root at proper distances from each other, and 
had grown to be large trees, from fifty to sixty feet 
high and eighteen inches in diameter. 

Sunday, 27. Must needs go to the quarterly-meet- 



In South Carolina. 299 

ing, which was held in a very open house ; text, 1 John 
iii. 18-22. The meeting lasted five hours. 

Monday, 28. We rode about forty miles to Daniel 
Asbury's, in Lincoln county. I crossed once more at 
the Horse Ford, where I was formerly in danger of be- 
ing drowned. Daniel Asbury, an experienced guide, 
conducted me across this time, not without some dif- 
ficulty. I think I shall bid a final adieu to this ford. 

Tuesday, 29. In the morning rested, in the even- 
ing preached; subject, 1 Thess. ii. 11, 12. 

Wednesday, 30. Eode to Williams's Chapel, where 
Jesse Lee preached; I added a few words. We then 
hastened to the Widow Featherston's, on Dutchman's 
Creek. We soon called a meeting after our arrival. 

Thursday, 31. We crossed the south fork of Ca- 
tawba, and soon after passed the line between North 
and South Carolina, into York county. In conse- 
quence of wandering out of our way in the hickory 
barrens, we made it thirty miles to Alexander Hill's, 
where we held meeting. God has blessed the son and 
daughter of our host, which is better to him than 
thousands of gold. 

Friday, November 1. Held a meeting at Josiah 
Smith's, on Broad Eiver. 

Saturday, 2. We came to Woad's Ferry, on Broad 
at the mouth of Pacolet River, near a small town called 
Pinckney ville ; thence to Spray's, over Tiger and 
Hendrick's bridge on the Enoree. We were benighted 
in the woods, and came with difficulty to Colonel Ben- 
jamin Herndon's about seven o'clock, where we met' 
Brothers Blanton, Black, Norman, and Smith. 

Sunday, 3. Preached on Bom. ii. 16. 

Tuesday, 5. Rode eight miles to Odell's Chapel, in 
Laurens county, and lodged at Henry Davie's; next 



300 History of Methodism 

day at Zoar Chapel, and lodged at William Hol- 
land's. 

Thursday, 7. We rode sixteen miles in haste to at- 
tend the funeral of Nehemiah Franks, an aged man, 
who, we hope, died in the Lord. Jesse Lee preached 
the funeral-sermon, after which I discoursed on Gen. 
xl. 24. 

Saturday, 9, and Sunday, 10. Quarterly-meeting at 
Bramlett's. Preached on Titus ii. 3. We had a good 
season. I only gave an exhortation on Sabbath. Ben- 
jamin Blanton came up with us sick; lost his famous 
horse; he reported two hundred and sixty dollars, and 
he had received from the Connection in four years 
two hundred and fifty dollars. If we do not benefit 
the people, we have but little of their money. Such 
is the ecclesiastical revenue of all our order. 

Monday, 11. We rode through a most barren 
country. Jesse Lee stopped to preach at Colonel 
Wolfe's; I rode on to the Tumbling Shoals Ford, on 
Reedy River; thence to William Powell's, on the 
banks of fair Saluda. 

Tuesday, 12. Bode five miles to King's Chapel; 
six traveling preachers present. Two sermons and 
love-feast— held three hours. My subject was Ephe- 
sians v. 1-3. . 

Wednesday, 13. At Warwick Bristoe's we held 
meeting; thence to Thos. Terry's, a Yorkshire Meth- 
odist, whom I married seven years ago to Ann W. 
Dowell, his present good wife, from a Methodist stock 
on the mother's side in Ireland. 

Thursday, 14. We rode ten miles to the Golden 
Grove, at Cox's meeting-house; my subject was 1 
John ii. 20. It is agreed that this is the best society 
we have in South Carolina; the land here is rich. We 



In South Carolina. 301 

lodged at Deacon Tarrant's. On Friday we crossed 
Saluda at Wilson's Ferry, and rode fifteen miles to 
Thomas Willingham's, upon the Indian lands. 

Saturday, 16. Preached at Nash's meeting-house, 
in Pendleton county, on Col. i. 27. Mr. James and 
family are not in fellowship with us, but are our most 
kind friends; we were used in the very best manner, 
and this was more abundantly acceptable; friends in 
need are friends indeed. 

Sunday, 17. We had love-feast and sacrament; my 
subject, 2 Peter ii. 9. 

Monday, 18. Crossed the Savanna^ at the Chero- 
kee Ford. 

After an extended visit to Georgia, he arrived in 
Charleston by way of Augusta, on Saturday, Decem- 
ber 28. 

Sunday, 29. Preached in the Old Church (Cumber- 
land) on Psalm cxviii. 24, 25. 

Wednesday, January 1, 1800. We began our Con- 
ference in Charleston; twenty-three members present. 
I had select meetings with the preachers each even- 
ing, who gave an account of the dealings of God with 
their own souls, and of the circuits they supplied the 
past year. 

Saturday, 4. After determining, by a large major- 
ity, that our next meeting together (by Divine per- 
mission) should be in Camden, the Conference rose. 
Slow moved the northern post on the eve of New- 
year's-day, and brought the heart-distressing infor- 
mation of the death of Washington, who departed this 
life December 14, 1799. Washington, the calm, in- 
trepid chief, the disinterested friend, first father and 
savior of his country, under Divine protection and 
direction. A universal cloud sat upon the faces of 



302 History of Methodism 

the citizens of Charleston; the pulpits clothed in black, 
the bells muffled, the paraded soldiery, a public ora- 
tion decreed to be delivered on Friday, 14th of this 
month, a marble statue to be placed on some proper 
situation. These were the expressions of sorrow, and 
these the marks of respect paid by his feeling fellow- 
citizens to the memory of this great man. I am dis- 
posed to lose sight of all but Washington — matchless 
man! At all times he acknowledged the providence of 
God, and never was he ashamed of his Redeemer; we 
believe he died not fearing death. In his will he or- 
dered the manumission of his slaves — a true son of 
liberty in all points. 

Sunday, 5. In order the better to suit my subject 
to the Conference, the New-year, ordination of elders 
and deacons, and the General's death, I made choice 
of Isa. lxi. 2 : (1) The acceptable year of the Lord; 
(2) the day of vengeance of our God; (3) to com- 
fort all that mourn. The congregation was large, 
decent, and solemn; the ordination was attended with 
unction from above, and the sacrament wVuii tenderness 
of heart. At the New Church (Bethel), before the or- 
dination of deacons, Jesse Lee discoursed on Luke x. 2. 
After encountering many difficulties, I was able to set- 
tle the plan of stations, and to take in two new circuits. 

Monday, 6. I desired Jesse Lee, as my assistant, to 
take my horse and his own, and visit, between this and 
the 7th of February, Coosawhatchie, Savannah, and 
St. Mary's (a ride of about four hundred miles), and to 
take John Garvin to his station; the time has been 
when this journey would have been my delight, but 
now I must lounge in Charleston. 

Sunday, 12. Preached in Cumberland, on 1 Peter 
i. 17-19. 



In South Carolina. 303 

Sunday, 19. Subject, 1 Peter i. 6, 7. At intervals 
Nicholas Snethen read to me those excellent sermons 
of Mr. James Saurin, a French Protestant minister at 
the Hague; they are long, elaborate, learned, doc- 
trinal, practical, historical, and explanatory. 

Thursday night, 23. Departed this life, Edward 
Rutledge, Governor of South Carolina. He was one 
of the tried patriots of 1775 and 1776. The Africans 
gave him a good character for his humanity. On 
Saturday, 25th, his dust is to be committed to dust. 
" I have said ye are God's, but ye shall all die like 
men, and fall like one of the princes." 

Sunday, 26. Preached on Rom. xii. 9-11. 

Wednesday, February 5. Dined with Jesse Vaugh 
and visited Mr. Wamack's family at the Orphan 
House. There is no institution in America equal to 
this; two or three hundred orphans are taught, fed 
and clothed, and then put apprentices to good trades. 

Friday, 7. Jesse Lee and George Dougherty came 
to town. The former has been a route of about six 
hundred miles, and my poor gray has suffered for it. 

Sunday, 9. Gave my last charge at Cumberland 
Street Church from Rom. xii. 14-18. We went north 
by way of Monk's Corner, Nelson's Ferry, Gibson's, 
Rembert's, Camden, Horton's,. and Jackson's. 

Friday, 21. Attended meeting at Anson Court- 
house (Wadesboro). We had no small congregation 
at Mr. Cash's new house. I was kindly entertained 
by his fathers, when in Virginia and Tennessee, and 
now by him. They offered us money, food, lodging, 
or whatever we wanted. At Threadgill's meeting- 
house Nicholas Snethen preached. We then hasted 
to Mr. Atkin's. 

Sunday, 23. At Handle's Church (in Montgomery 



304 History of Methodism 

county) I gave a discourse, after Brother Snethen, on 
1 Sam. xii. 23. 

Monday, 24. Came to Ledbetter's. 

Friday, November 14, 1800. We took our leave of 
the French Broad; the lands flat and good, but rather 
cold. This river rises in the south-west, and winds 
along in many meanders fifty miles north-east, receiv- 
ing a number of tributary streams in its course; it 
then inclines westward, passing through Buncombe, in 
North Carolina, and Green and Dandridge counties, 
in Tennessee, in which last it is augmented by the 
waters of Nolachucky; four miles above Knoxville it 
forms a junction with the Holston, and their united 
waters flow along under the name of Tennessee, giv- 
ing name to the State. We had no small labor in 
getting down Saluda Mountain. Arriving at Father 
Douthet's, on the south branch of Saluda, I found 
myself quite at home. On the 16th of September we 
set out from Botetourt, in Virginia, and on the 14th 
of November we were at the foot of the grand mount- 
ain division of South Carolina. 

Sunday, 16. Brother Whatcoat preached at Father 
John Douthet's on Matt. iii. 10; the next day I gave 
a sermon founded on Psalm cxlvi. 8, 9. 

Tuesday, 18. Came fifteen miles to Sam'l Burdine's, 
in Pendleton county. Brother Whatcoat preached ; we 
administered the Lord's supper. Sister Burdine pro- 
fesses to have known the Lord twenty years; in her 
you see meekness, gentleness, patience, pure love — 
and cleanliness. 

Wednesday, 19. Preached at John Wilson's on 
Acts ii. 17, 18. Benjamin Blanton met me; he is now 
a married man, and talks of locating. 

Thursday, 20. Brother Whatcoat discoursed at the 



In South Carolina. 305 

Grove with light and life, on Col. i. 21-23; came 

twelve miles to Thomas Terry's. 

Saturday, 22. Eode twenty miles to James Powell's, 
on Walnut Creek, in Laurens county. 

Sunday, 23. At King's Chapel, named after James 
King, who died a martyr to the yellow fever in Charles- 
ton. I occupied the pulpit one hour and twenty min- 
utes, Brother Whatcoat fifty minutes, and Brother 
Blanton succeeded him. Then followed the sacra- 
ment, making the public exercises of about four hours' 
continuance. Next day we crossed Main Saluda at 
Pension's Ford, and rode twelve miles to George Con- 
nor's, upon Silvador's Purchase. Brother Whatcoat 
preached at night. 

Tuesday, 25. At Nathaniel Burdine's — ancient Meth- 
odists, who have a son in the ministry. 

Wednesday, 26. At Hugh Porter's, at the New De- 
sign. I spoke after Brother Whatcoat. 

Friday, 28. At Butler's meeting-house, fifteen miles 
— no notice; we therefore pushed on to Captain Car- 
ter's. Brother Whatcoat preached on Ezek. xxxiii. 2. 

Saturday, 29. Came twelve miles through deep 
sands to Augusta, Georgia. We have a foundation 
and a frame prepared for erecting, in a day or two, a 
house for public worship, two stories high, sixty by 
forty feet; for this we are indebted to the favor of 
Heaven and the agency of Stith Mead; and what is 
better, here is a small society. Augusta is decidedly 
one of the most level and beautiful spots for a town I 
have yet seen; it is of ample extent in its plan, well 
began, and when their intention shall be fulfilled, of 
building a court-house, a college, episcopal churches 
for the Methodists and others, it will do credit to its 
founders and inhabitants. 



306 History of Methodism 

Monday, 15. We got over Savannah River at Rob- 
ert Martin's Ferry, a few miles above Petersburg. We 
came onward into Abbeville county, and hastened to 
John Brannon's, near the court-house; making a ride 
of thirty miles for the day. 

Tuesday, 16. We proceeded to Silvador's Purchase, 
twelve miles, to hold quarterly-meeting for Bush Riv- 
er Circuit, at a meeting-house near George Connor's. 

Wednesday, 17. I attended quarterly-meeting. My 
subject was Phil. i. 27. We spent four hours in the 
private and public meeting; a number of white and 
black children were to be baptized, and probably there 
were persons who thought it would he Letter done by a 
bisliop. After meeting, we had a fifteen miles' ride, 
part of it in the night, crossing Saluda at Child's 
Ferry, wishing to get to John Meek's, in Laurens coun- 
ty. Abbeville is a large county, stretching from river 
to river, and holds better lands than any other in the 
State. Although Bush River Circuit extends through 
it, there are few Methodists, the most populous settle- 
ments being composed of Presbyterians. 

Thursday, 18. At John Week's, Brother Whatcoat 
sermonized upon Gal. vi. 15. 

Friday, 19. We rode thirty miles to Benjamin Hern- 
don's, upon the waters of Enoree. 

Saturday, 20, and Sunday, 21. Held quarterly-meet- 
ing. Brother Whatcoat spoke from 1 Thess. iii. 8; a 
very profitable improvement. On Sunday, my choice 
was Acts iii. 22, 23. We continued about six hours at 
Bethel. I saw one of the members of the General 
Assembly of South Carolina, who informed me that 
our address from the General Conference had been 
read and reprobated; and, furthermore, that it had 
been the occasion of producing a law which prohibited 



In South Carolina. 307 

a minister's attempting to instruct any number of 
blacks with the doors shut; and authorizing a peace- 
officer ,to break open the door in such cases, and dis- 
perse or whip the offenders. 

Monday, 22. We rode to Thomas Hardy's, in the 
forks of Enoree and Tiger rivers — nine miles. 

Tuesday, 23. At Bluford's meeting-house, Broth- 
er Whatcoat performed upon Phil. iii. 14. We went 
forward twelve miles to Mr. Glenn's, at Broad River. 
I have had heart-felt sorrow for the Church of God 
in Philadelphia. No city upon our continent has been 
more oppressed by divisions in Christian societies: 
witness the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, German and 
English, Quakers, Baptists, Scotch - Presbyterians, 
Roman Catholics — and now the Methodists: I have 
written on this subject to three official characters. 

Wednesday, 24 I gave a sermon upon 2 Peter i. 
4, at Glenn's chapel, near Broad River: we had an open 
season and many hearers. At Glenn's Flat, Chester 
county, Sealey's meeting-house, we kept our Christ- 
mas. Brother Whatcoat preached on " The Son of God 
was manifested to destroy the works of the devil." 
My subject was, " Glory to God in the highest, and on 
earth peace, good- will toward men." We lodged at 
Robert Walker's, eighty years of age, awakened un- 
der Mr. Whiteneld in Fogg's Manor — reawakened at 
Pipe Creek, and a member of the first Methodist So- 
ciety in Maryland : he is now living upon Sandy River, 
South Carolina. 

Friday, 26. We traveled a barren path, and came 
to Alexander Carter's, upon Fishing Creek — a journey 
of about thirty miles, without food for man or beast, 
and the weather warm to great excess : after our arri- 
val we had a night-meeting. 



308 History of Methodism 

Saturday, 27. After waiting the leisure of the boat- 
man, we crossed Catawba at Wade's Ferry, and came 
three miles to a meeting-house at Camp Creek, to at- 
tend quarterly-meeting for Santee and Catawba cir- 
cuits. We lodged at John Grymast's, a Methodist, 
and originally from Ireland. 

Sunday, 28. Damp morning. I gave a discourse 
on Eph. vi. 10. Our lodging was at Johnson's. 

Monday, 29. We stopped at Georgetown, at Mar- 
ler's. Brother Whatcoat preached upon " Thou wilt 
keep him in perfect peace whose mind is staid on 
thee, because he trusteth in thee." We made eight- 
een miles' progress this day, and put up with John 
Horton upon Hanging Rock River. 

Tuesday, 30. Came to Camden. 

Thursday, January 1, 1801. We began our Confer- 
ence with the new year. Sat from nine to twelve o'clock 
in the forenoon, and two hours in the afternoon; the 
band meeting was held between the hours of seven 
and eight. A clerk for the minutes was appointed, 
and another (Jeremiah Norman) to keep the journal. 
We admitted four probationers; readmitted two dea- 
cons to their standing in the traveling connection, who 
had left to locate; then located, to wit, Blanton, Cole, 
and Evans ; and re-stationed Gains, Wiley, and West, 
who had located themselves in the course of the last 
year. We had great union. It is true, some talked 
loud; but I dare not say there was any improper heat. 
Our sitting continued five days, and we rested one 
Sabbath. We were richly accommodated at Smith's 
and Carpenter's, and two other houses. We only failed 
forty-eight dollars in paying all the preachers their 
demand. 

After Conference, they traveled through Lancaster, 



In South Carolina. 309 

Chesterfield, Anson, and Richmond, in North Carolina ; 
Marlborough, Marion, Horry, in South Carolina; and 
went north through Brunswick and Wilmington, in 
North Carolina. 

Friday, August 28, 1801. Formed a plan, at Fred- 
ericktown, Maryland, for our future journeys and la- 
bors. Bishop Whatcoat and Sylvester Hutchinson to 
visit Maryland by way of Baltimore and Annapolis, 
and thence on to Richmond and the towns on the route 
to Camden, South Carolina; I in company with Nich- 
olas Snethen to go to the Western Conference on Nola- 
chucky, afterward cross over to the south, and meet 
them at Camden. 

Saturday, December 12. We came to Augusta, and 
arrived whilst N. Snethen was preaching. 

Sabbath, 13. Ordaining Brothers Joshua Moore 
and Gilmore to the office of deacons, and assisting at 
the sacrament, made all my labors for this day. We 
had an excellent discourse from N. Snethen, on Rev. 
ii. 4, 5. The Lord hath made windows in heaven, and 
he can do it again, and souls may be converted in 
Augusta. Here I leave the State of Georgia. 

South Carolina — -Monday, 14. I found Weatherly 
meeting-house much neater than I expected : my sub- 
ject here was 2 Cor. iv. 14, " For the love of Christ 
constraineth us." I know not what beside should 
move a Christian minister to travel and labor in this 
country. 

Tuesday, 15. Through the rain to Chester's. Next 
day to Trotter's, where we had damp weather, an open 
house, and few people. I lodged at Mr. Trotter's. 

Thursday, 17. At Jacob Barr's, upon Edisto, I spoke 
from 2 Tim. iv. 1, 8 — few people. In Georgia, "I 
groaned, being burdened;" but my congregations were 



310 History of Methodism 

considerably larger, my rides shorter, and the people 
abundantly more feeling and fervent than they are 
here. I have ridden eighty sand-hill miles : the weath- 
er is very changeable; I feel my old age and infirm- 
ities; my eyes and feet are feeble; but, glory to God! 
I have strong faith for myself and for the prosperity 
of Zion. 

Saturday, 19. At Cattle Creek my text was Heb. vi. 
11, 12. After speaking I read the letters narrative of 
the work of God. I lodged at Sebastian Fanchesse's, 
and was entertained like a president. 

Sabbath, 20. I attended love-feast and sacrament, 
and preached on Matt. xi. 28-30: the people were very 
still; a few tears were the only signs of feeling which 
we saw. I lodged with Thomas Simpson. 

Monday, 21. At the Indian Fields, I spoke from 
Heb. x. 38: the preachers attended with me, and bore 
their parts in the religious exercises of the meeting. 

Tuesday, 22. We rode in a damp morning to the 
Cypress, within thirty miles of Charleston: I spoke 
here on 2 Cor. vi. 1, 2. I felt some opening. Next 
day I returned to John Moore's, and gave a discourse 
on Heb. ii. 3. 

Thursday, 24. The Four Holes is a name given to 
a river because there are four sinks or holes upon the 
banks: here, at the White meeting-house, 1 preached 
on 2 Pet. iii. 18, " But grow in grace." (1) We should 
have grace planted or sown in our souls; (2) grow in 
the habits and exercises of grace ; (3) rules by which 
we should grow in grace; (4) by Avhat rules we may 
judge of our growth in grace. I lodged at Jacob 
Dantzler's. 

The Four Holes and Wasmassaw are about eighty 
miles long; the former the north, the latter the cen- 



In South Carolina. 311 

tral brancli of the Eclisto River: this settlement was 
originally peopled by the Dutch Presbyterians; they 
have declined in language and in religion; the last is 
reviving in the present rising generation, many of 
whom have joined the Methodists. 

Saturday, 26. We came to Westone's meeting-house 
to hold our quarterly-meeting: many people attended 
at noon and at night. I have made a proper visit 
through Edisto, which I had not before done. 

Sabbath, 27. Sylvester Hutchinson preached; 1 
only exhorted. As we had seven preachers present, 
who were on their way to Conference, we employed 
the day and the night in the work. On Monday, we 
crossed the Congaree at Hart's Ferry, and came to 
Pickering's; and next day continued on to Camden, 
crossing Wateree at English's Ferry. Parts of our route 
led over deep sands, and all through was barren. 

Friday, January 1, 1802. We opened Conference. 
I gave a discourse upon Isa. Ixvi. 1-3. We conducted 
our business in great peace, and upon the Sabbath-day 
were ready for the ordination of seven elders and sev- 
en deacons. The members of our Conference, with a 
few others, made up our congregations, to whom we 
preached at noon and at night each day. N. Snethen 
spoke on " Many shall run to and fro, and knowledge 
shall be increased;" and also on the hidden leaven. 
Our finances were low: the married and ,the single 
preachers were paid up; but there was no surplus for 
the children. On Tuesday, the 5th, we concluded our 
labors in the greatest harmony. It was thought best 
to divide South Carolina into two districts; one called 
Saluda, the other Camden: they were placed under 
the president eldership of two natives of the State— 
James Jenkins and Greorge Dougherty. 



312 History of Methodism 

After Conference, a visit was made to Georgetown, 
Kingston, and Wilmington, in North Carolina. 

On Tuesday, November 9, 1802, I dined at Benja- 
min Davidson's, a house I had lodged and preached at 
two years ago. We labored along eighteen mountain 
miles; eight ascent on the west side, and as many on 
the east side of the mountain. The descent of Saluda 
exceeds all I know, from the Province of Main to Ken- 
tucky and Cumberland: I had dreaded it, fearing I 
should not be able to walk or ride such steeps; nev- 
ertheless, with time, patience, labor, two sticks, and, 
above all, a good Providence, I came in about five 
o'clock, to ancient father John Douthet's, Greenville 
county, South Carolina. Here I found myself at home 
amongst kind and attentive friends. On the Sabbath- 
day I preached at my lodgings, upon Joshua xxiv. 15. 
I have heard of successful meetings which have been 
held by encampments upon the Catawba, at Morgan- 
ton, Swannano, Pendleton, Greenville— in North and 
South Carolina: ministers of the different denomina- 
tions had attended. More circumstantial accounts I 
have not been able to obtain. Mr. Newton, a Pres- 
byterian minister, in Buncombe county, appears to be 
greatly engaged in the spirit of the work. 

South Carolina — Tuesday, 16. After resting a day, 
I lectured in the family, upon Luke xi. 13, and on 
Wednesday left this affectionate household, directing 
my course to Solomon James's, in the neighborhood of 
George's Creek, Pendleton county. I preached the 
funeral-sermon of Polly James, the daughter of my 
host. Here I met with Major James Tarrant, a local 
preacher, riding the circuit. We went on to Samuel 
Bnrdine's and lodged. I had vainly questioned in my 
mind the probable cause of the name of Ninety-six— 



In South Carolina. 313 

it was this, it seems: During an Indian war, in which 
there was an expedition against the Kewee towns, it 
was found by measurement that it was ninety-six miles 
from that spot to Twelve-mile Creek. 

Friday, 19. I preached at Samuel Burdine's, on 
Heb. vi. 12, and pretty fully explained the doctrine of 
Christian baptism, and Christian perfection. 

Saturday, 20. I gave a sermon at John Wilson's, 
in which I treated largely on the right of persons who 
were awakened to receive baptism ; and also upon the 
claim of infants to this holy rite of the Church. 

Sunday, 21. At Salem, on the Saluda, I preached 
upon Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. I went home with James 
Tarrant, a local preacher; my friend has, for two quar- 
ters, filled a traveling preacher's place, and a very ac- 
ceptable servant he has proved to be. 

Monday, 22. I rode to Thomas Terry^s, upon the 
forks of Eeedy_Ei,ver. 

Wednesday, 24. I gave an exhortation in the even- 
ing, on 1 Cor. xv. 58. Next day I went to Nathan 
Bramlett's. I called to see Mrs. Price, eldest daugh- 
ter of my once dear old friend, Alexander Leith, for- 
merly of Baltimore. 

Sunday, 28. At Bramlett's Chapel I spoke on Acts 
ii. 37-39. 

Monday, 29. We had a cold, hungry ride of thirty 
miles to Henry Culvor Davis's, a native of Maryland, 
and now of Newberry District, South Carolina. The 
first society we formed at this place declined, and so 
many removed few were left; this year they repaired 
the meeting-house; and the Lord poured out his Spirit, 
ctnd nearly one hundred have been added. I found the 
labors of L. Myers and B. Wheeler had been greatly 
blessed in Broad River Circuit, South Carolina. 



314 History of Methodism 

On Wednesday I preached at Odell's meeting-house 
on 2 Cor. xiii. 9. I rode home with Benjamin Hern- 
don. On Thursday, at Bethel, I heard Lewis Myers 
preach on John xvii. 15. 

Friday, December 3. At Edward Finch's, George 
Douthet and myself were engaged to put Mount Bethel 
school in operation: I advised to finish the house for 
teaching below, and lodging above. 

Sunday, 5. At Bethel I spoke on Heb. vi. 1, 2. On 
Monday I rested, and on Tuesday passed the day with 
George Clark, and preached there on 2 Tim. ii. 10-12. 

Thursday, 9. I crossed Tiger River, and came to 
M.ajor Bird Beauford's. I improved upon 2 Tim. iv. 
7, 8. I rode down to Nathan Glenn's, at Broad River. 

Sunday, 12. I w T as called upon by recommendation 
to ordain Stephen Shell, John Wallis, and David 
Owen to the office of deacons. There were seven of 
ns present who minister in holy things. My subject 
was 2 Tim. iv. 1, 2. 

Monday, 13. We crossed Broad Biver at James 
Glenn's flat: we called upon the aged people, prayed, 
and came to Benjamin Rowell's, Chester District. 

Tuesday, 14. I preached at Robert Walker's, upon 
Phil. ii. 12, 13. 

Wednesday, 15. We rode until evening, and lodged 
at Mr. Washington's, near the Wateree Creek, which 
gives the name to the river. 

Thursday, 16. Crossed at Chestnut's Ferry, and 
came into Camden. It is but a trifle to ride in this 
country thirty miles without food for man or beast. 
On Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, we had excess- 
ively cold weather, and sleet and snow. We held 
our meeting in Isaac Smith's house, and I preached 
twice. 



In South Cabolixa. 315 

Monday, 20. I rode down to James Rerubert's, upon 
the head of Black River. 

Saturday, 25. Christmas-day. I preached at Rem- 
bert's Chapel, and on Sunday James Patterson spoke 
on " Enoch walked with God." There is a great change 
in this settlement; many attend with seriousness and 
tears. Letters from the North announce very pleasing 
intelligence of a great work of God in Maryland, and 
in parts of Virginia. 

Tuesday, 28. Yesterday and to-day I have been 
busy writing letters. My general experience is close 
communion with God, holy fellowship with the Father 
and his Son Jesus Christ, a will resigned, frequent 
addresses to a throne of grace, a constant, serious care 
for the prosperity of Zion, forethought in the arrange- 
ments and appointments of the preachers, a soul drawn 
out in ardent prayer for the universal Church and the 
complete triumph of Christ over the whole earth. 
Amen, amen, so be it! I have finished my letters, and 
adjusted some plans. For my amusement and edifi- 
cation, I was curious to read the first volume of my 
journals. I compared my former with my latter self. 
It was little I could do thirty years ago; and I do less 
now. 

Thursday, 30. Rode to Camden. On Friday I read 
in public some letters narrative of the work of God. 

Thursday, January 6, 1803. From Saturday until 
Wednesday, the time was spent in Conference, and in 
public exercises: we had preaching every noon and 
evening; seven elders and four deacons were ordained. 
Of preachers, two were admitted, one had located, none 
were dead, and none were expelled. We had great 
peace and union in our labors, two days of which 
were directed to the explanation and recommen- 



316 History of Methodism 

dation of discipline, as it respects the order of the 
Church. We have added, in this Conference, three 
thousand three hundred and seventy-one to our num- 
ber. 

Friday, 7. A cold day. We came to Mr. Evans's, 
on Congaree, thirty miles. 

Saturday, 8. We crossed Congaree at Howell's 
Ferry — almost abandoned. The flat was so small that 
our horses, had they not been quiet, might have en- 
dangered us. We reached John Whetstones's at the 
end of thirty-three miles, in good time, and were most 
kindly and comfortably entertained. At the meeting- 
house, on the Sabbath-day, N. Snethen spoke on 1 
Thess. v. 9, 10; my subject was 2 Cor. xiii. 9. I. Smith 
exhorted, George Dougherty prayed, and so we con- 
cluded. The cold weather prevented many, yet the 
house was full, and on the sunny side, without, there 
were numbers. 

Monday, 10. We rode twelve miles to Dantzler's. 
On Tuesday, I spoke at the white meeting-house on 
2 Cor. vii. 1. We lodged at Mr. Winningham's. Next 
day, N. Snethen preached at Cattle Creek. We lodged 
at Mr. Simpson's. On Thursday, at the Indian Fields, 
I spoke on 1 John iv. 16, 17. We lodged at Moore's. 
On Friday, at the Cypress, I only exhorted. On Sat- 
urday we rode into Charleston. On the Sabbath-day 
I preached on Romans v. 20. I was blessed in the 
administration of the word and ordinances. 

Tuesday, 18, and Wednesday, 19, were days made 
glorious by tne visits of the poor Africans who came 
to visit me: we frequently prayed together. 

Thursday, 20. We came to Hadrell's Point; dined 
at Mr. Pritchard's, rode up to Wappetaw, and lodged 
at Mi*. Jones's, where we were well entertained. Next 



In South Carolina. 317 

day, it being very stormy and cold, we were compelled 
to stop at Santee Lower Ferry. 

Saturday, 22. "We came to Georgetown — still cold. 

Sabbath-day, 23. I preached at Georgetown from 
1 Tim. iv. 10. N. Snethen preached in the afternoon, 
and James Mellard in the evening- 
Monday, 24. At Black River Chapel, I spoke on 
Matt. vi. 31-33. We crossed the river at Evans's Fer- 
ry, and lodged at the widow McCantry's. Next day I 
preached at Jenkins's Chapel, and after meeting rode 
up to JPort's F erry. We lodged at Thos. Humphrey's. 

Wednesday, 26. I preached at the Bare Ponds, 
upon Heb. viii. 10, 11. We dined at Mr. Shackleford's, 
and thence went on to Gaspero Sweet's. 

Thursday, 27. N. Snethen preached at Rowell's 
meeting-house; I added a few words on St. Paul's tri- 
umphant words in 2 Tim. iv. 7. We lodged at the wid- 
ow Davis's, a daughter of Mr. Dunham, at whose house 
I had lodged some years back. I have lived to serve 
three generations in South Carolina. 

Friday, 28. At Wood's meeting-house, N. Snethen 
preached; I only glossed a little upon 2 Cor. iv. 3. 
We lodged at old Mr. Wood's, Marion District. 

Saturday, 29. We rode to George Shank's, Marl- 
borough District, upon Great Pedee. I have ridden 
two hundred and sixty miles toward the seventh thou- 
sand. My mind hath been very calm; but we have 
had it so severely cold, and the meeting-houses are so 
open between this and Charleston, that I fear the con- 
gregations have profited little by the word. 

Sabbath, 30. At Harris's Chapel, at the head of 
Catfish, I preached upon Eph. ii. 8. We lodged with 
Captain Nevell; he and his wife appear to be seeking 
the Lord. 



338 History oi Methodism 

Monday, 31. We rocle a muddy path to Gibson's 
Chapel — pole chapel, open as a sieve, and the weather 
very cold. N. Snethen, preached upon Phil. iv. 8. I 
only added a few pointed, scattering shot in exhor- 
tation. I came off with a very slim breakfast, and 
then, after meetings had to ride on to (North) Britain, 
Drake's, Robinson county, North Carolina. 

Returning by the route of the two preceding years 
from the Western Conference, and passing through 
Greenville, Spartanburg, Newberry, and Lexington, 
Bishop Asbury came to Columbia. 

Tuesday, November 15, 1803. John Harper came 
to meet us and welcome us to his house, where, al- 
though the weather was stormy, we held a family meet- 
ing, and the rooms were filled with respectable hear- 
ers; my choice of a text was singular; it was our Lord's 
most affectionate words to his broken-hearted disciples 
when giving notice of his departure from them — John 
xiv. 18. 

Saturday, 19. Reached Charleston. 

Sunday, 20. W T ent once more to Cumberland Street 
House, and had gracious feelings whilst expounding 
1 Peter v. 10; in the afternoon spoke upon David's 
repentance, as recorded in Psalm li. 9-11; this also 
was a seasonable time, and all were attentive. Brother 
Kendrick spoke in the New Church in the afternoon, 
and Brother Dougherty in the Old Church at night, 
whilst the New Church was occupied by Brother Dar- 
ley; all this labor was, Ave hope, not in vain; some ap- 
peared to be in distress; who knows what God will 
yet do for wicked Charleston? I continued a week, 
lodging in our own house at Bethel, receiving visitors, 
ministers and people, white, black, and yellow; it was 
a paradise to me and to some others. 



In South Carolina. 319 

Sunday, 27. I preached an ordination-sermon upon 
Gal. i. 15, 1G, after which we set apart Bennet Ken- 
drick to the elder's office, to which he had been elected 
at the Virginia Conference. In the afternoon I gave 
them my farewell discourse in Cumberland Street 
Meeting-house; my subject was Eph. iv. 1, 2. 

Monday, 28. Began our journey to Augusta; dined 
at Mr. Carr's, in Dorchester, and stopped for the 
night with Mr. Isaac Perry, upon Cypress Swamp, by 
whom we were most affectionately received, and most 
comfortably accommodated. 

Tuesday, 29. Stopped to dine with Captain Koger, 
and came to S.'s; next day to Trotter's. On Thurs- 
day, December 1, came to Pierce's, Tinker's Creek. 

Friday, 2. Reached our place of destination. My 
lodging in Augusta is with Peter Cantalou, a friend 
from France. 

Sunday, 4. Preached on Col. vi. 2, 3, in the 
morning; in the afternoon on 2 Cor. vi. 2. We have 
a house here sixty feet by forty, an attentive and large 
congregation, and seventy members in fellowship. I 
hope this Conference will give us one hundred souls 
converted. 

January 4, 1804. "We met for Conference. Bishop 
Coke preached in the morning and in the afternoon 
at John's (the old house), Augusta. On Monday we 
opened our Conference in Mr. Cantaiou's house. We 
conducted our business in great harmony, and did it 
hastily. There was preaching every evening, and the 
bishops bore their share of ministerial labors. Elders 
and deacons were ordained. I found little difficulty 
in stationing the preachers. The Conference rose at 
eleven o'clock on Thursday, and I took the road and 
reached Columbia on Saturday, and rode to Camden 



320 II is toiiy of Methodism 

on Monday. On Monday, 16, 1 rode as far as Mr. Rem- 
bert's, on Black River; here I retire to read and write. 

Sunday, 22. I preached at Rembert's, from Luke 
xx. 21. 

Friday, 27. Reached Georgetown. 

Sunday, 29. Preached in Hamniett's house, now 
fallen into our hands. We have about twenty whites, 
and between three and four hundred blacks in society 
here. My mind has been deeply tried by my friends, 
who wished me to derange appointments made in two 
circuits, that one station might be supplied. I do not 
sport with preachers or people; I judge for the Lord 
and his Church. I stand in the order of God as well 
as the appointments of men. 

Monday, 30. We crossed Black River at Evans's 
Ferry, and lodged at Henry Britton's, where we were 
most kindly entertained. 

Tuesday, 31. I preached at Jenkins's Chapel on 
Heb. ii. 3. We dined and came on to Port's Ferry 
an hour after the setting of the sun. 

Thursday, February 2. We crossed Great and Lit- 
tle Pedee; over the Latter I crossed in a canoe. At 
Potat o Ferry, a forlorn place, we were detained three 
hours. At Kingston Brother McCaine gave us a ser- 
mon, and I also gave an exhortation; we lodged at 
Richard Green's. 

Saturday, 4. We came to Hullum's; a curious, fear- 
ful road we had — we hardly escaped miring sev- 
eral times. The simple-hearted poor people have 
built a house since I was here last. I gave them a 
sermon from 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8. After meeting we pushed 
on to Father Hullum's; dined and lodged with Will- 
iam Norton. Brother Benjamin Jones, who had come 
on Bladen Circuit about ten days back, died upon the 



In South Carolina. 321 

road, whether by fits, to which he was subject, or by 
drowning, we have yet to learn. He was a native of 
South Carolina, near to Georgetown; a pious, good 
young man of unblemished life; he had traveled five 
years, and has now gone to rest. 

Wednesday, 8. We rode to* Smithville, so called from 
General Smith; we rode thirty-three miles through 
the rain. We lodged at the Widow Douyer's, and 
were plagued with our horses breaking away. 

Thursday, 9. Our horses were taken and brought 
to us. I preached at Smithville, and Brother McCaine 
also in a house in the town. This is the old Fort 
Johnson, at the mouth of Cape Fear River; it is par- 
tially rebuilt. 

Friday, 10. We came to Brunswick, an old town; 
demolished houses, and the noble walls of a brick 
church; there remain but four houses entire. I 
preached at Miss Grimshaw's, on 2 Cor. iv. 5, and or- 
dained Nathaniel Bell to the office of deacon. At Ed- 
Avard Sullivan's I found that the cold weather and hard 
labor of riding and preaching began to press me down. 

Saturday, 11. At Rork's, at Town Creek, Brother 
McCaine preached; I also spoke, enforcing "Be thou 
faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of 
life." A late camp-meeting upon Town Creek has 
given a revival to religion amongst both whites and 
blacks. I thought I perceived intimations of this in 
my last visits. About the going down of the sun we 
came into Wilmington, faint and feeble. 

Sunday, 12. We had nearly one thousand souls, to 
whom I spoke upon Heb. xii. 25. 

Tuesday, 14. I preached on 2 Peter ii. 10-12. 

Wednesday, 15. We set out and made Nixon's, at 
Top-sail. 
21 



322 History of Methodism 

Returning through Montgomery and Anson* coun- 
ties, in North Carolina, and Chesterfield, Kershaw, 
and Sumter, in South Carolina, Bishops Asbnry and 
Whatcoat reached Charleston on Friday, the 28th of 
December, 1804. 

Tuesday, January 1, 1805. We opened our Con- 
ference. I preached the ordination-sermon of four 
elders: James Crowder, Henry M. Gaines, James H. 
Mellard, and Hugh Porter. We had a sacrament and 
some singing and tears, but for want of more and 
closer exhortations there was nothing special done. 
The intendant of the city has forbidden our prayer- 
meetings with the blacks before the rising sun; nor 
must the evening meetings be held later than nine 
o'clock. The preachers are seriously occupied with 
the work of Conference, and they are countrymen, and 
do not speak boldly as they ought to speak; neverthe- 
less I hope and believe real good has been and will be 
consequent upon the sitting of this Conference. 

Tuesday, 3. We came off early and in haste, but 
have fallen short in our calculations of reaching Lum- 
berton on the Sabbath-day. 

Monday, 14. Lodged at Lumberton. 

Tuesday, 15. We had a cold ride to Fayetteville. 
At the African meeting-house, I preached on Heb. x. 
38, 39. I was invited to preach in the State-house, 
but it did not suit my mind at all. The object of our 
visit was a Methodist congregation and society. Home 
is home; ours is plain, to be sure, but it is our duty 
to condescend to men of low estate, and therefore I 
felt justified in declining the polite invitation of the 
Rev. Mr. Flinn to officiate in his meeting-house. I 
must take the road again. O what sweetness I feel 
as I steal along through the solitary woods! I am 



In South Carolina. 323 

sometimes ready to shout aloud, and make all vocal 
with the praises of His grace, who died, and lives, 
and intercedes for me. Brother Whatcoat preached at 
night; I added a few words, a sort of gossiping exhor- 
tation. On Saturday morning, 19th, we crossed North- 
east before sunrise, and to our own house to break- 
fast. Our chapel in Wilmington is elegant; sixty-six 
by thirty-six feet. Brother Whatcoat preached this 
morning. 

Sabbath, 20. I preached on Titus xi. 14. Brother 
Whatcoat spoke in the afternoon. Our enlarged house 
was filled with both colors. 

Monday, 21. Many attended our meeting, though 
the weather was severe. 

Tuesday, 22. We came on to Top-sail. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



For us is prepared the angelical guard ; 

The convoy attends — 
A minist'ring host of invisible friends — 
Heady-winged for their flight to the regions of light, 

The horses are come, 
The chariots of Israel to carry us home. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

/^\ EOEGE DOUGHERTY was reared in New- 
\J7~ berry District, near the Lexington line, in South 
Carolina, and the year of his birth, from the best data 
that can be obtained, was 1772. His parents were in 
moderate circumstances, and his early educational 
advantages, though better than those of many of his 
associates, were far from being what would now be 
called liberal. He began life as a teacher, and board- 
ing with Mr. Eeamy, opened a school in the Fork of 
Saluda and Broad rivers. In company with George 
Clark, who was in charge of Saluda Circuit in 1797, 
he attended the session of the South Carolina Confer- 
ence held in Charleston January 1, 1798, as an appli- 
cant for admission into the traveling connection. He 
was received on trial by the Conference, and appointed 
to Santee Circuit; in 1799, to Oconee: and the two 
following years to Charleston. From 1802 to 1804 he 
was presiding elder of the Saluda District, and the 
two following years of the Camden District. Whilst 
on this last district his health declined rapidly, and 
at the Conference held in Sparta, Georgia, in 1807, he 
(324) 



History of Methodism. 325 

took a superannuated relation. After Conference, he 
returned on a visit to his early friends in the Fork, 
and was warmly greeted and kindly cared for by them. 
While spending a few days with Mr. T. Kails, the wife 
of the latter suddenly died, and Mr. Dougherty at- 
tended the funeral, and, as the last public act of his 
life, addressed the congregation. It was resolved, as 
a last resort, that Mr. Dougherty should try the effect 
of a voyage to the West Indies. He accordingly set 
out for Wilmington, in North Carolina, whence the 
ship was expected to sail, and on his arrival at that 
place, finding that the ship was likely to be detained 
for several days, he went to stay with a family, who 
regarded it a privilege to do every thing they could to 
minister to his relief and comfort. Captain Bingley, 
who had kindly offered him a free passage, called 
frequently to see him, fully intending to make the 
proposed voyage as comfortable to him as possible. 
But it soon became manifest that his disease (con- 
sumption) had made such rapid progress as to render 
it unsafe even to attempt to remove him to the vessel. 
He spoke of death and eternity with an engaging feel- 
ing and sweet composure, and manifested an inde- 
scribable union of confidence, love, and hope, while he 
said, " The goodness and love of God to me are great 
and marvelous as I go down the dreadful declivity of 
death." He died on the 23d of March, 1807, and was 
buried in the African Church in Wilmington, by the 
side of William Meredith, by whom the church had 
been founded. 

Mr. Dougherty carried with him into the South Car- 
olina Conference an unquenchable thirst for knowl- 
edge. To learn all that could be learned that would 
subserve his work as a minister of Jesus Christ Ava? 



326 History of Methodism 

his practical motto, and so intensely interested was lie 
in particular in the study of the Hebrew language, 
and so successful withal, that the powerful workings 
of his mind, as his eye remained fastened to the page 
of the original, glassed themselves in his bright and 
transparent features. Many supposed that he short- 
ened his days by intensity of thought and study. His 
mind, in its relation to the tabernacle which it inhab- 
ited, seemed like some mighty engine that makes the 
timbers of the vessel it is propelling tremble. He was 
far in advance of the period in which he lived in his 
estimation and advocacy of education, and the impulse 
which he gave to learning in the South Carolina Con- 
ference is felt to this day. There was nothing in his 
personal appearance that indicated the wonderful 
powers of this extraordinary man. He was about six 
feet in stature, his shoulders a little stooping, his knees 
bending slightly forward, his walk tottering, and in 
his whole appearance the very personification of 
frailty. He had lost one eye, after he reached man- 
hood, by small-pox, and the natural beauty of a fair 
face had been otherwise dreadfully marred by the 
same disease. His costume was a straight coat, long 
vest, and knee-breeches, with stockings and shoes; 
sometimes long, fair -topped boots, fastened by a 
modest strap to one of the knee-buttons to keep the 
boots gently up; but in these little accomplishments 
Mr. Dougherty was sadly deficient. His intellect, 
however, was an orb of light upon which no percepti- 
ble shadow ever fell. His conceptions were perfectly 
clear, and his language always appropriate. If one 
listened to him long enough to apprehend his course 
of thought, his attention was sure to be enchained 
for the remainder of his discourse. His memory was 



In South Carolina. 327 

wonderfully prompt and retentive; everything lie had 
read or heard that could be made available in his holy 
calling was safely garnered for future use. His dis- 
courses, though delivered extempore, were well elab- 
orated in his own mind, and his words seemed to now 
forth as the effect of a constantly kindling inspiration. 
His voice was shrill and penetrating, and its tones 
were somewhat of a feminine type. His articulation 
was so distinct and perfect as to render it easy for the 
most distant hearer, in such large assemblies as were 
common at our early camp-meetings, to understand 
perfectly every sentence that he uttered. His ser- 
mons were admirably divided between the argument- 
ative and the hortatory, and he was equally at home 
in the one as in the other. His supremacy as a 
preacher in his day was never disputed by any com- 
petent witness. 

The following incident was related by the Kev. Dr. 
Elinn, of Charleston, himself one of the most eloquent 
men in the Presbyterian Church: The Doctor, in the 
early part of his ministry, was carrying forward, in 
a country church, an interesting protracted-meeting 
without help and quite exhausted. Mr. Dougherty 
passed through the neighborhood, and hearing that 
Mr. Flinn was in need of help, called upon him and 
tendered his services for a short time. Ministerial 
comity demanded that he should accept the proffered 
aid, but he did so regretting the necessity that seemed 
to be laid upon him. When the hour of service came, 
the Doctor conducted him to the pulpit and took his 
seat in a distant part of the church, fearing and rather 
expecting that his Methodist brother would make a 
grievous failure. Mr. Dougherty began the service 
by reading a hymn in a style of great impressiveness 



328 History of Methodism 

Then followed a prayer rich in evangelical thought, 
and altogether pertinent to the occasion. But the 
sermon was yet to come, and he was not relieved alto- 
gether of his anxiety, especially as the text that was 
announced required the skill of a master- workman. 
The Doctor said he actually turned his eyes downward 
to the floor that he might not see the ungainly form 
that rose up in the pulpit before him. The preacher, 
however, launched forth fearlessly into his great sub- 
ject, "and in fifteen minutes," said the Doctor, "I 
found myself straightened into an erect posture, but 
absolutely enchained by a burst of eloquence, a mel- 
low blaze of rich thought as rare as it was overwhelm- 
ing; and to this day my recollection of that discourse 
places George Dougherty in the very front rank of 
American preachers. He filled my ideal of an able 
minister of the New Testament." 

A similar incident occurred at the General Confer- 
ence in Baltimore in 1804. It was announced that the 
Bev. Mr. Dougherty was to preach at a certain church 
that night, but who was Mr. Dougherty? Nobody 
knew him; it was only known that he was a delegate 
from South Carolina. The hour of service came at 
last, and with it a very large congregation. The 
members of the General Conference were out in great 
force. "I was there early," said an old preacher, 
giving his experience of that night's work, " and took 
my seat convenient to the pulpit. The congregation 
was waiting for the preacher, and all eyes were di- 
rected to the door through which he was to enter. 
Now I saw a fine-looking man enter and advance 
toward the pulpit. That's the preacher; but no, the 
stranger took his seat in the congregation; and several 
times I was thus disappointed. At length I saw a 



In South Carolina. 329 

tall, gaunt, one-eyed man, in rather shabby dress, 
enter and walk up toward the pulpit, and to my aston- 
ishment the awkward stranger entered it and went 
through all the motions preparatory to preaching. 
Mortification succeeded to astonishment. Is it possi- 
ble that this fine congregation is to be bored and mor- 
tified by this awkward, blundering backwoodsman? 
At length the preacher arose. The whole congrega- 
tion seemed disappointed, and there was an almost 
universal hanging of heads. The preacher proceeded 
to read his hymn, and there was something hopeful 
in that part of the performance. He prayed, and I felt 
that there was more in the preacher than I had sup- 
, posed. He proceeded to his text and the»sermon, and 
a few minutes sufficed to raise every head and fix 
every eye. Meanwhile the preacher advanced in his 
discourse, rising higher and higher, till he carried the 
congregation, as it were, by storm." 

Mr. Dougherty lived at a time when the Carolina 
and the Charleston public especially was easily excited 
by any public reference to the subject of slavery, and 
Methodist preachers were objects of suspicion and 
dislike. This arose from the insane zeal of some of 
the early preachers on that subject. The course of 
Dr. Coke had been particularly influential in produc- 
ing this state of feeling. It is not strange, therefore, 
that a few injudicious remarks made in one of the 
Charleston churches by a transient Methodist preach- 
er, probably misrepresented or misunderstood, should 
have produced some excitement. A company of wild 
and reckless young men went to the Methodist meet- 
ing-house, determined to give the offending preacher 
a taste of mob law, but, mistaking their man, they 
seized Mr. Dougherty, and dragged him to the pump, 



330 History of Methodism 

whentliey turned a continuous currei^of water upon 
hini till lie was well-nigh drowned; and probably but 
for the resolute interference of a heroic woman, Mrs. 
Kugley, his death would have been soon accomplished. 
But this noble woman rushed into the midst of the 
mob, and gathering up the folds of her gown with 
both hands, stuffed it into the spout of the pump and 
stopped the flow of water. The cool daring of this 
act seems to have completely astounded the mob, who 
let Mr. Dougherty go; and the good woman, to whom 
he owed his deliverance, had him taken to a place of 
safety and properly cared for. But although his per- 
secutors did not succeed in making an end of him that 
night, yet it ts probable that the treatment then re- 
ceived resulted in fastening upon him a disease of the 
lungs which ultimately carried him off. 

His remarkable skill as an impromptu preacher is 
strikingly illustrated by the following incidents: At 
one of the early camp-meetings, held some distance 
below where Anderson Court-house now stands, the 
congregation was immense — Baptists, Presbyterians, 
and Methodists being encamped on the ground, and 
all three of these denominations being represented in 
the pulpit. Messrs. Bennett and Dougherty were ap- 
pointed to occupy the stand on Sabbath, and to follow 
each other without intermission. Mr. Bennett opened 
with a discourse on Bom. viii. 29, 30, and from, the 
text advanced the peculiar doctrines of Calvinism. 
Mr. Dougherty followed with a discourse on the same 
text. After a clear exegesis in correction of the er- 
roneous interpretation and misapplication of the pas- 
sago, he advanced in thunder-peals the doctrine of a 
free and full atonement, and urged, with prodigious 
energy, an immediate compliance with the conditions 



In South Carolina. 331 

of salvation. The power of God came clown, and one 
universal cry for mercy was heard all through the 
vast concourse of people. Some fell prostrate on the 
ground; others, rising to fly from the scene, fell by the 
way. Hundreds were crying for mercy all over the en- 
campment, while the rejoicings of heaven-born souls 
and the shouts of victory over the powers of darkness 
were heard all through the crowd and surrounding 
grove. At the close of the sermon Mr. Dougherty 
turned to Mr. Bennett, and, with uplifted hands and 
streaming eyes, begged him, in God's name, always to 
preach a free and full salvation by grace through faith. 
The scene, said George Clark, who was an eye-witness, 
was overwhelming, and beggared all description. 

At a camp-meeting held in Darlington District, in 
1805, the assembled rowdies perpetrated enormities 
over which it is necessary, even at this distant day, to 
draw a veil. On Sunday, when fully reenforced and 
roving about in a large pine-forest which surrounded 
the tents, it came to pass, under the preaching of the 
Rev. James Jenkins, famous through all the country 
for having a stir and a shout, that a lady in the con- 
gregation began to praise God aloud. From every 
point of the compass they came thundering into camp 
with the tramp of a herd of buffaloes, thus producing 
a scene of the utmost tumult and confusion. The 
lady had by this time become quiet, and every thing 
seemed to indicate that the time had come for Mr. 
Dougherty to launch a thunderbolt. He accordingly 
arose and said: "I desire very much to engage your' 
attention for a short time; and as I am aware of your 
impatience, I propose, as a sort of compromise with 
you, to waive all the usual introductory services and 
proceed directly to my discourse." He then an- 



332 History of Methodism 

nounced for his text Mark v. 13: a Ancl the herd ran 
xv. ilently down a steep place into the sea, and were 
choked." He commenced with'some striking remarks 
upon the general policy of Satan, showing that he 
cared not what means he used for the accomplishment 
of an object if they might only prove successful. 
Thus, when he was dislodged from a man, he was well 
satisfied to enter swine, if by so doing he could prej- 
udice men against Christ. In this maneuver he was in 
the instance here Tecorded very successful. But, said 
the preacher, let us consider the text in the order of 
the thoughts which it suggests : First, we will notice 
the herd into which the devils enter; secondly, the 
drivers employed; and thirdly, the market to which 
they are going. Never, perhaps, was effort made un- 
der similar circumstances that equaled this. It was 
pertinent, awful, loving, scathing, and unique. It 
was the attack of a master-mind in a last resort, and 
was entirely successful. He sw T ept along his pathway 
like a blazing comet, drawing such life-like pictures 
of vice and diabolical intrigue that the miserable 
creatures before him seemed spell-bound; though 
they were all standing, scarcely a man among them 
broke ranks. When he reached his imaginary market 
with them, the end of an abandoned life, of a dark 
and soul-destroying course of wickedness, the picture 
took on such an appalling hue that an involuntary 
shudder came manifestly over the vast audience ; they 
seemed actually to see them, in successive columns, 
disappearing from mortal view and sinking into the 
everlasting abyss. The most stout-hearted sinners 
present seemed overwhelmed with amazement, and 
when the preacher closed they left in wild confusion, 
and were soon en route for home. 



In South Carolina. 333 

In 1807 George Dougherty attended the last Annual 
Conference in which his voice was ever heard on earth. 
At this Conference he brought forward, and by his 
earnest advocacy triumphantly carried, the resolution 
which fixed the sentiment of the South Carolina Con- 
ference true to obligation and duty for all time to 
come : " If any preacher shall desert his station through 
fear in time of sickness or danger, the Conference 
shall never employ that man again." George Dough- 
erty had no equal in his day among his own brethren, 
and it is questionable whether he had any superior 
anywhere whose career as a preacher extended only 
through nine years. But God, who endowed him with 
such noble faculties, saw best that he should pass over 
only a brief segment of the sphere of human life, and 
then sink into his last slumber amidst the soft and 
mellow light which meets a good man on the verge 
of life. 

James Russell . 

James Russell was born in Mecklenburg county, 
North Carolina, as nearly as can be ascertained, in 1786. 
He was admitted on trial in the South Carolina Con- 
ference in 1805, when he was about eighteen or nine- 
teen years of age, and appointed to Bladen Circuit; 
in 1806, to Great Pedee and Georgetown; in 1807, to 
Sparta; in 1808, to Appalachee; the two following 
years to Little River; in 1811, to Louisville; and the 
three following years to Savannah. In 1815 he located 
on account of impaired health, and engaged in mer- 
chandising at Vienna, in Abbeville District, and thus 
involved himself in financial embarrassments from 
which he was extricated only by death. He died at >l 
Dr. Meredith Moon's, in Newberry District, on the 16th 
January , 1825. A few days before his departure his 



334 History of Methodism 

friends thought that he was much better, and expressed 
the hope that he might be able to preach on the next 
Sunday. "Before next Sabbath," said Russell, "I 
shall be in paradise." 

In person, Mr. Russell was of ordinary stature, and 
perfectly symmetrical form; had a well - developed 
head, keen blue eyes, dark hair, prominent cheek- 
bones, a nose slightly aquiline, and a rather large but 
handsome mouth. His voice was highly musical, and 
admirably adapted to effective speaking. In original 
powers of mind he had no superior. His perceptions 
were clear as the light; his imagination glowing and 
fertile even to exuberance, and his power of reasoning 
such that it was a rare thing that he left it to the 
choice of his hearers whether or not to receive his 
conclusions. His temperament was unusually san- 
guine, making him confident where others would 
doubt, and resolute where others would falter. As a 
minister, his zeal seemed to have no limit; the con- 
version of the world was the great object upon which 
his thoughts, his desires, his exertions, were concen- 
trated. He began to preach without the semblance of 
an education — scarcely able to read or spell — trusting 
entirely to his native powers and the grace of God, 
and his circumstances after this were by no means 
favorable to a high degree of intellectual culture. But 
his desire for knowledge of every kind was so intense 
as to render it impossible for him to lose any oppor- 
tunity for attaining it; he made himself a well-in- 
formed man, and there was nothing in his appearance 
to indicate his entire lack of early advantages. The 
secret of Mr. Russell's power in the pulpit, said one 
of his brethren in the ministry v was this: " He copied 
no man — he was a perfect original — and he was pre- 



Ix South Carolina. 335 

eminently a Holy Ghost preacher." He not only in- 
terested the common and lower classes, but persons 
of the highest culture and refinement; all seemed alike 
captivated and entranced by his well-nigh matchless 
proclamation of the gospel. No one of his contempo- 
raries, and perhaps no one who has succeeded him, 
did more than he for the promotion of Methodism 
in the South Carolina Conference. Like the Apostle 
Paul, he was never without auxiliaries. From ten to 
twenty of his brethren would not unfrequently ac- 
company him; some for five, some for eight, and some 
for ten days on his circuit, and as one set would retire 
and go home, another set would fall in and take their 
places. These were persons distinguished for their 
naming zeal, and were denominated by Mr. Russell 
his "regular soldiers." It was a rare thing that he 
ever had to experience the depressing effects of preach- 
ing to a small congregation. It was not uncommon 
for people to come ten, fifteen, and even twenty miles 
to hear him; and when thus he preached to an im- 
mense multitude — perhaps in a strain of terror that 
seemed almost to make the world of despair visible; 
perhaps in a strain of melting tenderness or thrilling 
rapture that placed his hearers beside the cross or at 
the gate of heaven — hundreds have been seen, almost 
as if by an electric shock, to be thrown into a state of 
violent agitation and crying to God for mercy. Thou- 
sands were converted under his ministry, and living 
witnesses rose up on every side to testify, by an ex- 
alted Christian character, the genuineness of the work 
in which he was so prominent an actor and leader. 
" It was only eighteen months before his dissolution," 
says Dr. Olin, "that I became acquainted with him, 
and occasionally had the happiness to hear him preach, 



330 His roRY of Methodism 

He was already the prey of fatal disease, and a weight 
of misfortune, such as rarely falls to the lot of mortals, 
had bowed down his spirit. Whenever I expressed 
what I always felt, the highest admiration of his orig- 
inal genius and irresistibly powerful preaching, I 
could perceive sadness gathering upon the brow of 
the old Methodists, as they exclaimed, "Ah, poor 
Brother Russell! he preaches well, very well, and it 
is long since I heard such a sermon before. But he 
is no longer what he used to be. You should have 
heard him fifteen years ago." It is certain that the 
preaching of Russell, fallen as he was from the strength 
of his manhood, made an impression upon me such as 
has seldom been produced by another. Perhaps he 
had lost something from the vigor of his action and 
the pathos of his exhortation. The vividness and 
luxuriance of his imagination might have been with- 
ered in the furnace of suffering; but the strong dis- 
tinguishing features of his original mind, his shrewd- 
ness of perception, his urgency of argument, his 
inimitable aptness of illustration, his powers of rapid 
and novel combination, were unimpaired. A leading 
excellency in his preaching consisted in his peculiar 
felicity of expression. His style was always adapted 
to the genius of his congregation. Not that he was 
such a master of language as to be able to rise and 
fall with the ever-varying intellectual standard of his 
auditory, but whilst his choice of words and construc- 
tion of sentences were seldom displeasing to a culti- 
vated ear, they were always level to the capacities of 
plain, unlettered men. His rhetoric as well as his 
logic was that of common life. For both he was much 
indebted to books. Reading had disciplined his mind 
and purified his taste; but it had left no other vestiges 



In South Cabolixa. 337 

upon his public performances. The rich treasures 
which he gathered from various quarters were all sub- 
jected to the crucible. He gave them no currency 
until they were recoined and acknowledged the im- 
press of his own intellectual sovereignty. I have often 
heard the example of Russell alleged in support of 
the opinion that extensive learning is not only unnec- 
essary to a Christian minister, but is really a draw- 
back upon his usefulness. This doctrine, taken in the 
gross, is eminently false. It is a heresy in religious 
metaphysics which has blighted the fair prospects of 
many young preachers. But if the assertion means 
only that learned words and puzzling criticisms are 
egregiously out of place in the pulpit, its correctness 
is established by a multitude of examples, living and 
dead, which prove clearly that a man may be at once 
a very great theologian and a very worthless preacher. 
What business have any except scholars with classical 
allusions and well-balanced antitheses ? The common 
mind is keen-sighted to discern the truth, and mighty 
to digest the matter of an argument. But its reason- 
ing processes are short, abrupt, and inartificial, and it 
has neither patience nor skill to comprehend the 
elaborate niceties with which many divines continue 
to fetter the energies of the gospel and to veil its sim- 
ple luster. What has been said of Mr. Russell's lan- 
guage is equally applicable to his illustrations. He 
abounded in metaphors, and no man made a better 
use of them. His object was always to illustrate 
and enforce his sentiments, never to bedizzen them with 
finery. Nothing could exceed the efficiency or the 
simplicity of his rhetorical machinery. His manner 
was to conduct his hearers into the midst of scenes 
with which they were daily conversant, and then to 



338 History of Methodism 

point out the analogy which existed between the point 
he would establish and the objects before them. His 
comparisons were derived not only from rural and 
pastoral scenes, whence the poets gather their flowers, 
but from all the common arts of life, from the proc- 
esses and utensils of the kitchen, and the employments 
of housewifery and husbandry. The aptness and force 
of his metaphors always atoned for their occasional 
meanness, and it was apparent to all that they were 
dictated by a shrewd acquaintance with the human 
heart. Their effect upon the congregation was often 
like that of successive shocks of electricity. I once 
heard him preach upon the opening of the books at 
the final judgment, when he presented the record of 
human iniquity in a light so clear and overwhelming 
that the thousands who were listening to him started 
back and turned pale, as if the appalling vision had 
burst actually upon their view. Russell's whole char- 
acter was one of scriptural efficiency, and he valued 
no qualification of mind or body any further than it 
tended to the salvation of souls. His eye seemed to 
be fixed upon the examples and successes of the first 
preachers of the gospel, upon the events of the day of 
Pentecost, upon Peter's sermon to the centurion and 
his family, upon the conversion of the eunuch and 
the jailer. He looked for a renewal of these scenes 
under his own ministry, and whenever he preached 
the cross he expected the Holy Ghost to give efficiency 
to the word. If this spiritual assistance was sometimes 
withheld, he seemed disappointed and humbled, as if 
he had not only failed in success, but in duty. To a 
deep sense of the weakness of human exertions, and 
their utter dependence on God for all success, he united 
the strongest confidence in the strenuous and skillful 



In South Carolina. 339 

use of means. They led him to cultivate the knowl- 
edge of the heart as more valuable than any other. 
He observed carefully the phenomena it is wont to 
exhibit under the diversified operations of divine 
grace, and long experience had rendered him so 
thoroughly master of the important science that he 
often determined, by the expression of the counte- 
nance, with most astonishing precision, what were the 
internal exercises of the soul. The eye of the hearer 
was his guide, and whenever he perceived that the 
time was come to strike home to the conscience, or to 
pour dismay upon the stubborn heart, or to address 
the penitent in words of consolation, he did not hesi- 
tate to leave his proposition half discussed and press 
on to the issue. He would carry on the mind in the 
train of his masterly and original reasoning, or over- 
awe it by the high authority of the Scriptures, which 
he linked together text to text into an argument of ir- 
refragable strength, and then, just at the moment 
when unbelief is vanquished, and before the powers 
of darkness have rallied to the conflict, would he rive 
the heart with the loud and thrilling accents of his 
voice, and direct its wandering destinies to the cross 
of Christ. If he was powerful as a preacher, he was 
mighty as an intercessor. Indeed, it was in the closet 
that the holy flame of his devotion was kindled. There 
his heart learned to glow with the conquering zeal 
which blazed forth in the pulpit, and there he wrestled 
with the angel of the covenant and obtained the power 
which he wielded so successfully over the human heart. 
And when he kneeled in the midst of weeping peni- 
tents, to order their cause before the Lord, he indeed 
ceased to be like other men. He asked, nothing doubt- 
ing, and he received. The trophies of pardoning love 



340 History of Methodism 

were multiplied around him. Hope seemed to be lost 
in assurance, and faith in certainty. In the nearness 
of his communion with God he discovered a compas- 
sion so ready and earnest to save that he asked for the 
exercise of it with an assurance which often seemed 
presumptuous to ordinary Christians. But his sacri- 
fices were well-pleasing in the sight of God, who gave 
to his prayers and his preaching a degree of success 
seldom witnessed since the time of the apostles. Sev- 
eral thousand souls were given to him within the 
South Carolina Conference as the seals of his ministry 
and the crown of his eternal rejoicing. 

Lewis Myers. 

Lewis Myers was born at Indian Fields, in Colleton 
District, South Carolina, on the 7th of May, 1775. 
He heard Henry Willis preach in 1786; also Isaac 
Smith and others, who in succession traveled the 
Edisto Circuit, and was often much affected under the 
word. In 1795 he became private teacher in the fam- 
ily of Jacob Humph, and at the end of five months 
opened a school near Judah's Meeting-house, where 
he regularly attended on preaching days, taking his 
pupils with him. He was received into the member- 
ship of the Church by Tobias Gibson, then in charge 
of the Edisto Circuit, on the 7th of May, 1796, and on 
the 10th of August, in class-meeting, after Enoch 
George had preached, and while Mr. Gibson was ex- 
amining the class, he felt such manifest influence of 
divine grace upon his heart as to 

Assure his conscience of her part 
In the Redeemer's blood. 

He resolved to devote himself to the ministry of 
the gospel, and received from Mr. Gibson a license to 



In South Carolina. 341 

exhort, which he used sparingly. Feeling the need 
of a higher degree of intellectual culture in order to 
the more successful prosecution of his work, he be- 
came a student in Succoth A cademy, near Washin.g- 
ton, in Georgia, then under the superintendence of 
Hope Hull . Having gone through a course of study 
in that institution, he was admitted on trial in the 
South Carolina Conference in 1799, and appointed to 
the Little Pedee and Anson Circuit; in 1800, to Orange- 
burg; in 1801, to Bush Eiver and Cherokee; in 1802, 
to Broad River; in 1803, to Little River; in 1801, to 
Ogeechee; in 1805, to Bladen; in 1806, to Charleston. 
The three following years he was presiding elder of 
the Saluda District; from 1810 to 1814, of the Ogee- 
chee District; from 1814 to 1818, of the Oconee Dis- 
trict. The two following years he was stationed in 
Charleston. From 1820 to 1824 he was presiding 
elder of the Edisto District; in 1824, stationed in 
Georgetown; from 1825 to 1829, was supernumerary, 
after which he took a superannuated relation and set- 
tled, and opened a school at. Goshen^ in Effingham 
county, Geo rgia. In March, 1847, he became para- 
lyzed, and his naturally vigorous intellect suffered an 
almost total eclipse. Even after his body and mind 
both became thus a wreck, his heart evidently still 
clung with all the tenacity of which it was capable to 
that dear and blessed cause to which the energies of 
his life had been given. He died on the 16th of No- 
vember, J851. Mr. Myers was not specially attractive 
in his personal appearance. He was not very tall, but 
was what is commonly called chunky. His head was 
rather large, and his whole appearance and manner 
indicated what he really was— a plain, straightfor- 
ward, earnest Christian man. As a preacher, he took 



342 History of Methodism 

high rank among the more useful laborers of his day. 
He was not a highly popular preacher ; his discourses 
were not constructed according to set rules, but were 
rather a collection of wise, pithy, practical, and pious 
remarks, flowing naturally, but without much respect 
to order, from his text. His gestures were not abun- 
dant, but they were forcible, striking, and highly ap- 
propriate, and whoever failed to pay due regard to 
these motions of head and hand was sure to lose the 
full force of his energetic and earnest words. He was 
not what is called a revival preacher, but he was wise 
to build up and confirm the Church in the doctrines 
of the gospel, and in the practice of Christian godli- 
ness. There was sometimes a degree of quaintness in 
his style of address that could hardly fail to provoke 
a smile. 

On one occasion, at camp-meeting, it devolved on 
him to make the usual collection for the support of 
the gospel on the circuit, and a portion of his address 
was on this wise: "You ought, every one of you, to 
give to this collection. These traveling preachers go 
all over the country trying to reform the people and 
make them good citizens; therefore, every patriot, 
every lover of the peace and good order of society, 
ought to give. The Baptists and Presbyterians ought 
to give because they are largely indebted to the labors 
of these same preachers for the building up of their 
churches. And, finally, you all ought to give, unless 
it is the man who prays, ' God bless me and my wife, 
my son and his wife — us four and no more.' " 

At the Conference held in Camden, January 21, 
1811, a question arose on the election to deacon's 
orders and admission into full connection of a young 
preacher who had traveled for two years as helper to 



In South Carolina. 343 

William Gassaway, and against whom there was not 
the shadow of an objection but that he had married a 
wife who was in all respects a suitable person and of 
an excellent family. Mr. Gassaway warmly espoused 
the cause of the young brother, and urged with great 
force in his behalf the authority of 1 Timothy iii. 12 ; 
but Mr. Myers carried the Conference against him 
with the following characteristic speech: "A young 
man comes to us and says he is called to preach. We 
answer, 'I don't know.' He comes a second time, 
perhaps a third time, even a fourth time, saying, 'A 
dispensation of the gospel is committed unto me, and 
woe be to me if I preach not the gospel.' Then we 
say to him, ' Go and try.' He goes and tries and can 
hardly do it. We bear with him a little while and he 
does better. And just as we begin to hope he may 
make a preacher, lo! he comes again to us and says 
'I must marry.' We say to him, 'If you marry, you 
will soon locate; go and preach.' 'No, I must marry, 
I must marry.' We say to him, 'A dispensation of 
the gospel is committed to you, and woe be unto you 
if you preach not the gospel.' 'But no,' he says, 'I 
must marry.' And he marries. It is enough to make 
an angel weep." 

Mr. Myers was a great economist in respect to both 
time and money. He rose at four o'clock in the morn- 
ing, and was busily and usefully employed the whole 
day. His pecuniary expenditures also were regulated 
by the strictest regard to economy. He never spent a 
dime unnecessarily; and though it was not possible to 
make large accumulations from the salary which Meth- 
odist preachers then received, yet by rigid economy 
he had acquired enough to settle himself snugly on a 
little farm when he was compelled to retire from active 



344 History of Methodism 

service. Still he was far from being penurious, and 
never hesitated to respond liberally, according to his 
ability, to the claims of any good object that might 
present itself. During his latter years he used to at- 
tend the annual sessions of the Conference to which 
he belonged, and deliver an address to his brethren 
designed to quicken their zeal in the great work to 
which they were devoted, and especially to guard them 
against any departure from the ancient landmarks as 
identified with the faith of their fathers. There was 
no sort of drudgery which promised good to the cause 
of Christ to which he was not ready cheerfully to sub- 
mit. When he was presiding elder of the district 
which included the city of Savannah, where the Meth- 
odists then had no church-edifice, Mr. Myers resolved 
to make a vigorous effort to build one and succeeded. 
He passed through the rural portion of his district 
begging in aid of the enterprise from door to door. 
On one of these begging trips which were performed 
mostly on foot, he came toward night-fall to the house 
of a gentleman whose name was a synonym for the 
most generous hospitality. He knew the house and 
family well, for they had often made him welcome, 
and he consequently felt himself at home. The trav- 
eler was dismissed to his room at an early hour, but 
the next morning the servant reported that the bed 
had not been occupied during the night, unless Mr. 
Myers had made it up before he left his chamber. 
When he was called upon to explain the mystery, " 0," 
said he, " I must confess my faults — I knelt down to 
say my prayers, and I was there in the morning." 

In the latter years of his active itinerancy he used 
an old sulky — the seat resting -on the shafts, with no 
springs to break the severity of the jolts of which 



In South Carolina, 345 

rough roads would always afford a plentiful experience. 
He drove a sorrel horse that generally moved as de- 
liberately and steadily as his master was wont to do. 
One day as he was jogging along over a certain cause- 
way in South Carolina — the road being perfectly- 
straight and level for a mile or more — a friend of his, 
with whom he often lodged, spied him at a considerable 
distance, and resolved to have some amusement at the 
old gentleman's expense. So taking his position by 
the road-side, he waited till Mr. Myers was just about 
to pass, when, stepping out and seizing his horse's 
bridle, he said in a stern voice, " Deliver your money! " 
The good man waked up as from a profound reverie, 
began to beg the robber to let him pass, as he had ap- 
pointments ahead, and time was precious; but the 
robber seemed inexorable and the only response to all 
his pleading was, "Deliver your money!" So he be- 
gan reluctantly to pull out his pocket-book, where- 
upon the robber exclaimed, " Why, friend Myers, do n't 
you know me?" And then for the first time he dis- 
covered that it was his friend Solomons, at whose house 
he had often lodged. 

On the whole Lewis Myers may well be regarded as 
one of the leading pioneers of Methodism in the South 
Carolina Conference, and has left behind him a name 
that deserves to be kept in enduring remembrance. 

Eeddick Pierce. 

"My venerable brother," says Dr. Lovick Pierce, 
"was born in Halifax county, North Carolina, Sep- 
tember 26, 1782, and died in Barnwell District, South 
Carolina, July 24, 1860, at the residence of Jacob Stro- 
mal!, Esq., not many miles from the place on which 
we were reared. My father removed from North Caro- 



346 History of Methodism 

lina about 1786, I think, and settled on a section of 
land lying on Tinker's Creek, located by himself, after 
pitching his tent on it only as a new-comer. On this 
lot of land my brother and myself were raised up. 
The family moved to Georgia in 1804, but we remained 
in South Carolina. My brother devoted his time 
pretty much to preaching; I mine to a small school as 
teacher ; both of us looking to the itinerancy with anx- 
ious solicitude. And in December, 1804, in Charles- 
ton, we were admitted on trial in the Conference, both 
of us on the same day and hour. And of this class I 
am the only survivor. 

"Of our early days, a few things must be said. 
There was no open religion in my father's house, but 
religion was reverently recognized by our parents ; so 
that although we grew up without the benefit of re- 
ligious example, we did have the benefit of religious 
indoctrinations of mind. There was very little preach- 
ing in our region, and what there was was badly suit- 
ed to the condition of sinners, until 1799. That year 
our portion of the district was included in the old 
Edisto Circuit, and in those days a circuit was a cir- 
cuit. James Jenkins and Moses Matthews, were the 
pioneers of Methodism in that portion of Barnwell 
then known as the Three Runs. As a great favor, 
they were allowed to preach at my uncle Lewis Weath- 
ersby's house, about a mile from my father's. My aunt 
Weathersby had imbibed a love of Methodism in 
North Carolina, before her removal, and hailed their 
coming among us as a blessing. My father despised 
the race with bitterness. My mother , I think, like her 
sister, had a liking to Methodism. But not one of 
our family ever attended a Methodist service until 
August. Then my brother and myself obtained leave 



In South Carolina. 347 

to go and hear a Methodist preacher. We went, and 
James Jenkins was the preacher. His text was, ' Hap- 
py is that people that is in such a case; yea, happy is 
that people whose God is the Lord.' This was the 
first time we ever heard the gospel preached, with the 
Holy Ghost sent down from heaven. Its truth entered 
both of our hearts, and that very day we both resolved 
on leading a new life. But the purpose, as far as it 
affiliated with Methodism, was unavowecl. But then 
and there commenced our life of prayer. AVe did not 
join the Church until the summer of 1801, under the 
care of John Campbell and Thomas Darley. Then, 
within three weeks, all theiamily who were old enough 
united with the little church. 

" In 1802 we had for our preachers Hanover Don- 
nan, Thomas Darley, and Hugh Porter. This year we 
had built a meeting-house very near my father's resi- 
dence. Brother and myself professed re ligion. He 
commenced exhorting sinners to repentance right 
away. During this year we were both appointed 
leaders, and licensed to exhort. Here commences the 
useful ministerial career of my honored brother. No 
one knew him as well as myself. And I now say of 
him that a purer Christian never lived. His whole 
religious life was a rich development of the most guile- 
less devotion to God and his cause and kingdom. 

"His entrance upon calling sinners to repentance 
was in conjunction with the first appearance of the 
marvelous signs that ushered in the great revival in 
the early part of this century. My brother's voice was 
melodious. His heart was warm with the love of 
Christ, and of sinners for Christ's sake. His faijli in 
God and his word was simple and assuring. In those 
days, in all that country around us in which my broth 



348 History op Methodism 

er had done all his frolicking, I never knew him to 
make an ineffectual effort. I myself saw on one oc- 
casion, under one of his exhortations, eleven sinners 
fall from their seat — from one seat— on the ground, 
crying for mercy. And this was but a remarkable in- 
stance of a common occurrence, esx3ecially under his 
overwhelming appeals. 

" 1 will mention one remarkable evidence of the Di- 
vine design and presence in these supernatural influ- 
ences. As these religious phenomena were coincident 
with Methodism in that region, and as Methodism was 
a foredoomed heresy, this business of falling, of get- 
ting converted in a few hours, and rising up with the 
assurance of pardon, and shouting, were all pleaded 
against us as proof good enough that we were false 
apostles — deceitful workers, transforming ourselves 
into the apostles of Christ. There was a small Bap- 
tist church about three miles from ours. Some of its 
members had become rabid in feeling against the new 
religion; regarded it as a devilish necromancy; called 
it wild-fire; but the most familiar figure was fox-fire. 
AYe Methodists, indifferent to such abuse, determined 
to omit our next class-meeting, and attend the monthly 
Baptist meeting. So we did, all of us, on Saturday. 
The good old pastor preached, and, as his wont was, 
opened the way to receive experiences by asking if 
there was any one in the house that had any thing to 
say for the Lord. My brother, always -having some- 
thing to say, and not being well posted on the order 
of the meeting, arose and commenced one of his soul- 
stirring exhortations, and in half an hour the floor was 
almost covered with the fallen, and during the after- 
noon many found peace in believing, and such a shout 
was never before heard in any meeting among us. The 



In South Carolina. 349 

old pastor stood in the midst and wept and praised, 
and said lie felt as if the ' big end of his heart was 
uppermost.' We never doubted but that God did this 
to set his mistaken people right. We heard no more 
of wild-fire, nor of fox-fire. 

" Our Parallel Race. My first circuit, in 1805, was 
Pedee and Lynch's Creek, South Carolina; my broth- 
er's, Little River, Georgia. My second was Appa- 
lachee, Georgia; my brother's, Sparta, Georgia. My 
third year was in Augusta, G-eorgia; my brother's, in 
Montgomery, North Carolina. My fourth year was in 
Columbia, South Carolina; my brother's, in Augusta. 
My fifth year, was presiding elder of Oconee District; 
my brother's, in Columbia, South Carolina. This 
year we were both married — I in Greene county, 
Georgia, on Thursday evening, and he on the Sunday 
following — without any knowledge of each other's de- 
sign; for in those days no one left his work on errands 
of mere friendship. In 1810 my brother was presid- 
ing elder on the Saluda District. This year his health 
so far failed him that he took a superannuated relation, 
and in 1812 he located, settled a farm in Fairfield Dis- 
trict, where, with great odds against him, but God with 
him, he did much to plant and build up Methodism. 

" His next removal was to Mt. Ariel, to educate his 
children. In these years his deafness increased to 
such a degree that he became unable to do any thing as 
a regular pastor, and he was used ouly as a helper, or 
as a supply. He was always ready to labor up to the 
full measure of his ability. I do not know the time 
of his readmission into the South Carolina Confer- 
ence, but am happy in knowing that he died an hon- 
ored member of that body. 

" My brother was more utterly deaf than any one I 



350 History of Methodism 

ever knew. For many years lie never heard any thing 
that was said in preaching; hut he always attended. 
Many years ago, at a camp-meeting near Charleston, 
seeing him in great weakness go to the stand, at every 
honr, I said to him, ' Brother, why do you weary your- 
self to go every time to the stand, seeing you cannot 
hear a word?' To which he replied, in his own em- 
phatic way, ' I go to fill my place, as every good man 
ought.' 

" My brother by nature was a great man. In his 
mind could be seen, projecting out, the evidence of a 
clear, logical philosophy. Even without the benefit of 
early education, and aided only by original genius, 
and such assistance as a self-sustained mind could 
command, I doubt whether any one ever heard him 
argue a point in polemic theology confusedly. He 
was in his own way a great and a powerful preacher. 

" My brother had many trials and troubles, priva- 
tions and sufferings. But all these he bore, for a little 
over sixty years, with a Christian heroism unsurpassed 
by that of any fellow-pilgrim of his day. His faith 
entered into God with a firm hold at first, and never 
faltered in all his long life. He was uncompromising 
in his views of right and duty. He was incorruptible. 

" I claim nothing for him above what constitutes a 
good man, but simply all that does. He had infirmi- 
ties, of course. But I never knew him to mar the 
symmetry of his godliness by an invasion of it in all 
my days of intimacy with him. After the death of 
his wife and the dispersion of his children by mar- 
riage, he became a lone traveler, a very pilgrim, to 
Zion bound. He made annual visits to his children; 
visiting by the way many old friends, and preaching 
as he was able. But he made' his home for the last 



In South Carolina. 351 

twelve years with liis hospitable friend Stroman. In 
this good brother's ample mansion, and ampler heart, 
he found all that life needed, and all that kindness 
could bestow. Here he spent his last days, as the hon- 
ored guest of a noble and generous family. Upon 
Brother Stroman and his family I devoutly ask 
Heaven's richest benedictions. They did more than 
give a cup of cold water in the name of a disciple. 
They will not lose their reward. 

" I' forbear to write. The record of my brother is 
all good. South Carolina owes his memory much. 
He did her good all the days of his life. He loved 
her soil, and her citizens. Let him sleep sweetly in 
her earth. My brother was really a worn-out vessel. 
He did not die so much of disease as of the wear of 
life's tired wheels. Some of his passage over life's 
stormy ocean was rough and billowy; but he entered 
his final port on a calm and lovely evening, without a 
cloud over his setting sun, or a pang in his bosom. 
All I wish is to be as well fitted to die as I believe he 
was, and to leave a name as free from discount as he 
has. Of my father's sons, I only am left, and am pass- 
ing away." 



CHAPTER XIV. 



I collected the small remains of strength I had to read and hear 
read my manuscript journals; I could send them to England ;md 
get a price for them, but money is not my object. 

(Francis Asbury.) 

WE came into South Carolina on Friday, Octo- 
ber 25, 1805, and lodged with Captain Ed- 
wards; and on Saturday, at Staunton's (Staunton's 
Ferry), on Saluda River, Greenville District, we were 
at home. 

Sabbath, 27. At Salem I preached upon Hos. x. 12. 

Monday, 28. We proceeded on our way to Georgia, 
winding along some crooked paths through Pendleton 
District to Eliab Moore's, upon Rocky River : night 
came on, and we missed our way into the plantation; 
I walked up a hill, and called for help, and was re- 
lieved. We crossed Rocky River four times on Tues- 
day, and came to Mr. Dunlap's. Wednesday morning 
we rode twenty miles for our breakfast, at Peters- 
burg. We lodged with John Oliver. Joseph Crawford 
preached two evenings. 

Sunday, November 24. I preached in Augusta. 

Monday, 25. I bore up for South Carolina, and 
came to Barnwell Court-house: I was kindly enter- 
tained by Mr. Powers. 

Tuesday, 26. We reached Jacob Barr's. 

Wednesday, 27. Yv T e reached Mr. Perry's; and next 
day came into Charleston. From Augusta one hun- 
dred and fifty miles— heavy rides, and weary men and 
(352) 



History of Methodism. 353 

horses. I was under some dejection of spirits. I 
have lately read the Life of David Brainard — a man 
of my make, such a constitution, and of great labors; 
his religion was all gold, the purest gold. My eyes 
fail; I must keep them for the Bible and the Con- 
ferences. 

South Carolina — Friday, 29. Engaged in closet ex- 
ercises. I do not find matters as I wish: one preach- 
er has deserted his station; and there are contentions 
amongst the Africans. 

Saturday, 30. My soul is deeply oppressed with a 
heavy sea of troubles. 

Sunday, December 1. " Still heavy is my heart; 
still sink my spirits down." At Cumberland Street 
Church I spoke upon Rev. vii. 13-17. My two general 
heads of discourse were, (1) The gracious although 
afflicted state of God's people in this world; (2) The 
glorious and happy state of the righteous in heaven. 
Our lower floor was nearly rilled with communicants, 
white and black. Do they all indeed "discern the 
Lord's body?" It will never do for me to record all 
I fear, hear, and think. At Bethel Church 1 took for 
my text Rom. xii. 9-12. I observed that the text con- 
tained evangelical Christian duties, privileges, prom- 
ises, and marks, by which we might judge of ourselves 
as Christians. That if these marks, and this experi- 
ence, were not upon us and in us, we could not be 
Christians. Within twenty years I have visited this 
place, going and returning, at least thirty times. 

Saturday, 7. Since Monday, amongst other occu- 
pations, I have been employed in reading one thou • 
sand pages of Mr. Atmore's Memorial, and Mr. Wes- 
ley's Journal: these books suit me best — I see there 
the rise and progress of Methodism. I met the mem- 
23 



354 History of Methodism 

bers of society, white and black, in small companies 
in our own house. I gave my advice as to temporals. 
I recommended the painting of the new, and the en- 
largement of the old church to eighty feet by forty; to 
enlarge the preacher's house, and to buy another buiy- 
ing-ground. Besides praying regularly after every 
meal in our own house, I am obliged to go through 
this exercise many times, daily, with the poor negroes. 
I feel that I want to go hence, but not until my God 
and Guide gives me liberty. I wait to know his will 
about going to Georgetown, two hundred and thirty 
miles, before the Camden Conference. I wrote a letter 
to Mr. Atmore, advising of affairs of the society and 
of my own; and counseled him to pursue the good 
work he is engaged in, and bend all his strength to 
the Memorial. 

Sunday, 8. I was in great heaviness through mani- 
fold temptations; yet I preached in Cumberland Street 
in the morning, and at Bethel in the afternoon. I 
was happy, and had great openings. I fear, some- 
times, that my commission will wear out amongst one 
description of people here. Religion of a certain kind 
must be very valuable, since we spend so much to sup- 
port it. There must be a prodigious revival in the 
Independent Society — a building of theirs will cost 
fifty, or perhaps one hundred thousand dollars : there 
is a holy strife between its members and the Episco- 
palians, who shall have the highest steeple; but I be- 
lieve there is no contention about who shall have the 
most souls converted to God. 

Monday, 9. Beading and receiving all visitors who 
came to our house, with counsel and prayer, from room 
to room, with white and black. 

Tuesday, 10. We have goodly weather. God, by 



In South Carolina. 355 

liis Spirit and his providences, tells us we must set 
out to-morrow for Georgetown. I doubt if in Charles- 
ton we have joined more than one hundred and sev- 
enty-eight members of the fair skin in twenty years ■ 
and seldom are there more than fifty or sixty annually 
returned: death, desertion, backsliding: poor, fickle 
souls, unstable as water, light as air, bodies and minds ! 

Wednesday, 11. We rode to Monk's Corner, and 
lodged at Mi\ Hatchett's. 

Thursday, 12. We pursued a blind road to the fer- 
ry. We came on to Murray's, and continued along to 
Mr. Coleman's, a German. Next day we reached 
Eembert Hall. We had hot weather— man and beast 
felt the burden. 

Saturday, 14. I committed the remains of Abijah 
Eem bert to the du st. He was sixty-two years of age, | 
the last sixteen years of which he had been a member 
of society. He was visited by and greatly blessed 
under the word at camp-meeting: in his last illness 
he was patient, happy, and confident: he died in the 
^ Lord. 

O n th e Sabbath-day I preached a funeral-sermon 
X for Abijah Eembert. There is a revival in the society 
^here; so much for" camp-meetings. I am now in the 
fortieth year of my labors in the ministry: thirty-four 
years of this time have been spent in America, count- 
ing from October 28, 1771, to October 28, 1805. 

On Christmas-clay I preached at Eembert's Chap- 
el; my subject, from 1 Tim. iii. 16, "Without contro- 
versy, great is the mystery of godliness," etc. 1. I 
gave a pastoral introduction; 2. A brief explanation 
of godliness — the knowledge of God in Christ Jesus: 
confidence in God; love to him; fear of offending 
him. To this were added a few thoughts on the six 



356 History of Methodism 

cases in the text. It was not a pleasant season: Christ- 
mas-day is the worst in the whole year on which to 
preach Christ; at least to me. 

George Dougherty informs me that the wife of John 
Handle, upon Pedee, (known by the name of Dumb 
John), died in great peace and joy, after a thirty years' 
profession of religion amongst the Baptists and Meth- 
odists : safe anchorage ; clear gains ! But I have simi- 
lar accounts from various parts; my soul triumphs in 
the triumphant deaths of these saints. Glory be to 
God! 

Thursday, 26, I rested and read; and on Friday 
rode into Camden. I was favored with a number of 
letters giving accounts of revivals of religion. Satur- 
day, employed my pen. Sabbath-day I preached. 

Monday, 30. We opened our Conference. 

January 4, 1806. We closed our Conference in 
great peace and order: no murmurs about the stations 
from preachers or people. Since we came here we 
have had twenty-six sermons; one of which I preached 
upon 1 Tim. iv. 12: "Let no man despise thy youth." 
Brother Whatcoat ordained the deacons. We see no 
immediate fruit of our labors; but doubtless we shall 
hear of it, following our many prayers night and day. 

Monday, 6. Seven of us came away, in company to 
Mr. Evans's, Lynch's Creek; and next day I parted 
from Brother McKendree, bending my course to Jern- 
ingham's, in Anson county, North Carolina. 

On Wednesday we crossed Well's Ferry, after wait- 
ing an hour : a snow-storm kept with us from Pedee 
to Rockingham; here the people would have assem- 
bled, but there was a wedding afoot. This is a mat- 
ter of moment, as some men have but one during life, 
and some find that one to have' been one too many. 



In South Carolina. 357 

On Thursday a cold, cold ride of twenty miles with- 
out stopping was as much as we could well bear; after 
warming, we took the road again, and came to Smith's, 
twelve miles. This week we have had heat for the 
first of June, and cold and snow for January. 

On Friday we reached Fayetteville, putting up 
with John Lumsden, near the African Church. I felt 
that I had taken a deep cold. I was busy on Satur- 
day in answering letters. Joseph Crawford, that he 
might not be idle, preached to the Africans in the 
evenings. 

Sabbath-day, 12. Unwell; nevertheless, I took the 
pulpit. 

Monday morning we made a start for Wilmington, 
and came to the widow Anderson's, forty-six miles. 
Next day we took the roundabout way by the bridges, 
and made forty- five miles: to ride ninety-one miles 
within daylight, in two days, kept us busy ; but we are 
safe in Wilmington. My affliction upon my breast 
was great. 

Wednesday, 15. We rest. It is very cold; ice in 
the tubs and pails. 

Sabbath-day, 19. I preached on that great subject, 
Col. i. 27, 28. We had about fifteen hundred hear- 
ers in our house of worship, sixty-six by thirty-three 
feet, galleried all around. There may be five thou- 
sand souls in Wilmington; one-fourth of which num- 
ber, it may be, were present. Jos. Crawford preached 
in the afternoon and at night. I gave order for the 
completion of the tabernacle and dwelling-house, ac- 
cording to the charge left me by William Meredith. 

Saturday, October 4, 1806. Crossed Green and 
Broad rivers, to attend a meeting in the woods in 
Rutherford county. I preached on the Sabbath, on 



358 History of Methodism. 

Psalm li. S-ll; and on Monday, at eight o'clock in the 
morning, on 1 John i. 6, 7 — it was a moving season. 
I made my lodging with Brother Driskell on Sunday- 
night, and on Monday at Major George Moore's, twen- 
ty miles from the ground. On Tuesday we came rap- 
idly through a part of Lincoln, to South Carolina, 
about thirty miles, and lodged at Alexander Hill's; 
and next day staid with Mr. Fulton. My mind is 
in constant peace under great bodily exertions. I 
preached at my host's, upon Matt. xxiv. 12, 13. 

Thursday, 9. At the Waxhaws. We crossed Ca- 
tawba at McLenahan's Ferry, and came to Robert 
Hancock's to lodge. We have had a blessed rain. 
On the Sabbath I preached at the Hanging Hock — 
few people; but a good season. On Tuesday I went 
over to Thompson's Creek, Anson county, to see 
George Dougherty; but his friends had conveyed him 
away on a bed. I spent Wednesday in reading, medi- 
tation, prayer, and Christian conversation in the fam- 
ily of Thomas Shaw. 

Thursday, 16. Rode back to the Hanging Rock: I 
felt the effects of the ride, as the exercise was some- 
what new. 

Saturday, 18. Rode to Camden. 

Sunday, 19. I preached upon 1 Cor. xi. 28: "Let 
a man examine himself." In the afternoon, I heard 
the Rev. Mr. Flinn, and was pleased with him as a 
Presbyterian minister. Mr. Smilie, a Presbyterian, 
preached for us in the tabernacle. 

Monday, 20. I rode to Rembert Hall. 

Sunday, 26. At Rembert's Chapel I preached on 
1 John iii. 1-3. 

Monday, 27. I am bound for the city of Charles- 
ton. We sought lodging at Wo houses at Bruton's 



In South Carolina. 359 

Lake: we found it at Mr. Martin's. On Tuesday we 
made twenty-five miles to Murray's Ferry, instead of 
fifteen: at Long Ferry, to which we were obliged to 
steer, we were detained five hours through the swam}); 
heat, mosquitoes, gallmippers — plenty. We rode twen- 
ty miles after sundown to get to Mr. Hatchett's, at 
Monk's Corner; the family being sick, we went to Mr. 
Jones's, who kindly entertained us. We made jS.£ty 
miles to-day, and came to lodgings about ten o'clock 
at night. On Wednesday we came through heat and 
heavy roads to Charleston, where Ave found all things 
well, and in good order: Lewis Myers is an econo- 
mist. 

Sunday, November 2. At Cumberland Street Church 
I preached in the morning; and at Bethel in the aft- 
ernoon. 

Monday, 3. Neither unemployed, nor trifiingly. 
If we call for social prayer seven times a day, there 
are none to complain; the house is our own, and pro- 
fane people board not with us. My time is spent in 
reading, writing, and receiving all who come, whites 
and Africans: I am sometimes called away in the 
midst of a letter. God the Lord is here. I am happy 
that we have finished our new church, and bought an 
acre of ground; should I live long,- 1 shall see a house 
in the Northern Liberties of Cooper Eiver. On Tues- 
day I wrote a letter to Dr. Coke, giving a general 
statement of the late work of God upon our continent. 

Sunday, 9. I preached again in Cumberland 
Church, on 2 Cor. iv. 17, 18. In the afternoon I 
gave them a discourse at the Bethel Church, upon 
Phil. i. 27-30. 

Monday, 10. It appears that there is a work amongst 
white and black— some have found the blessing. 



360 History of Methodism 

On Tuesday I left my prison, and got as far as Cap- 
tain Perry's, thirty miles ; and next day, by riding two 
hours in the night, reached Barr's. On Thursday we 
rode up Edisto to Benjamin Tarrant's, twenty-two 
miles: next day we reached Weathersby's, twenty-five 
miles. 

Georgia — Saturday brought us to Augusta: we have 
made a journey of about six days in five, through the 
deep sands. 

On Friday, December 26, 1 came on to Sparta. 

Sabbath, 28. Prayer-meeting at six o'clock. John 
McVean preached at eight o'clock. At twelve o'clock 
I read the letters narrative of the great work, and 
preached upon Col. iv. 7, 8. Brother Kendrick occu- 
pied the pulpit at three o'clock; and Brother Mead at 
night. 

Monday, 29. We began our Conference. The sub- 
ject of the delegated Conference was adopted, with 
only two dissenting voices: these members, however, 
cheerfully submitted, and one of the dissentients was 
elected a member. All was peace respecting the sta- 
tions. We had prayer-meeting at six o'clock; at eleven, 
at three, and at seven o'clock at night, we had preach- 
ing. I was called upon to deliver a funeral discourse 
for Bishop Whatcoat. On the Sabbath morning we 
had a band-meeting in the Conference, and I preached 
in the open air at eleven o'clock; my subject, Mark 
xvi. 19, 20. From Philadelphia to Augusta I count 
it one thousand eight hundred and twenty-miles, the 
route we have made. We have fifty traveling preach- 
ers in this Conference this year, and an increase of 
one thousand members. 

South Carolina — -On Thursday, January 1, 1807, 
we set out for Columbia, dining in the woods on our 



In South Carolina. 361 

route: it was excessively cold. I preached in Mr. 
Harrison's house in the evening. Next day we came 
to Camden. Saturday brought us to Bembert Hall. 
We have been redeeming time by riding two hundred 
and twenty miles in five days. 

Sabbath, 11. We attended, as was meet, at Bexn- 
bert's Chapel. I gave them a sermon on 1 Chron. 
xxviii. 9. 

Wednesday, 14. We came away to McCollum's 
Ferry. On our way we dined at Woodham, and lodged 
with Jeremiah Heath. On Thursday we crossed 
Pedee, and came to Colonel Bethea's. 

Friday brought us through Lumber ton, in North 
Carolina, lodging with Peter Gautier. We found our- 
selves obliged to ride on the Lord's-day, through the 
cold, to Wilmington, crossing two rivers in a snow and 
hail storm. I have ridden four hundred and twenty 
miles in ten days and a half— cold, sick, and faint: it 
was as much as I could well bear up under. 

Monday, 19. Busy making extracts from letters, 
and planning for Conferences. Tuesday, occupied 
as yesterday; in the evening I preached. I feel 
that God is here. On Wednesday, Brother Kendrick 
preached. Thursday, reading and writing: Joshua 
Wells preached. 

Friday, 23. I preached in the tabernacle, upon 
Matt. xi. 28-30. It was a time of some quickening. 

Sabbath, 25. A high day on Mount Zion. At the 
rising of the sun, John Charles began the worship of 
the day; he chose for his subject Bom. viii. 1. At 
eleven o'clock I held forth on Heb. iii. 12-15. I spoke 
again at three o'clock on Isaiah lv. 6, 7. Stith Mead 
preached at six o'clock in the evening. O that by any 
means we may save some! On Monday and Tuesday, 



362 History of Methodism 

still reading Wesley's Sermons: I have completed 
thirty, nearly. On Tuesday evening I preached, and 
it was a serious time. 

Wednesday, 28. We took our flight from Wilming- 
ton. What I felt and suffered there, from preachers 
and people, is known to God. 

Sabbath, November 25, 1807. For three days past 

1 have been busy in seeking appropriate portions of 
Scripture for the new hymns designed to enlarge our 
common hymn-book. Our journey hither, Saluda Fer- 
ry, from Chilicothe, has brought us through five States 
Report says there is an awful affliction in Charleston 
— the mortal fever! I preached to-day at Salem, on 

2 Chron. vi. 29-31; we had a serious time. My mind 
is kept in great peace: surely, God is love! 

At Elijah Moore's on Monday, I preached on Luke 
xi. 9, 10: my labor, I think, is not entirely in vain. 
On Tuesday, at Jeremiah Robinson's, we had but 
twelve souls to hear us; the people are too busy with 
their fine crops of corn. My body fails, but I have 
great peace of mind. 

On Wednesday, Daniel Hitt preached at John Ol- 
iver's: our host has a son-in-law converted at camp- 
meeting. Our preachers have passed by this town, 
but the Lord will not pass by Petersburg, but will 
visit precious souls here. 

Tuesday, December 1. We came into Augusta. 

Thursday, 3. We reached Spann's. I judge Ave 
have traveled nine hundred miles since the Western 
Conference. The weather and indisposition hold me 
at Spann's. My soul is happy in God in sickness and 
in health. 

Sabbath, 6. I preached. 

Monday, 7. We started away to Fridge's, thirty-six 



In South Carolina. 363 

miles. As it was a day of general parade on Tuesday 
at Columbia, I returned to General Hutchinson's. 
Next day we reached Camden. Thursday, I preached 
in Camden. I spent Friday at Eembert Hall, read- 
ing and writing. 

Sabbath, 13. I preached at Reinbert's Chapel. Mr. 
Remhert was thrown out of his sulky, but there was 
no mischief done, except that some old bruises were 
wakened up. My subject to-day was Matt. xxiv. 45. 

Sabbath, 20. At Rembert's Chapel, I spoke on Deut. 
v. 29. O that God would visit these people! Last 
week I have occasionally ridden out for exercise, but I 
am pretty busy with writing, family duty, and reading. 
My mind is wholly devoted to God and his work. 

On Tuesday, 22, we went to Bradford's. Wednes- 
day evening we lodged at Simpson's tavern. On 
Thursday, at Monk's Corner. Friday, Christmas-day, 
brought us to Charleston. 

Sabbath, 27. I preached at the Old Church, on 
Matt. vii. 21. At Bethel, on Deut. x. 12. 

Friday, January 1, 1808. Our Conference began. 
We sat six hours a day, had great harmony, and little 
or no trouble in stationing the preachers. Preaching 
every noon to the Conference and others. In my ser- 
mon on Sabbath-day, at the Old Church, I took some 
notice of the life and labors of Bennett Kendrick and 
George Dougherty. The increase of members in the 
bounds of this and the Western Conference, for this 
year, is three thousand seven hundred members; 
preachers twenty-three. 

Wednesday, 6. We rode back to Rembert Hall. 
Busy writing letters. In the midst of restless days 
and nights of pain, my mind enjoys great peace. On 
Saturday I rode to Camden. 



364 History of Methodism 

Sabbath, 10. I preached from 1 Cor. i. 30. I had 
some openings of mind, but there was little unction 
in preaching or sacrament. Busy writing letters. On 
Monday, after the rain, we went up to John Horton's, 
at the Hanging Rock. We reached Pressley's, by 
chance, on Tuesday. 

North Carolina — Wednesday, 13. We reached 
Mecklenburg, and staid with our friend Mecham Wil- 
son, a Presbyterian minister, where we were comf ort- 
aby and kindly accommodated. On Thursday Ave 
found the main branch of Rocky River unfordable. 
We stopped at Squire McCurdy's. Friday brought 
us through Concord to Savage's. Yesterday w r as very 
damp and cold; to-day there is ice, probably an inch 
thick. On Saturday we set out over the frozen roads, 
and stopped at the end of ten miles to breakfast with 
the Rev. John Brown, a Presbyterian minister in Sal- 
isbury; thence we came away to John Hitt's. I have 
preached to his father and mother, who have now 
fallen asleep. 

On Friday, November 4, 1808, we descended the 
heights of Cooper's Gap, to our friend David Dickey's; 
fasting and the labor of lowering ourselves down from 
the mountain-top have made us feeble. Bishop Mc- 
Kendree preached upon " Cast not away your confi- 
dence." On the Sabbath, Brother Boehm spoke in 
the morning at eight o'clock; I preached from Matt. 
xvii. 5; exhortations followed, and Brother Boehm 
ended our Sabbath labors by preaching at night, when 
there was a considerable move. We came away on 
Monday, by Rutherford Court-house, to G. Moore's. 
At Moore's Chapel, on Tuesday, I preached from 
Col. ii. 6. Henry Boehm spoke at night: verily we 
had a shout! Bishop McKendree preached at Lucas's 
t 



Jx South Carolina. 365 

Chapel upon Little Broad, and we lodged at Lucas's. 
A noble ride of forty miles brought us next day to 
Williams's, in Lincoln. I preached on Friday. My 
mind, hath great peace, but my body is weak. The 
prospects are reviving and cheering in the South Caro- 
] ina Conference, and they will grow better every year. 
On Saturday I preached. I ordained Samuel Smith 
and Enoch Spinks. The Sabbath-day was windy and 
cold. 

On Wednesday, 23, I went to the encampment. 
Bishop McKendree preached. It was very unpleasant 
weather. I took cold sitting in the stand. Thursday, 
dwelling under curtains: I took an emetic: wrote two 
letters to elders Soule and Beale, Province of Maine. 
I am still at Bembert Hall. I visited and preached 
upon the camp-ground; we had an exceeding strong 
wind, but the people were very attentive. The super- 
intendency had a hut with a chimney in it: there were 
forty tents and cabins: Bishop McKendree was three 
days and nights on the ground, and there was a pow- 
erful work amongst white saints and sinners, and the 
poor, oppressed, neglected Africans. 

Sabbath, 27. At Bembert Chapel my subject was 
Kev. vii. 14-17. Brothers Smith and Boehm followed 
with energetic exhortations. I felt dejected in mind, 
and my soul was humbled. I suffer much from ill 
health, too close application to business, and from hav- 
ing preached in the open air. I filled an appointment 
made for Bishop McKendree at Bembert's. 

On Monday I rode forty-five miles to Mr. Keel's; 
we crossed Murray's next day, and stopped in the 
evening at the widow Kennedy's. Wednesday, we had 
a heavy ride, and I felt it from top to bottom. Great 
news! Baltimore taken fire — Bohemia has a great 



36G History of Methodism 

work — camp-meetings have done this. Glory to the 
great I AM! 

Sunday, December 4. At Cumberland Church we 
had a sacramental clay. I preached at Bethel in the 
afternoon. We have a great change and a glorious 
prospect here in Charleston, and in the neighborhood 
among both descriptions of people: by our colored 
missionaries the Lord is doing wonders among the 
Africans. 

Monday, 5. I am closely employed in reading and 
writing letters, and receiving company: our house, is 
a house of prayer, ten or twelve times a day. I read 
Mr. Wesley's Journal. Ah! how little it makes me 
feel — the faithfulness — the diligence of this great man 
of God! I cannot meet the classes like him, but I 
have a daily throng of white and black who apply for 
spiritual instruction. 

Sabbath, 11. I preached in Cumberland Street: it 
was a serious parting time. At Bethel, I also gave 
them a talk in the afternoon : this was a heavy day — I 
felt the weight of souls. Some may think it no great 
matter to build two churches, buy three lots, pay fif- 
teen hundred dollars of bank debt, and raise a grow- 
ing society: this has been done in this Sodom in less 
than twenty-four years. O Lord, take thou the glory! 
We dined in the woods on Monday, and made it thirty- 
two miles to Perry's. On Tuesday we crossed Eclis- 
to, dining at Roger's, and came into Benjamin Eisn- 
er's. Next day, at the Green Ponds Chapel, Bishop 
McKendree, Brother Boehm, and myself, all spoke. 
We lodged at Lewis's, niece to one who had first re- 
ceived the Methodist preachers. Next day we called 
on B. McLellan, a preacher, and lodged with Benja- 
min Tarrant. O that it was' with him as in years 



In South Carolina. 367 

past! — once, how holy and innocent! We reached 
Benjamin Weat hersby's on Friday evening. Cold, very 
cold weather. We came into Augusta on Saturday 
evening. We dined in the woods. 

Sabbath, 18. I preached in Augusta Chapel. My 
flesh sinks under labor. We are riding in a poor thir- 
ty-dollar chaise, in partnership, two bishops of us, but 
it must be confessed it tallies well with the weight of 
our purses: what bishops! well; but we hear great 
news, and we have great times, and each Western, 
Southern, and the Virginia Conference will have one 
thousand souls truly converted to God; and is not this 
an equivalent for a light purse? and are we not well 
paid for starving and toil ? Yes ; glory be to God ! We 
came away to Wysing's on Monday, and next day 
toiled through a very heavy rain to the widow Fount- 
ain's. We remained Thursday and Friday in Sparta, 
and went on Saturday to Brother Bush's. 

Sabbath, 25. Christmas-day. I preached at Lib- 
erty Chapel, on John iii. 17. We opened our Confer- 
ence on Monday, at Liberty Chapel. We had great 
labor which we went through in great peace. Between 
sixty and seventy men were present, all of one spirit. 
We appointed three missionaries — one for Tombigbee, 
one to Ashley and Savannah, and the country between, 
and one to labor between Santee and Cooper rivers. 
Increase within the bounds of this Conference, three 
thousand and eighty-eight! Preaching and exhorta- 
tions and singing and prayer — we had all these with- 
out intermission on the camp-ground, and we have 
reasons to believe that many souls will be converted. 
The number of traveling and local preachers present 
is about three hundred. There are people here with 
their tents who have come one hundred and fifty 



368 History of Methodism 

miles. The prospects of doing good are glorious. We 
have already added two new circuits, and gained six 
preachers. There may have been from two to three 
thousand persons assembled. I preached once : we had 
finished our Conference concerns the evening before. 

January 1, 1809. We came away on Monday morn- 
ing in haste. On Tuesday we reached Augusta about 
six o'clock. A cold rain and freezing ride brought us 
on Wednesday to Speir's; next clay, Arthur's, near 
Granby: there was an appointment here for a local 
preacher, and I filled it for him. I ought to record 
that the good old folks where I lodged gave up their 
rooms to me. A hard ride on Friday, between the 
hours of eight and five, brought us into Camden. I 
scarcely have time to make these few brief journal- 
izing remarks. 

Sabbath, 8. I preached in our enlarged meeting- 
house in Camden: it was a feeling season — in antici- 
pation of great things here. We came away on Mon- 
day morning through clouds and a cold rain, twenty- 
six miles, to Brother Woodham's, on Lynch's Creek. 
I ordained Stephen Thompson a deacon. In crossing 
Cashaway Ferry on Tuesday, it was a mercy we were 
not thrown into the water, like poor Hilliard Judge. 
We were kindly and comfortably lodged by Esquire 
Nevil: my mind most deeply felt for the salvation of 
tnis amiable family. 

Wednesday, 11, was cloudy and very cold; but we 
took horse and made it thirty-three miles to Lumber- 
ton, and stopped at the widow Thompson's; I am most 
at home when I am housed with the widow and the 
orphan. We reached Fayetteviile on Thursday. My 
limbs, my patience, and my faith, have been put to 
severe trial. 



In South Carolina. 369 

I preached in the morning on the Sabbath, and 
Bishop McKendree and Brother Boehm after. Since 
Friday morning I have been occupied in writing, 
forming plans, and occasionally reading. I baptized 
a daughter for Mr. Newby. Eli Perry came fifty-six 
miles for deacon's orders. 

We set out on Monday the solitary path on the north 
side of Cape Fear, to the widow Andrew's, forty-five 
miles. Tuesday brought us to "Wilmington, forty-five 
miles, again in the night, and my pain extreme. I 
was compelled to preach on Wednesday at eleven 
o'clock. I gave them a sermon also on Thursday. 
My body is in better health, and my mind enjoys great 
sweetness and peace. We had morning preaching on 
Friday at five o'clock, to about two hundred souls. 
We came away afterward, and a ride of twenty miles 
brought us to the widow Nixon's; the dear old man, 
her husband, died in Georgia — died in prayer. 

Wednesday, November 1, 1809. We are at Father 
Staunton's, on the Saluda. Our host is an Israelite 
indeed, and the wife worthy of such a husband. Here 
is a society of sixteen souls. I gave a discourse at 
Salem Chapel. It is a cloudy day, well fitted for re- 
treat. I wrote a very long letter to Dr. Coke. We have 
a quarterly-meeting on Friday. 

On Saturday I preached on Luke xviii. 1. 

Sabbath, 5. I preached in the open air, because our 
cabin meeting-house was small and open. We had a 
sacramental feast. On Monday we came away, and 
attended to the mending of our traveling gear. There 
are no small numbers of the preachers about here 
married this last year. O Beedy Biver Circuit — ■ 
spiritually and temporally poor! Tuesday, Powell's, 
I preached. My friend has taken a new wife, and 
24 



370 History of Methodism 

built a new house. His former wife was kind to me; 
I saw where her remains and those of her daughter 
lay — they fell asleep in Jesus. We rode into Abbe- 
ville, and stopped at George Conner's. Great news — 
great times in Georgia — rich and poor coming to 
Christ. At Conner's Chapel I spoke, on Thursday, 
on Born, xii. 1, 2. After sermon I ordained John 
Stone a local deacon. Friday, covenant day. In Edge- 
field the Baptists are carrying all before them; they 
are indebted to Methodist camp-meetings for this. I 
preached on opening the new chapel, on Luke xix. 9; 
we had an open time. The Methodists have great suc- 
cess in Camden District; surely there must be some 
good done — all are on fire, and I feel the flame. God 
is with preachers and people. 

Sunday, 12. I preached to about one thousand peo- 
ple, on Titus ii. 1. The quarterly-meeting engaged 
our attention six hours every day. Our route on Mon- 
day lay over Bush Creek. This is, or was, a Quaker 
settlement; the Friends have gone to rich lands, un- 
polluted by slavery — they have formed a settlement in 
Ohio. I preached in Tranquil Chapel on Tuesday. 
God has blessed Stephen Shell's family. Grand- 
mother, who was waiting in great peace for her sum- 
mons, was called away in August last. I must needs 
preach at Major's Chapel. My subject was the great 
salvation. Lodged with Colonel H. Herndon. O how 
kind! Thursday, rode to Jeremiah Lucas's. I was in 
heaviness of mind, and suffered in the flesh. Brother 
Boehm preached in the chapel. 

Sunday, 19. I preached to about one thousand 
souls, standing in the chapel-door. The house could 
not contain the people on any day: some came to see. 
some to hear, and some felt.' We have labored for 



In South Carolina. 371 

three days about six hours a day on our private bus- 
iness. We crossed Pacolet, Thicketty, and Broad 
rivers, on our way to Josiah Smith's on Monday. On 
Tuesday I preached for them, and Boelim and Hill 
exhorted: it was a gracious season. Wednesday we 
came through York to William Gassaway's. There 
was heavy snow for about twelve hours. Brothei 
Boehm preached at the dwelling-house, and I gave 
them a sermon in the chapel. On Friday we took the 
road to Waxhaws, and with some difficulty kept the 
path, and the horses their feet. In about nine hours 
we made our way, crossed Lenham's Ferry, and came 
in to Robert Hancock's, stiff and chilled. O for pa 
tience and courage! 

On Saturday we attended a small congregation of 
thirty souls. 

Sunday, 26. At the Waxhaws Chapel I preached 
to four hundred souls. An exhortation followed, and 
the sacrament. Monday, a cold ride to William 
Heath's, on Fishing Creek. I met a congregation on 
Tuesday, in a log-cabin, scarcely fit for a stable. To 
my surprise, a number of United States' officers came 
up; I invited them in. These gentlemen are attached 
to an establishment at Rocky Mount; they behaved 
with all the propriety I expected of them. Wednes- 
day brought us where a sermon was expected, and I 
gave them one. I made an acquaintance with a ven- 
erable pair — Mr. Buchanan and wife, Presbyterians, 
and happy in the experience of religion. A brick 
chapel is building at Winnsborough for the Meth- 
odists. We lodged at William Lewis's, but late emerg- 
ing into light. On Thursday we had a chilly ride of 
twenty-five miles to Mr. Watson's. It rained excess- 
ively on Friday, yet I visited James Jenkins, and 



I 



372 History of Methodism 

baptized his child, Elizabeth Asbury Jenkins. We 
reached Camden on Saturday. 

Sunday, December 3. I preached in the tabernacle 
to about five hundred people, and as we had two dis- 
tinct congregations in the house, I dropped a word of 
advice to the poor Africans in presence of the whites. 
Brother Boehm preached in the evening. On Mon- 
day I was seriously afflicted in body. In much weak- 
ness of flesh, and solemnity of mind, I set out on 
Tuesday for Black River. There are great changes in 
the house where I stopped — my dear old Mary is dead, 
and there is another wife. On Wednesday I saw the 
third house on Black River — fifty by thirty-six feet. 
I spoke in an especial manner to Henry Young's ne- 
groes, who were called together for that purpose. At 
Samuel Kembert's on Thursday. My host proposes 
shortly to remove to Georgia. We preached to a 
small meeting on Friday. Henry Boehm preached on 
Saturday at James Capers's . 

Sunday, 10. We had a five hours' meeting. Tarp- 
ley and Hobbs prayed after I had preached: some had 
come to be prayed for. We made a cold, heavy ride 
of forty-five miles on Monday. We reached Kell's 
tavern in the night. The road was dreadfully plowed 
up with wagons; the ferry was wide, and we had the 
swamp to pass, and dip, and dive, and go — we labored 
through it; this was our Tuesday's task. Wednesday 
evening brought us rest in Charleston. Where does 
the cotton go that arrives in such quantities? To 
England and France, in spite of the non-intercourse. 
I am mainly ignorant of these things, and have no 
wish to be wiser. Our Old Church is enlarged, and 
our parsonage completely fitted up. I am busy writing, 
or occupied with my Bible and Ramsay's History. 



In South Carolina. 373 

Sunday, 17, I preached in Cumberland Chapel: I 
concluded with a close application. Bishop McKen- 
dree came in on Tuesday. We have prayed especially 
and earnestly for our Conference: surely God will 
hear! It is all peace with preachers and people. On 
Saturday Conference set to work in earnest, and in 
great order. 

Sunday, 24. We had a gracious feast of love. 1 
preached at Cumberland in the morning, and at Bethel 
in the evening. We labored straight onward Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday. Friday was set 
apart for ordination; it was desired that I should 
preach; it was a season of tears. We came out of 
Charleston on Saturday, and lodged for the night at 
Mrs. Brian's quarter, with Thomas McKendree, who 
fed us richly. A Sabbath's journey brought us to a 
sick man's house. I prayed with our host, and ad- 
ministered some medicine which procured him ease. 

Monday, January 1. The first day of the year 1810, 
we crossed Potato Ferry. Missing our way, we dropped 
upon Mr. John Graham; he was a Presbyterian, and 
showed us much kindness. On Tuesday we crossed 
Porter's Ferry. I have been unspeakably happy in 
God to-day. The people of Charleston have been 
faithfully warned, and it will be seen not many days 
hence, how God was with the Conference. We were 
kindly entertained on Wednesday by Moses Smith. 
What do the rich do for us but spoil us? Ashpole 
was deep enough on Thursday; we got over in safety, 
and stopped at Joseph Lee's. We have had a drop of 
rain now and then; but there has fallen much all 
around us. At Fayetteville on Friday I was very un- 
well, but I labored through five letters. 

Sabbath, 7. I preached in our enlarged house in 



374 History of Methodism 

the morning, and Bishop McKendree in the evening. 
We came rapidly next day forty-five miles to the widow 
Anderson's. At Wilmington I spoke in the new 
chapel on Wednesday. I find the work of God is going 
on here. We are well in temporals, and a most cor- 
rect account has been furnished us of all expenditures. 
I met the African elders, and gave command concern- 
ing the parsonage, the painting of the new fences, and 
the alteration and increase of the benches in the chapel. 
I recommended the purchase of a grave-yard, and gave 
a special charge concerning the poor. O let me ever 
remember these! A general fast-day for the African 
Churches was appointed. 

North Carolina — Sabbath, December 2. Bishop 
McKendree and John McGee rose at five o'clock, and 
left us to fill an appointment about twenty-five miles 
off. Myself and Henry Boehm went to Newton's 
Academy, where I preached. Brother Boehm spoke 
after me; and Mr. Newton, in exhortation, confirmed 
what was said. Had I known and studied my con- 
gregation for a year, I could not have spoken more 
apx^ropriately to their particular cases; this I learn 
from those who know them well. We dined with Mr. 
Newton; he is almost a Methodist, and reminds me 
of dear Whatcoat — the same placidity and solemnity. 
We visited James Patton; this is, perhaps, the last 
visit to Buncombe. Tuesday, came thirty-three miles 
to Murray's, at Green Biver. Wednesday, rode thirty 
miles to the Rev. James Gilliard's. I found him 
sick, and prescribed for him. On inquiry into the 
state of his soul, he expressed his confidence in God. 
He is alone, with a growing family, and the charge of 
a hundred and fflrty families. Thursday, discovered 
that my horse was lame, and felt discouragement. 



In South Carolina. 375 

"We breakfasted with kind and attentive Anthony Fos- 
ter; and continued on to Robert Hailes's, Friday. 
Beached the Fish-dam in the evening. Our Sister 
Glenn went to glory about twelve months ago; her 
exit was made in the full triumph of faith. Saturday, 
crossed Broad Biver at Clark's Ferry, and pressed 
forward to Mr. Mean's. Here, and it seldom happens 
that I seek such a shelter, we were under the roof of 
a rich man; we were treated with much politeness 
and kindness. We are not, nor have we been lately, 
much amongst our own people; but it has made little 
difference in the article of expense — the generous 
Carolinians are polite and kind, and will not take our 
money. Sabbath, at Winnsborough, I preached to a 
few people. We have a pretty chapel here; John 
Buchanan and Jesse Harris are chiefs in this work. 
On Monday we came to J. Jenkin's; after six years' 
rest and local usefulness, he means to travel again. 
Tuesday, at Camden. Close application in reading 
and writing letters. Saint Clair Capers , one of our 
first disciples at Whappetaw, died in great triumph; 
the impression occasioned by witnessing this was the 
cause of conversion to some persons present. I hope 
his son James will be a g reat and holy preacher. I 
am under the necessity of taking emetics. Wednes- 
day, reading. Thursday, I preached in the evening. 
Friday, had a cold ride to Black Biver, where I was 
compelled to take to my bed again. Saturday, en- 
gaged in reading, meditation, and prayer. 

Sabbath, 16. I knew not if I could get to the new 
house; I went and was helped of the Lord: the house 
was filled, and I spoke plainly. On Monday I visited 
Thomas Boon; his father was the first to entertaii) 
me at the Lower Santee Ferry. We found our dinner 



376 History of Methodism 

at Henry Young's; I was very ill. Tuesday, though 
ill able«o ride, I set out for Camden. Wednesday, 
reading, writing, and praying with those who visit 
me. Thursday came to Columbia. Taylor, of the 
Senate of the United States, lent his house for the 
session of our Conference. Our fund here for special 
relief amounts to more than we had expected. Satur- 
day, our Conference began in great order, peace, and 
love. 

Sabbath, 23. I preached, and the truth exhibited 
its own divine authority. Bishop McKendree spoke 
in the afternoon. We sat seven hours to business in 
the day, and had preaching at noon and night. Fri- 
day I was called upon to preach at the ordination of 
elders; my subject was Heb. iii. 12-14, and was appli- 
cable to at least one of them. Conference adjourned 
this evening: we have stationed about eighty preach- 
ers. Saturday, came away to General Kumph's. God 
has repaid this family for its kindness to the poor 
followers of the Lord Jesus; there are four sons and 
three daughters, gracious souls; two of the sons, 
Jacob and Christian, are preachers of the gospel. 

Sabbath, 30. I must consult prudence, and stay at 
home to-day. On Monday we ventured away through 
rain and hail storms. We made about twenty miles 
to Brother Sarley's. 

Tuesday, January 1, 1811. On the first day of the 
new year we rode thirty-five miles to the widow 
Davis's; I failed greatly in my ride. Wednesday, 
came by the new road, crossing the new bridge, forty- 
five miles, to Charleston. 

Sabbath, 6. Preached in Cumberland and Bethel 
chapels. Monday, busy in writing letters; sent away 
fifteen. I preached on Wednesday. Thursday, came 



In South Carolina. 377 

away, and made thirty-five miles to Mr. Gale's; I 
was weary, hungry, and sleepy. Friday, we crossed 
Lemid's Ferry, and made a ride of twenty-five miles. 
Saturday, reached Georgetown. I am always in fet- 
ters in this place; and were they to offer me twenty 
such towns as a bribe, I would not visit it again; but 
I must do my duty without a bribe. 

Sabbath, 13. I preached for the people of George- 
town twice. Monday, S. Dunwody and Thomas Ma- 
son set out with us; crossing Black River, we came 
to worthy Samuel Green's — in pleasing manners and 
sincere friendship an evergreen. Yv r e visited his 
brother Francis, and prayed in the family, exhorting 
the Africans. Tuesday, reac hed Port's Fprry 1 ^ .nd j 
found Mother Po rt keeping house at eighty-seven. ' ' 
Rafts and boats in quantities passing down the Pe- 
dee. Wednesday, made thirty miles to Mr. Mesome's, 
where we were kindly received and politely enter- 
tained. Thursday, came early in the day to Priest's, 
and tarried with him two hours, and then mounted 
and continued forward to the widow Holland's. Fri- 
day, came to John Martin's, Lumberton, and here I 
was willing to stay awhile, for the rain and cold had 
chilled me to the heart. Saturday, I am very unwell. 

Sabbath, 20. I preached here, possibly for the last 
time; I spoke in great weakness of body; and having 
offered my service and sacrifice, I must change my 
course, and go to Wilmington. Sometimes I am 
ready to cry out, "Lord, take me home to rest!" 
Courage, my soul! 

Monday, 21. We began our march, and my suffer- 
ing from pain in the foot was sore indeed. Came in 
to Amos Richardson's in the evening. The parents 
of this man died in peace. Tuesday, a ride of tlrh fcy 



378 History of Methodism 

miles brought us on to Alexander King's. I baptized 
this family, of whom the greater part are in society. 
The old people gave satisfactory evidence of a peace- 
ful qwCi. Wednesday, we brought a storm into town 
with us. Wilmington is alive with commerce, and 
there is no small stir in religion. Thursday, Brother 
Boehm preached. Friday — it was my duty to preach 
to-day. I am applied to for the plan of a new meet- 
ing-house: this is a business of small difficulty; but 
who is to execute ? 

Sabbath, 27. I preached in the morning and after- 
noon. The congregations were large, and I felt my 
heart greatly enlarged toward them. Monday, rose 
at five o'clock, and moved off pretty soon; we cau- 
tioned the ferryman, who had placed his flat so as to 
be upset; he was obstinate, and would not alter her 
position; in jumped the horses, over went the skiff; 
our lives were endangered; the horses reached the 
opposite shore by swimming, and plunging through 
the mud got on dry land; our clothes and some of 
our books and papers were wet, but not spoiled. 
"We mounted and rode forward to Mount Misery, 
stopping to dry at Alexander King's; here we dined, 
and baptized some children. The evening shades 
closed upon us as we entered under the hospitable 
roof of pious Mother Turner, who lodged and fed me 
at the Wackamaw Lake twenty-six years ago. Tues- 
day, we pushed oh to Amos Richardson's, and thence 
after dinner to James Purdie's; I preached in the 
evening. I have been deeply afflicted with an influ- 
enza; but God is with me, and supports me. Wednes- 
day, we had a cold ride to Newberry's; preached to a 
few people. 

Friday, February 1. *Yfe reached this place this 



In South Carolina. 379 

morning, Fayetteville ; preaching at night. Saturday, 
I preached. 

Sabbath, 3. Preached; our house is too small; 
preached in the afternoon; we must enlarge our 
house. I had a rude fall to-day, and it was a mercy 
that my back was not broken. Monday, we came 
over Cape Fear, lodging at Morgan's, on a solitary 
road. 

Saturday, November 2, 1811. Savannah. 

Sunday, 3. I preached in the Lutheran Church. 
We are about building on a city lot. I hope the time 
will come to favor us. 

Saturday, 9, reached Augusta. 

Sunday, 10. I preached in the forenoon and after- 
noon, and we had a serious night-lecture. 

Monday, 11. We rode to Johnson's house of enter- 
tainment. Tuesday, to Spann's. Wednesday, to the 
widow Hannon's. Thursday, to Colonel Hutchinson's. 

Tuesday, 19. Hilliard Judge is chosen chaplain to 
the Legislature of South Carolina; and O great Sne- 
then is chaplain to Congress! So; we begin to partake 
of the honor that cometh from man: now is our time 
of danger. O Lord, keep us pure, keep us correct, 
keep us holy! 

Monday, 25. We had a serious shock of an earth- 
quake this morning — a sad presage of future sorrows, 
perhaps. Lord, make us ready! 

Thursday, 28. We took to horse, and rode forty 
miles. It is bitter cold, and we have felt it the more 
sensibly after being so long housed. 

Friday, at Camden, to preside in Conference. 

Wednesday, December 4 I preached before the 
Conference. 

Friday, 6. Our Conference rose this day. Scarce- 



380 History of Methodism 

ly have I seen such harmony and love. There are 
eighty-five preachers stationed. The increase, within 
its bounds, is three thousand three hundred and eighty. 
We had a great deal of faithful preaching, and there 
were many ordinations. I received letters from the 
extremities and the center of our vast continent, all 
pleasing, all encouraging. Saturday, rode to Brother 
Young's, on Black Biver. 

Sunday, 29. I preached at Bembert's Chapel, and 
gave an exhortation to the Africans. The society was 
staid after meeting, and I exhorted the members. 
Our labors this day shall not be wholly lost. 

Monday, 30. We came away early for Charleston, 
and made thirty-five miles to Mr. Pendergrass's, where 
we were well entertained. 

Tuesday, 31. Murray's Ferry detained us an hour.^ 
Down poured the rain. We were glad to stop at Mrs. 
Kennedy's, and it was no small comfort to be enter- 
tained so well. 

Wednesday, January 1, 1812. A steady ride of 
thirty-eight miles brought us into Charleston. The 
highways were little occupied by travelers of any kind, 
which was the more providential for me, for my lame- 
ness and my light fly-cart would have made a shock 
of the slightest kind disagreeable. I was anxious also 
to pass this first day of the new year in undisturbed 
prayer. Thursday, Friday, Saturday, in reading, 
meditation, writing, and prayer. I do not reject 
visitors. 

Sunday, 5. I preached at Cumberland Chapel, and 
met the societies of both colors. I visited the father- 
less, and some widows; my mind enjoys peace. In 
the evening I preached in Bethel Chapel. We made 
our exodus from Charleston at ehjdit in the morning. 



In South Carolina. 381 

No passage at Clemnions's Ferry. We found a lodg- 
ing with Mr. Brindley; our host has buried one Meth- 
odist wife, and is now happy with another. I am con- 
soled to know that our dear departed sister, ever kind 
to me, died in the Lord. Tuesday evening, lodged at 
the widow Boone's: this family have received Meth- 
odist preachers for the last six and twenty years. 

Wednesday, 8. We reached Georgetown. I preached 
in our enlarged chapel, on 1 Cor. vii. 29. 

Thursday, 9. We came away to James Green's, 
where I preached, and then rode over to Francis 
Green's; here William Capers preached on "Blessed 
art thou, Simon Barjona," etc. We took the road on 
Friday in a driving snow, but missing our path, we 
got back to James Green's, and there, upon entreaty, 
consented to stay. We were told on Saturday morn- 
ing that we could not travel; we tried it, nevertheless, 
and made thirty-five miles in nine hours. The cold 
was piercing. 

Sabbath, 12. No rest for us. We toiled over Pedee 
swamp toward Mary Port's; she had gone to rest. 
The snow was about a foot deep, and I could not see 
where they had laid her. We came to Mr. Newson's 
five hours after my time, so I delivered a message to 
the family — thirty-one miles to-day. On Monday, at 
General Benjamin Lee's, I spoke to a few people. 
Tuesday we dined at Lumberton, and went forward to 
Mark Russell's, where I spoke to a few people. Wed- 
nesday, came to Fayetteville. We have had a rude 
ride of great bodily suffering from Georgetown, but my 
mind has enjoyed perfect peace, and constant prayer. 

Thursday, 16. We made this a sacramental day. 
What will not perseverance and management do? 
Here we have built a neat little chapel, costing but 



382 IIis toby of Methodism 

twelve hundred dollars, one thousand and fifty. of 
which is paid. 

Sabbath, December 6, 1812. Preached at Mill's 
Chapel; after meeting we went home with John 
Mills, White Oak Creek. Ah, John, thy pious, pray- 
ing mother! think often of her. Monday, a bitter, 
cold ride of forty miles, brought us to Father Francis 
^ Watters's. O warm room, and kind old Virginians! 
Our host has twelve children of eighteen once living. 

Tuesday, 8. Came to Broad Eiver. "We found 
Smith's ford deep enough, but Fox turned his fearless 
breast up the stream, and brought me swiftly and 
safely through the swell of waters; he is a noble 
beast. We dined in the woods, and stopped at Esquire 
Leech's; brandy and the Bible were both handed me; 
one was enough — I took but one. 

Wednesday, 9. Came to Winnsborough late at 
night; I cannot easily describe the pain under which 
I shrink and writhe; the weather is cold, and I have 
constant pleuritic twinges in the side. In cold, in 
"X* hunger, and in want of clothing— mine are apostolic 
sufferings. Jacob Humph is dead, and so are elder 
Capers and James Eembert; these were all early 
friends to the Methodists in South Carolina, and left 
the world in the triumph of faith. We are in Camden. 

Thursday, 10. We stay at Father Buchanan's; peo- 
ple here give little encouragement to Methodism, but 
the walls of opposition will fall, and an abundant 
entrance will yet be ministered to us — the craft of 
learning, and the craft of interested religion will be 
driven away. 

Friday, 11. A cold ride brought us to Dunkin's. 
Is not this man a brand plucked from the burning? 
a reclaimed drunkard! Camp-meetings have done 



In South Carolina. 383 

this — they do great good, and prosper in the sand- 
hills. 

Saturday, 12. We lodged in Columbia with Col- 
onel Hutchison. 

Sabbath, 13. I preached in the legislative chamber, 
and had the members for a part of my congregation. 
Monday, at the house of the widow of General Jacob 
Eumph; the father and son both died in the Lord. 
This house has been open to the Methodists for about 
twenty-seven years, whether in peace or persecution; 
Jacob traveled nearly four years; so meek, so mild, 
diligent and simple-hearted, so sincerely good. On 
Tuesday we came to Father Carr's, a Swiss; here are 
pious, kind souls. Wednesday, came to Stephen 
Swithen's, within twenty-three miles of Charleston. 
It remains intensely cold. Thursday, my lingers gave 
out; then the axle-tree gave a crack, seventeen miles 
from the city. We loaded another. Whilst I rode in 
J. B. Glenn's sulky, he and Boehm, with the aid of 
cushions and bear-skins, rode horseback into the city. 
These are trifles. Ah ! we feel — we fear the locations 
of this Conference will be sixteen in number. Satur- 
day, our Conference began its session in good order. 

Sabbath, 20. I preached at Cumberland Chapel in 
the morning, and at Bethel in the afternoon. The 
presiding eldership and the episcopacy saw eye to eye 
in the business of the stations; there were no mur- 
murings from the eighty-four employed. Christmas- 
day was a day of fasting, and we dined one hundred 
at our house, on bread and water, and a little tea or 
coffee in the evening. Our funds are low; but our 
Church is inured to poverty, and the preachers may 
indeed be called the* poor of this world, as well as 
their flocks. 



384 History of Methodism 

Sabbath, 27. I had an opportunity of meeting 
the society, of both colors, and my exhortations were 
pointed, and in season. We have, with the increase, 
about eighteen thousand. What is coming? days of 
vengeance, or of gospel glory? We have lost, by 
locations and other causes, fourteen of the itinerancy. 

Monday, 28. We send two missionaries to Missis- 
sippi — E. Nolly and John Shrock. Religion is not 
fashionable in Charleston. Tuesday, receiving vis- 
itors. Our house is a house of prayer. Wednesday, 
we came to Readhammer's. 

Thursday, 31. Came to Georgetown; I am now at 
home here after twenty-nine years of labor. Many 
letters call my attention; I am happy in God. We 
hear of a blessed work in James River District — 
camp-meetings the great instrument. 

Sunday, January 3, 1813. I preached morning and 
evening. It was a small time — cold, or burning the 
dead. We have about one thousand blacks, and 
about one hundred white members; most of them 
women; the men kill themselves with strong drink 
before we can get at them. My home in Georgetown 
is not quite so comfortable ; possibly I shall hereafter 
leave it to better men. Monday, it is so cold I have a 
small fire to write my letters by. Tuesday, we took the 
path to Coachman's, Black River. My evening talk 
to them was, "Take earnest heed." 

Wednesday, 6. I was so lame I stopped at Richard 
Woodbury's. We held a meeting at two o'clock, and 
at night. Friday, we had a meeting at Collins Wood- 
bury's ; I preached in the evening — it was excessively 
cold, and I was lame. 

Sabbath, 10. I preached at'Rousome's, on Little 
Pedee. Monday, a bleak ride brought us to General 



In South Carolina. 385 

Lee's. Tuesday, I was glad to stay at McNeil's, in 
Lumberton. Henry Boehni preached. Thursday, 
came on to Fayetteville through a cold, heavy rain. 
The Lord blesses me with patience. 

Sabbath, 17. They carried me into the church. I 
ordained two deacons and one elder. I failed in 
strength after preaching, and Kev. Mr. Turner, a 
Presbyterian, concluded our meeting by prayer. 

Thursday, 21. A bitter cold ride of thirty miles 
brought us to Purdie's. Friday, a heavy ride of 
thirty-six miles brought us to King's. Saturday, to 
Wilmington : there is little trade here, and fewer peo- 
ple; of course there is less sin. 

Sabbath, 24. I was carried into the church, 
preached, and met the society. I preached again in 
the evening. A bread-poultice has procured me a 
mitigation of pain. Lord, be merciful to me in tem- 
porals and spirituals! William Capers is married — 
he twenty-three, hi s wife eighte en. 

Friday, October 29, 1813. On the peaceful banks 
of the Saluda, I write my valedictory address to the 
presiding elders. At Staunton Bridge we rest five 
days; my horse and his master both disabled. I 
preached but twice. James, the son of John Douthet, 
gave me an interesting account of his father. John 
Douthet was born in Maryland; left his native place 
and settled on the Yadkin; became a member of the 
Methodist society, and was honored as a class-leader, 
making his house a house of God for the assemblies 
of his brethren. He departed from his brethren and 
from God. Some years after this, the family removed 
to the Table Mountain, Pendleton District; the preach- 
ers came to the house, the father was reclaimed, and his 
two sons, James and Samuel, joined the Methodists. 
25 



X 



386 History of Methodism 

and were useful and respectable traveling preachers; 
the former laboring twelve, the latter seven year's in 
the ministry. But the elder Douthet had a failing — 
he was fond of liquor, and indulged himself, and 
backslid a second time; retaining, nevertheless, his 
character for strict integrity and his habit of private 
prayer, occasionally hearing the gospel. Last sum- * 
mer he fell ill, and came to lie down and die at his 
son James's; here he became a true penitent, was 
blessed with justifying and sanctifying grace, and slept 
in peace in the seventy-third year of his age. 

Tuesday, November 2. We visited Taliaferro's, and 
went forward to B. Lyon's. 

Thursday, 4. Called a meeting at Edward McCraw's ; 
I spoke with enlargement of mind on Heb. x. 38, 39. 
We saw Henry Gains, a disciple since 1777; now 
feeble, but wishing to be faithful unto death. Came 
forward to Conner's, Abbeville District. 

Sabbath, 7. I preached in the tabernacle, on 2 Cor. 
v. 11. If the people say it was like thunder and 
lightning, I shall not be surprised. I spoke in poAver 
from God, and there was a general and deep feeling 
in the congregation: thine, O Lord, be all the glory! 
Came home with James Cox. 

Monday, 8. I gave an alarming lecture at John 
Branan's. There is a serious mortality on the mid- 
dle and lowlands of South Carolina and Georgia. 

Tuesday, 9. We rode through the heat, crossing 
the Little Biver to Mr. Shield's, twenty miles. 

Georgia— Wednesday, 20. We continued on to 
Petersburg, into Georgia. I preached at Sparta, and 
ordained two deacons. A journey of six days from 
Sparta brought us to Savannah; we were careful to 
leave our testimony and pray with every family where 



Iy South Carolina. 387 

we stopped. Kind widow Bonnell sent her chaise 
after me. I must change my mode of traveling, 1 
suppose. I preached twice in the Wesley Chapel. 
This is a good, neat house, sixty feet by forty. I en- 
joyed great peace. Our chapel cost five thousand 
dollars; others would have made it cost twice as much, 
perhaps. We are indebted to Myers and Russell for 
much of this saving. The Presbyterian Church hath 
changed its form to Independent — Doctor Kollock 
must be the same. 

Monday, 22. Rode to Mr. Thibeau's plantation: 
sweet retreat! Tuesday, we rode forty-six miles to 
Wainer's. I am again in a chaise; James Russell in- 
sisted upon giving me an old gig worth forty-five dol- 
lars. We are safe in Charleston, visiting Black Swamp 
and some families as we came along. We have had 
cold, hungry traveling. My mind is holiness to the 
Lord. We found our family here in health. 

Sunday, December 12. I preached in Trinity 
Church; we have it now in quiet possession. I also 
officiated in Cumberland and Bethel churches. The 
society is not so lively as formerly. In visiting six 
families I found but two that acknowledged God in 
his word and worship. Ah, woe is me! 

Thursday, 16. We attended the funeral of Dr. Keith, 
suddenly called away, and greatly lamented by all, es- 
pecially by the people of color; he had been twenty- 
six years a minister of the Independent Church. 
Most of the clergy of the city were present, and there 
was great solemnity observed. We lecture morning 
and evening. We labor to live in and for God; we 
desire to receive rich and poor, people and ministers: 
and to consecrate, in the order of faith and prayer, 
every room and every heart in the house, to God. 



388 II is ron y of Methodism 

Sunday, 19. I preached in Cumberland Chapel, in 
Trinity, and in Bethel. How much good will my ten 
days' visit do here? I preach, lecture, and pray. I 
invited the stewards of Bethel, and the trustees of 
Trinity came to see me on Tuesday; we dined and 
prayed together, and parted in love and peace. 

Wednesday, 22. In a cold day we left Charleston, 
and came thirty miles to preach to preachers at 
Nichols's. We lodged with Eccles. Friday, my 
mind is in peace in bodily affliction. Weather, roads, 
swamps — we heed them not. On our way to Black 
River, we visited many families: let me do some 
good whilst I may! time is short. 

Thursday, 30. At Kembert's settlement. How my 
friends remove or waste away! yet I live; let me live 
every moment to God! On the first day of the new 
year, 1814, I preached at Rembert's Chapel. 

Sunday, January 2, 1814. I preached in the chapel. 
On Monday we came away, in company with Myers 
and Norton, to Fayetteville, one hundred and forty 
miles, visiting many families in our route. 

Friday, 7. I received seven letters: the contents of 
some of them make me feel serious. We learn that 
Bishop Coke and seven young preachers have sailed 
for the East Indies. The British Society is poor as 
well as ourselves, it would appear: this is a good 
sign. In less than one hundred years, Methodism has 
spread over three-quarters of the globe ; and it is now 
about to carry the gospel of salvation into Asia. 
Amen ! 

Sunday, 9. We had rain. Bishop McKendree 
preached. I preached on Isaiah lxiv. 7. We had a 
spiritual, heavenly, and united Conference. There 
were twenty deacons ordained, eighty-five preachers 



In South Carolina. 389 

stationed: twelve have located, and one has died, sud- 
denly; and fifteen are added. 

Sunday, 16. I preached. Thursday, we came 
away. On our way we called on Hodges, Shaw, and 
Saunderson, exhorting and praying with their fami- 
lies. I enjoy great peace of mind. 

Sunday, 23. I preached in our chapel, fifty by sixty 
feet, to a small congregation. Am I not a child, to 
have been looking for summer? William Glenden- 
ning and I met, and embraced each other in peace. I 
visited Sister Perry, the former wife of^John King^ 
Diieof the first Methodist preachers. After all rea- 
sonable allowances for drawbacks, we cannot yet tell 
all the good that was done by our Conference in 
Raleigh, in 1811. We started away northward. 

North Carolina — Wednesday, October 19, 1814. 
Rode to Boling's. Behold! Richard Bird came one 
hundred miles to hasten us to camp-meeting away on 
the bleak hills of Haywood. I was forced by misery to 
retire to my room and bed at Boling's, but son John 
held a meeting and preached. We came on the camp- 
ground, in Haywood county, North Carolina, Friday, 
21. Saturday I preached, and ordained W. Spann and 
J. Evans deacons. 

Sabbath, 23. Ordained two elders, Thomas Bird 
and Samuel Edney, after preaching. In our tent we 
contrived a hearth and had a fire. Monday we visited 
the house of Richard Bird. 

Tuesday, 25. I preached in the house of the father, 
Benjamin Bird; there was much feeling manifested. 
We collected liberally on the mite subscription to help 
the suffering ministry. I had for twenty years past 
wished to vist the Cove; it is done, and I have seen 
my old, tried friends, dear Richard and Jonah Bird, 



390 History of Methodism 

and William Fulwood, who sheltered and protected 
me when, during the War of Independence, I was 
compelled to retire to the swamps and thickets for 
safety. 

Wednesday, 26. Our ride brought us to Ruther- 
ford's. I paid them as well as I could for their kind- 
ness and attentions by exhortation and prayer. 

Thursday, 27. To McHathing's, forty-one miles. 
Daniel Asbury wished me to take Catawba, above 
Ladies' Ford, and cross at the Horse Ford, where a 
former journal will show my life to have been in 
danger some years ago. I preached in the evening at 
Daniel Asbury's, Lincoln county, near Sherill's Ford. 
These are kind spirits, who say, " You make your rides 
too long; " yet they will scarcely be denied when in- 
vited to their houses, making my rides longer still; 
here am I, ten miles out of my way, to see these dear 
people. And now that limbs, lungs, strength, and 
teeth fail, I must still go my rounds of six thousand 
miles within the year. 

Sabbath, 30. I passed a restless, feverish night, yet 
as I was expected to preach on the camp-ground, I 
discoursed to a large, simple-hearted congregation, on 
Acts xxx. 32. I sat in the end of my little Jersey- 
wagon, screened by the drawn curtain behind me. It 
was no common time to either speaker or hearers. 
We retired, after meeting, to Jonathan Jackson's. 
What a rich table was provided! not for me — I retired 
to bed with a high fever. My spiritual consolations 
flow from God in rich abundance; my soul rejoices 
exceedingly in God. 

Monday, 31. To Robey's, near Catawba Springs. 

Tuesday, November 1. I preached to a very attentive 
people ; surely the speaker and hearers felt the power 



In South Carolina. 391 

of the word of God. x^fter a hasty dinner, we rode on 
to Nathan Sadler's, steward of the Lincoln Circuit. 

Wednesday, 2. I spoke with very unpleasant feel- 
ings, on Luke xi. 13. We hasted to Featherston Wells's. 
Here were all comforts for a sick man; good food, 
beds, and nursing. This family is blessed. Sister 
Wells is the granddaughter of my ancient friend, 
Father May, of Amelia, and her children are in the 
way to heaven. Here is the fruit of my labors. What 
a comfort is it to see the fourth generation growing 
up under our eyes, living in the fear of God, and 
following in the same path those who are gone to 
glory! 

Thursday, 3. Crossed the south fork of Catawba 
to Bethesda Chapel ; the day was damp, and there was 
a damp upon preacher and people. We went forward 
to John Dameron's, where I was expected to preach, 
and I did try, but the people were so wonderfully 
taken up with the novel sight of the little carriage, 
and still more of the strange-looking old man who was 
addressing them, that the speaker made little impres- 
sion on his hearers. Who neglects me? Not the 
kind, loving Damerons. We came to John Watson's, 
Allison's Creek, on Friday. 

Sabbath, 6. At Sardis Chapel. The weather was 
unpleasant. My congregation might have tried my 
patience. Monday we came to Henry Smith's, an 
Israelite; he is a native of East Jersey. Tuesday to 
Winnsborough. 

Sabbath, 13. I preached at Winnsborough a long 
discourse, on 1 Peter xiv. 17. Monday to widow 
Means's. We shall ride about two hundred and twenty 
miles out of the way to Georgia, but in the way of our 
duty. Tuesday I preached at Bethel; we hope good 



392 History of Methodism 

vas done. Edward Finch, a son of affliction, is still 
on crutches. 

Wednesday, 16. Dined with Elder Stephen Shell. 
Lodged with Frederick Foster. Thursday we had a 
crowded house at Hopewell Chapel; the speaker stood 
in weakness, but truth came in power to the hearts of 
the people. Ordained John Molineaux a deacon. 
Lodged at John Leek's ; the master, a local laborer, is 
gone to his rest and reward. 

Friday, 18. Rain. We got bewildered, and were 
glad to stop with Mr. Morrow, a Presbyterian, who 
kindly received and entertained us. Saturday we came 
to Staunton Bridge. 

Sabbath, 20. Bishop McKendree and J. W. Bond 
preached. I spoke a few words from my carriage ; we 
all hope the testimony of three men will be believed. 
God is with me in all my feebleness. We have visited 
North Carolina to Catawba; and in South Carolina, 
Fairfield, Newberry, Laurens, and Greenville districts. 
Monday and Tuesday, we are at rest at Father Staun- 
ton's, an active and holy man, an Israelite indeed of 
seventy-seven years. 

Wednesday, 23. We gave an evening lecture at 
Taliafero's; the night was damp, and few people at- 
tended. Nights of suffering are appointed to me, but 
God is with us. Thursday, rested. 

Friday, 25. Rode twenty-five miles to widow King's, 
Pendleton District. I am reading Saurin's fifth vol- 
ume; he is great in his way, but it is not Wesley's 
way, which I take to be the more excellent way. Satur- 
day, damp, rainy day. I enjoy my private devotions. 

Sabbath, 27. It broke away clear for awhile, and I 
took a stand outside of the -door, and spoke to the 
people on Galatians v. 6. Monday, to John Power's; 



Ix South Carolina. 393 

liere are new disciples, and they are all love. Tues- 
day, to Benjamin Glover's. 

Georgia, Wednesday, 30. I preached at Samuel 
Eembert's, in Georgia; I was feeble and could not 
speak with much energy. 

Wednesday, December 21. Our Conference began 
at Milledgevilie, Georgia, and continued until the 
27th. There were nearly one hundred characters ex- 
amined and six admitted on trial. Twelve are located. 
Ten elders have been ordained, and twenty-two dea- 
cons; eighty-two preachers have been stationed; none 
are dead, and none have been expelled. I preached 
at the ordinations, but with so feeble a voice that 
many did not hear; I had coughed much, and expec- 
torated blood. We had great peace, union, and love 
in our session. Wednesday we rode to Sparta in the 
afternoon. Thursday we had crowded lodging, and I 
passed a painful night. Friday, to Sweetwater. Sat- 
urday, to Augusta. 

Sunday, January 1, 1815. I preached at Saterman's 
house. Monday, dined at McCleary's, and came on to 
Ubank's. Tuesday, to Button's. O that God may 
bless my last labors in this family! Wednesday, to 
Roger's. Thursday, to Captain Perry's. Friday we 
had a cold, hungry ride of thirty-six miles, Satur- 
day, busy writing. 

Sabbath, 8. I spoke in much feebleness upon part 
of Psalm xxx vii., and gave a charge to the society. 
My labors were followed with much coughing and a 
restless night. Monday I bled in the arm to relieve 
the spitting of blood. This place calls for great labor, 
and I am not fit for it; I must go hence. Tuesday I 
filled an appointment made for me in Bethel Chapel; 
I was divinely assisted. The care of the societies 



394 History of Methodism 

comes with weight upon my mind. Here are liberal 
souls at home and abroad; we have added near- 
ly two hundred dollars to our mite subscription. 
Thursday came to Strawberry Ferry. Grand accom- 
modations at Mr. Lesesne's. Friday, to Hale's; we had 
an appointment here which we knew not of; the peo- 
ple assembled, and I spoke to them. Saturday came 
to Santee and crossed the Long Ferry in fifty minutes. 
As soon as the poor Africans see me, they spring with 
life to the boat, and make a heavy flat skim along like 
a light canoe; poor starved souls — God will judge! 

Sabbath, 15. A sacramental day; I preached and 
gave a word of exhortation to the society. I cannot 
preach more than once a day. 

Tuesday, 17. We started away in company with 
W. M. Kennedy and I. Norton, with the last of whom 
we parted at the ferry over Black River. Lodged 
with Mr. Rogers — his father has gone to rest. On our 
route we visited Bethel Durant, and saw his brothers, 
John and Henry; their simple-hearted, kind father 
entertained me thirty years ago on my returning from 
my visit to Charleston. 

Wednesday, 18. Crossed the lakes and Wackamaw, 
and got in after eight o'clock to Brother Frink's. At 
William Gause's I saw my kind mothers in Israel, 
Gause and Rogers. I continue to expectorate blood. 
Is it possible that the children of the French Protest- 
ant martyrs to the tyranny of Louis XIY. and his 
bloody priesthood can ever forget the God of their 
fathers? Noble, holy men, may God gather in your 
children to the latest generations! 

Friday, 20. A dash of rain stopped us awhile, but 
we went forward thirty miles to Wilmington. I feel 
the effect of the damps- 



In South Carolina. 395 

North Carolina — Sabbath, 22. I preached in the 
chapel. O wretched appearance of broken windows! 
It was a sacramental day. Were I a young man, I 
should not wish to be stationed in Wilmington. Our 
funds are low here, and our house a wreck. 

Sabbath, November 12, 1815. I attended the quar- 
terly-meeting at Samuel Edney's, and bore a feeble 
but a faithful testimony to the truth. I have read, 
with dim eyes, Joseph Moore's dialogue; it is not 
elegant, but argumentative: it seems to have silenced 
the Baptists. 

Sabbath, 19. I preached upon Acts xxvi. 17, 18. 
I die daily — am made perfect by labor and suffering, 
and fill up still what is behind. 

Monday, 20. At Benjamin Glover's. At Allen 
Glover's on Tuesday. Wednesday, my children will 
not let me go out. 

Thursday, 23. Came to Thomas Child's, near Cam- 
bridge, twenty miles. Friday, to Dr. William Moon's. 
Saturday, the Doctor urges, and I have consented to 
take digitalis. 

Sabbath, 26. I preached, and we had a time of 
great feeling. Monday, heavy rain. W T e came away 
to Hezekiah Arlington's; a cold, damp ride. Tues- 
day, to the widow Means's; the lady was not at home, 
but the servants were attentive. John Wesley Bond 
preached in the kitchen. We try to do good. Wednes- 
day, to Sterling Williamson's, thirty miles in eight 
hours. A damp, rainy day, by no means pleasant to 
me. Thursday, rested. Friday, at Columbia. 

Saturday, December 2. A melancholy and awful 
scene has been witnessed here. Dr. Ivey Finch, 
about thirty years of age, in driving a violent horse 
out of Columbia in his chair, was dashed between the 



396 History of Methodism. 

shaft and wheel, and his skull fractured. The un- 
happy man was the only son of my dear friend Ed- 
ward Finch. I preached on the Sabbath. I have 
passed three nights at B. Arthur's, two at friend Alex- 
ander McDowell's, and one night at Colonel Hutch- 
inson's. My consolations are great. I live in God 
from moment to moment. The poor Colonel is like 
myself — broken to pieces. I feel deeply upon my 
mind the consequence of this charge (Columbia). 

Thursday, 7. We met a storm, and stopped at 
William Baker's, Granby. 



CHAPTER XV. 



W 



Give me the faith which can remove 
And sink the mountain to a plain ; 

Give me the child-like, praying love 
That longs to build thy house again — 

The love which once my heart o'erpowered, 
And all my simple soul devoured. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

ILLIAM CAPER S was descended from a f am- 
ily of iLuguenots, who emigrated from France 
and settled in South Carolina. He w^as a son of Will- 
iam and Sarah (Singletary) Capers, and w r as born in 
St. Thomas Parish, in South Carolina, on the 26th of 
January, 1790. His father served as a captain in the 
Revolution under General Marion; w r as one of the 
defenders of Charleston in the battle of Fort Sullivan; 
was in the battle of Eutaw T , and at the siege of Savan- 
nah, where Pulaski fell, and was always distinguished 
for his patriotism and bravery. His father became a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1786, 
and his own mother w r as a lady of the finest natural 
and Christian qualities, but died when he was two 
years old; but in 1793 his father gave him another 
mother, who well supplied the place of the departed 
one, and w^atched over him with uniform and tender 
solicitude. 

In the spring of 1801 he w T as sent to school on the 
Pedee, some thirty miles from Georgetown, where his 

(397) 



A 



398 History of Methodism 

father then lived, but, in consequence of the teacher 
suddenly leaving his charge, he returned home after 
a month or two. In September following he was sent 
to Dr. Roberta's Academy, near Statesburg, in Sum- 
ter District, where he continued till 1805, when he 
was admitted as a student in the South Carolina Col- 
lege, then under the Presidency of Dr. Maxcy. 

In the summer of 1806 he attended a camp-meeting 
in Rembert's settlement, of which he gives the follow- 
ing account: 

" The number of people occupying tents was much 
greater than it had been at two previous meetings of 
the same kind in 1802 and 1803, in that neighborhood, 
both of which I had attended with my uncle's family, 
and at which wagons and awnings made of coverlets 
and blankets were mostly relied on in place of tents. 
The tents too (of this meeting in 1806), though much 
smaller and less commodious than in later years, were 
larger and better than at the former meetings. But 
still, at the tents as well as at the wagons of the camp, 
there was very little cooking done, but every one fed 
on cold provisions, or at least cold meats. Compared 
to those first two camp-meetings, this one differed also 
in the more important respects of management and 
the phases of the work of God. At the first one (1802), 
particularly (which was held on McGirt's Branch, be- 
low the point where the Statesburg and Darlington 
road crosses it), I recollected little that looked like 
management. There were two stands for preaching, 
at a distance of about two hundred yards apart; and 
sometimes there was preaching at one, sometimes at 
the other, and sometimes at both simultaneously. 
This was evidently a bad arrangement, for I remem- 
ber seeing the people running hastily from one place 



In South Carolina. 399 

to the other as some sudden gush of feeling venting 
itself aloud, and perhaps with strange bodily exercises, 
called their attention off. As to the times of preach- 
ing, I think there were not any stated hours, but it 
was left to circumstances; sometimes oftener, some- 
times more seldom. The whole camp was called up 
by blowing a horn at the break of day ; before sunrise 
it was blown again, and I doubt if after that there 
were any regular hours for the services of the meet- 
ing. But what was most remarkable both at this 
camp-meeting and the following one, a year after- 
ward (1803), as distinguishing them from the present 
meeting of 1806, and much more from later camp- 
meetings, was the strange and unaccountable bodily 
exercises which prevailed there. In some instances, 
persons who were not before known to be at all relig- 
ious, or under any particular concern about it, would 
suddenly fall to the ground and become strangely con- 
vulsed witli what was called the jerks; the head and 
neck, and sometimes the body also, moving backward 
and forward with spasmodic violence, and so rapidly 
that the plaited hair of a woman's head might be 
heard to crack. This exercise was not peculiar to 
feeble persons, nor to either sex, but, on the contrary, 
was most frequent to the strong and athletic, whether 
man or woman. I never knew it among children, nor 
very old persons. In other cases, persons falling 
down would ajupear senseless, and almost lifeless, for 
hours together; lying motionless at full length on the 
ground, and almost as pale as corpses. And then 
there was the jumping exercise, which sometimes ap- 
proximated dancing, in which several persons might 
be seen standing perfectly erect, and springing up- 
ward without seeming to bend a joint of their bodies. 



400 History of Methodism 

Sucli exercises were scarcely, if at all, present among 
the same people at the camp-meeting of 1806. And 
yet this camp-meeting was not less remarkable than 
the former ones, and very much more so than any I 
have attended in later years, for the suddenness with 
which sinners of every description were awakened, 
and the overwhelming force of their convictions, bear- 
ing them instantly down to their knees, if not to the 
ground, crying for mercy. At this meeting I became 
clearly convinced that there was an actual, veritable 
power of God's grace in persons then before me, 
and who were known to me, by which they were 
brought to repentance and a new life; and that with 
respect to the latter (a state of regeneration and grace), 
the evidence of their possessing it was as full and sat- 
isfactory as it was that they had been brought to feel 
the guilt and condemnation of their sins. I did not 
fall at any time, as I saw others do, but with the con- 
viction clear to my apprehension as to what was the 
true character of the work before me, that it was of 
God, while I feared greatly, I could not but desire 
that I might become a partaker of the benefit. Still 
I kept myself aloof, I knew not why." 

After his return to college, as there was much of 
infidelity and vice prevailing among the students, his 
situation, on the whole, became so trying that he re- 
solved, if he could obtain his father's consent, to dis- 
solve his connection with the institution; and accord- 
ingly, early in the year 1808, he withdrew from college 
and became a student of law under John S. Richard- 
son, an eminent jurist, and afterward a distinguished 
judge, in South Carolina. Shortly after this, his 
father, whose spirituality had for some years greatly 
waned, received a fresh baptism of the Holy Ghost, 



In South Carolina. 401 

and, in the presence of his family, made a renewed 
dedication of himself to God. The son, who was 
present, was deeply affected by the scene, and, though 
he could not feel any confidence that his state of mind 
was indicative of a genuine conversion, he resolved to 
carry out a purpose, which he had formed some time 
before, to unite himself with the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. This he did in the early part of August, 180*8. 

Immediately after performing this solemn act, he 
fell in with the Kev. William Gassaway, who proposed 
to him to meet him at Camden some three weeks from 
that time and accompany him around on his circuit. 
Mr. Capers cheerfully consented to the proposal with- 
out knowing how much was involved in the arrange- 
ment; but what was his surprise w T hen, at the first 
appointment, at Smith's Meeting-house (now Mar- 
shall's), September 12, Mr. Gassaway, after a sermon 
by the Rev. "William M. Kennedy, beckoned to him to 
come forward to the pulpit, and then directed him to 
" exhort." He obeyed the command, but not without 
great embarrassment, not merely because it was his 
first attempt at any such service, but because he had 
serious doubts whether a principle of life had ever 
been imparted to him. At a quarterly-meeting, how- 
ever, beginning Friday, September 15, which was con- 
ducted as a camp-meeting, at Knight's Meeting-house, 
on Fork Creek, he found that unspeakable blessing 
which he had been so earnestly seeking — "the spirit 
of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father; " the Spirit 
itself bearing witness with his spirit that he was a 
child of God. He says: 

"A love-feast was held on Sunday morning at 9 
o'clock. I had never attended one, and happening 
never to have made any inquiries about them, so that 
26 



402 History of Methodism 

going into this one I knew not how it was to be con- 
ducted, nor of what the service should consist. I first 
found myself strongly affected on seeing one and an- 
other refused admission by the preacher at the door, 
a vivid representation being made to my mind of the 
character of the meeting, in which, as I supposed, 
none but approved persons could be present, and others 
were rejected. At first I felt as if I, too, had no right 
to be there. It was a meeting for Christians only, 
and without the witness of adoption I could not claim 
that title. Was it partiality, or lack of information, 
which had let me in while others were excluded? I 
might not hope to be admitted into heaven thus, for 
God himself would be the Judge. And what should 
it avail me to be in the Church, and gathered in com- 
munion with its members in holy services, if at last 
the door of heaven should be shut against me? But 
I was not suffered to pursue this train of thought, but 
my mind was suddenly and intensely taken up with 
an opposite one. Was there any thing lacking to me 
which Christ could not give ? Had he not bought me 
with the price of his own blood, which had pledged 
his willingness with his power to save? And why 
was I so long without the witness of adoption, except 
only for my unbelief? Faith that should trust him 
to bestow his grace would honor him more than the 
unbelief that doubted of his doing so much. All this 
and much more was presented to my mind in an in- 
stant, and I felt an indescribable yearning after faith. 
Yes, I felt much more; there came with it such a pre- 
vailing apprehension (or should I not call it manifesta- 
tion ?) of Christ as a present Saviour, my present Saviour, 
that to believe seemed to imply no effort. I could not 
but believe* I saw it, as it were, and I felt it, and knew 



In South Caeoltxa. 403 

it, that Christ was mine, that I had received of the 
Spirit through him, and was become a child of God. 

" This gracious change was attended with new views 
as to my calling in life. I could no longer say nor 
think that I was never to be a preacher, but, on the 
contrary, it appeared to me, and the conviction grew 
stronger and stronger, that I was called to preach." 

Up to this time, notwithstanding Mr. Capers had 
seemed to take one step toward the ministry, he had 
really never abandoned the purpose of entering the pro- 
fession of law. But now his aspirations were all for 
the sacred office, and his father having given his con- 
sent that he should make the change, it was deter- 
mined at once that he should enter the ministry. He 
therefore continued to accompany Mr. Gassaway in 
his rounds, and delivered his exhortations to the peo- 
ple with constantly increasing freedom and effect. 

" The Santee Circuit at that time extended from a 
meeting-house called Ganey's, some four miles above 
Chesterfield, which was its highest appointment, to 
Tawcaw, near Santee River, which was the lowest. 
And it was on this, my second round with Brother 
Gassaway (October, 1808), that we attended a camp- 
meeting at Tawcaw, where it pleased God to give me 
the encouragement of making my very imperfect ex- 
hortations instrumental of good among the people. 
In particular, that estimable and engaging young man, 
Joseph Galluchat, afterward for many years so well 
known and much beloved in Charleston for his abili- 
ties and spotless character as a preacher, acknowledged 
so humble an instrumentality as this the means of his 
awakening and conversion. And this circumstance 
tended no little to confirm me in the purpose I had 
formed (I trusted, under the influence of the Holy 



404 History of Methodism 

Spirit) to devote myself to the work of preaching the 
gospel of Christ." 

As late in the season as past the middle of November 
a camp-meeting was held at Eembert's (the second one 
at the same place that year), becanse the people were 
in the spirit of it; and for the special reason that the 
bishops, Asbnry and McKendree, had appointed to 
meet on official business which would occupy them 
several days, at that time, at the house of their old 
friend (the Gaius of those days) James Rembert, im- 
mediately in the neighborhood, and they would attend 
the meeting. And this being also the occasion of the 
last quarterly-meeting for the Santee Circuit, at the 
advice of Mr. Gassaway (Bishop Asbury also approv- 
ing) Mr. Capers was licensed to preach, and was rec- 
ommended to the Annual Conference to be admitted 
on trial in the itenerancy. Accordingly, at the next 
Conference, which was held at Liberty Chapel, in 
Greene county, Georgia, December 26, 1808, he was 
duly admitted, and was appointed to the Wateree 
Circuit. The next year he was sent to the Pedee 
Circuit, but at the second quarterly-meeting, which 
was held in June, 1810, he was transferred from this 
to the town of Fayetteville, in North Carolina, where 
he found himself in the midst of excellent society, and 
many efficient auxiliaries to both his comfort and use- 
fulness. Of the origin of Methodism in this place he 
gives the following interesting account: 

" The most remarkable man in Fayetteville when I 
went there, and who died during my stay, was a negro 
by the name of Henry Evans. I say the most remark- 
able in view of his class, and I call him negro with un- 
feigned respect. He was a negro; that is, he was of 
that race, without any admixture of another. The 



In South Carolina. 405 

name simply designates the race, and it is vulgar to 
regard it with opprobrium. I have known and loved 
and honored not a few negroes in my life, who were 
probably as pure of heart as Evans, or anybody else. 
Such were my old friends Castile Selby and John 
Boquet, of Charleston, Will Campbell and Harry 
Myrick, of Wilmington, York Cohen, of Savannah, 
and others I might name. These I might call re- 
markable for their goodness. But I use the word in 
a broader sense for Henry Evans, who was confessed- 
ly the father of the Methodist Church, white and 
black, in Fayetteville, and the best preacher of his 
time in that quarter, and who was so remarkable as to 
have become the greatest curiosity of the town, inso- 
much that distinguished visitors hardly felt that they 
might pass a Sunday in Fayetteville without hearing 
him preach. Evans was from Virginia ; a shoe-maker 
by trade, and, I think, was born free. He became a 
Christian and a Methodist quite young, and was 
licensed to preach in Virginia. While yet a young 
man, he determined to remove to Charleston, S. C, 
thinking he might succeed best there at his trade. 
But having reached Fayetteville on his way to Charles- 
ton, and something detaining him for a few days, his 
spirit was stirred at perceiving that the people of his 
race in that town were wholly given to profanity and 
lewdness, never hearing preaching of any denomina- 
tion, and living emphatically without hope and with- 
out God in the world. This determined him to stop 
in Fayetteville, and he began to preach to the negroes 
with great effect. The town council interfered, and 
nothing in his power could prevail with them to per- 
mit him to preach. He then withdrew to the sand- 
hills, out of town, and held meetings in the woods. 



406 History of Methodism 

changing liis appointments from place to place. No 
law was violated, while the council was effectually 
eluded, and so the opposition passed into the hands 
of the mob. These he worried out by changing his 
appointments, so that when they went to work their 
will upon him, he was preaching somewhere else. 
Meanwhile, whatever the most honest purpose of a 
simple heart could do to reconcile his enemies was 
employed by him for that end. He eluded no one in 
private, but sought opportunities to explain himself, 
avowed the purity of his intentions, and even begged 
to be subjected to the scrutiny of any surveillance 
that might be thought proper to prove his inoffensive- 
ness; any thing, so that he might be allowed to preach. 
Happily for him and the cause of religion, his honest 
countenance and earnest pleadings were soon power- 
fully seconded by the fruits of his labors. One after 
another began to suspect their servants of attending 
his preaching, not because they were made worse, but 
Avonderfully better. The effect on the public morals 
of the negroes, too, began to be seen, particularly as 
regarded their habits on Sunday, and drunkenness. 
And it was not long before the mob was called off by 
a change in the current of opinion, and Evans was al- 
lowed to preach in town. At that time there was not 
a single church-edifice in town, and but one congre- 
gation (Presbyterian), who worshiped in what was 
called the State-house, under which was the market; 
and it was plainly Evans or nobody to preach to the 
negroes. Now, too, of the mistresses there were not a 
few, and some masters, who were brought to think 
that the preaching which had proved so beneficial to 
their servants might be good for them also, and the 
famous negro preacher had some whites as well as 



In South Carolina. 407 

blacks to hear him. Among others, and who were the 
first-fruits, were my old friends, Mr. and Mrs. Lums- 
den, Mrs. Bowen (for many years preceptress of the 
Female Academy), Mrs. Malsby, and, I think, Mr. and 
Mrs. Blake. From these the gracious influence spread 
to others, and a meeting-house was built. It was a 
frame of wood, weatherboarded only on the outside, 
without plastering, about fifty feet long by thirty feet 
wide. Seats, distinctly separated, were at first ap- 
propriated to the whites, near the pulpit. But Evans 
had already become famous, and these seats were in- 
sufficient. Indeed, the negroes seemed likely to lose 
their preacher, negro though he was, while the whites, 
crowded out of their appropriate seats, took possession 
of those in the rear. Meanwhile Evans had repre- 
sented to the preacher of Bladen Circuit how things 
were going, and induced him to take his meeting-house 
into the circuit, and constitute a Church there. And 
now, there was no longer room for the negroes in the 
house when Evans preached, and for the accommoda- 
tion of both classes the weatherboards were knocked 
off and sheds were added to the house on either side, 
the whites occupying the whole of the original build- 
ing, and the negroes those sheds as a part of the same 
house. Evans's dwelling was a shed at the pnlpit end 
of the church. And that was the identical state of the 
case when I was pastor. Often was I in that shed, 
and much to my edification. I have known not many 
preachers who appeared more conversant with Script- 
ure than Evans, or whose conversation w r as more in- 
structive as to things of God. He seemed always 
deeply impressed with the responsibility of his posi- 
tion, and not even our old friend Castile was more re- 
markable for his humble and deferential deportment 



408 History of Methodism 

toward the whites than Evans was. Nor would he 
allow any partiality of his friends to induce him to 
vary in the least degree the line of conduct or the 
bearing which he had prescribed to himself in this 
respect, never speaking to a white man but with his 
hat under his arm ; never allowing himself to be seated 
in their houses, and even confining himself to the kind 
and manner of dress proper for negroes in general, 
except his plain black coat for the pulpit. 'The 
whites are kind to me, and come to hear me preach,' 
he would say, ' but I belong to my own sort, and must 
not spoil them.' And yet Henry Evans was a Boan- 
erges, and in his duty feared not the face of man. 

" I have said that he died during my stay in Fay- 
etteville this year (1810). The death of such a man 
could not but be triumphant, and his was distinguish- 
ingly so. I did not witness it, but was with him just 
before he died, and, as he appeared to me, triumph 
should express but partially the character of his feel- 
ings, as the Avord imports exultation at a victory, or 
at most the victory and exultation together. It seemed 
to me as if the victory he had won was no longer an 
object, but rather as if his spirit, past the contempla- 
tion of triumphs on earth, were already in communion 
with heaven. Yet his last breath was drawn in the 
act of pronouncing 1 Cor. xv. 57 : ' Thanks be to God, 
which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus 
Christ.' It was my practice to hold a meeting with 
the blacks in the church directly after morning preach- 
ing every Sunday. And on the Sunday before his 
.death, during this meeting, the little door between his 
humble shed and the chancel where I stood was opened, 
and the dying man entered for a last farewell to his 
people. He was almost too feeble to stand at all, but 



Ix South Carolina, 409 

supporting himself by the railing of the chancel, he 
said: ' I have come to say my last word to you. It is 
this: None but Christ. Three times I have had my 
life in jeopardy for preaching the gospel to you. 
Three times I have broken the ice on the edge of the 
water and swam across the Cape Fear to preach the 
gospel to you. And now, if in my last hour I could 
trust to that, or to any thing else but Christ crucified, 
for my salvation, all should be lost, and my soul per- 
ish forever.' A noble testimony! Worthy, not of 
Evans only, but St. Paul. His funeral at the church 
was attended by a greater concourse of persons than 
had been seen on any funeral occasion before. The 
whole community appeared to mourn his death, and 
the universal feeling seemed to be that in honoring 
the memory of Henry Evans we were paying a tribute 
to virtue and religion. He was buried under the 
chancel of the church of which he had been in so re- 
markable a manner the founder." 

At the close of the year (December 22, 1810) Mr. 
Capers attended Conference at Columbia, South Car- 
olina ; was ordained deacon, and appointed, contrary to 
all his expectations, to the city of Charleston. Here he 
passed the year pleasantly and usefully, and, with his 
colleagues, was instrumental in introducing stated 
preaching at the poor-house. He also opened the way 
to the formation of a new circuit. 

"In September I attended a call to the country, 
which, by God's blessing, produced the nucleus of 
Cooper River Circuit. A Mr. Hale, living on the main 
road between Clemens's Ferry (five miles above 
Charleston) and Lenud's Ferry, on Santee, ten miles 
from the latter place, had represented the destitution 
of preaching in his neighborhood and that part of 



410 History of Methodism 

Santee, and requested that one of the preachers should 
visit them. The lot fell on me, and I found work for 
a week. The appointment was made for preaching at 
the house of the applicant on Sunday, at eleven o'clock 
in the morning. There was a large congregation for 
a thinly peopled country, who had not heard preach- 
ing of any denomination for many years before. After 
preaching I baptized a number of children, and the 
people still hanging on, as if reluctant to go away, I 
preached a second time. The text was Luke xix. 9: 
' This day is salvation come to this house.' And al- 
though the people had been kept so long in attendance, 
and the men generally stood up for want of room or 
seats for sitting, their attention never flagged, so novel 
was the occasion, and so truly was there a gracious 
influence with them. In the midst of the second serv- 
ice a daughter of Mr. Hale cried out and sank to the 
floor. It produced but a momentary pause, and she 
being taken into the next room, I proceeded with my 
discourse, after remarking that it was not so surprising 
that one who had suddenly come to the knowledge of 
her condition as a sinner should be overpowered by it, 
as that so many who could not believe themselves to 
be in a safe state should be unconcerned about it. I 
took it to be an instance of the literal fulfillment of the 
text in the case of the young lady, who, I did not 
doubt, would be enabled to confirm what I said when 
I should visit them again. At the close of the service 
I aj^pointed to preach on the following Friday even- 
ing at the same place, and made an appointment for 
Tuesday at a Mr. Compton's, near Lenud's Ferry. At 
Compton's, too, there was a full attendance, and an 
encouraging prospect. Returning to Hale's, I found 
the new convert exceeding happy in the love of God, 



In South Carolina. 411 

and the rest of the family anxiously inquiring what 
they must do to be saved. Nor was the work confined 
to them only, but their neighbors hearing that the 
preacher's prophecy had come to pass (which was no 
prophecy at all, but spoken on the evidence of numer- 
ous examples), they were flocking to see for them- 
selves what had taken place. A class was formed, and 
the next year my brother John w T as sent to form the 
Cooper Biver Circuit." 

At the next Conference, held at Camden, December 
21, 1811, he was appointed to Orangeburg Circuit, but, 
in September, 1812, he was called off from his labors 
to minister at the death-bed of his father. About mid- 
summer of this same year he attended a camp-meeting 
on Four Holes, just above the bridge on the old Orange- 
burg road, deeply impressed with his want of holiness 
and earnestly seeking a deeper work of grace, both for 
his own happiness and that his ministry might be 
profitable to the people. The result he thus describes: 

" The meeting closed, and left me to return to my 
circuit, lacking in faith, in love, in the assurance of 
the Holy Spirit, and not, as I had hoped, strong and 
exultant. I had never since my conversion felt more 
dissatisfied with myself than I did as, riding pensive- 
ly along the road to my circuit, I reviewed the history, 
both of the meeting and of my purposes and feelings 
in going to it and during its continuance; how much 
I had needed, how little I had obtained; with what 
strong desire I had anticipated it as a time of extraor- 
dinary blessing, and to what little purpose it had 
been improved. Should I return to the labors of my 
circuit still unrefreshed, like Gideon's fleece, dry in 
the midst of the dew of heaven? TVhy was it so? 
Had I made an idol of the camp-meeting, trusting to 



412 History of Methodism 

means of any sort in place of the all-quickening Spirit ? 
And I turned aside into a thick wood, saying to myself, 
* There is none here but God only, and I cannot thus 
uncomfortable go back to my circuit; I will even go 
to Him alone who has all power in heaven and earth, 
and who has called the heavy-laden unto him that they 
may find rest. Jesus, Master, heal my blindness! 
Give me faith and love ! ' I still remember how, as I 
hitched my horse, I felt to pity him for the long fast 
he should have to keep before he might be unloosed. 
But it was not so. I had scarcely fallen on my knees, 
with my face to the ground, before Heb. xii. 18, 19, 
22-24, was applied with power to my mind: Tor ye 
aie not come unto the mount that might be touched, 
and that burned with fire, nor unto blackness and 
darkness, and tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, 
and the voice of words. . . . But ye are come unto 
Mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the 
heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company 
of angels, to the General Assembly and Church of the 
first-born which are written in heaven, and to God, 
the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made 
perfect, and to Jesus, the Mediator of the New Cove- 
nant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh 
better things than that of Abel.' In that moment how 
spiritual seemed religion, how intimate the connection 
between earth and heaven, grace and glory, the Church 
militant and the Church triumphant! And it seemed 
to challenge my consent to leave the one for the other; 
as if it had been proposed to me, ' Would you give up 
all who are below for those who are above, and count 
it now a high privilege to have come literally and ab- 
solutely to mingle with the innumerable company of 
angels, and spirits of just men made perfect, in the 



In South Carolina. 413 

tlio heavenly Jerusalem, the city of the living God? 
And instinct said no, and all the loved ones on earth 
seemed to say no ; but the words sounded to my heart 
above the voice of earth and instinct, l Ye are come!' 
and my spirit caught the transport and echoed back 
to heaven, 'Ye are come!' In that moment I felt, as 
can only be felt, ' the exceeding riches of his grace in 
his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.' I re- 
turned to my circuit with my strength renewed as the 
eagle's, full of faith and comfort." 

The Conference met in Charleston, in December, 

1812, when he was ordained elder by Bishop McKen- 
dree, and was appointed to Wilmington, in North 
Carolina. He was married Thursday, January 13, 

1813, to Miss Anna White, a young lady of great per- 
sonal attractions as well as moral and Christian ex- 
cellence, in Georgetown District, and reached Wil- 
mington on Friday of the following week. He writes : 

" We had been there but a week or two when we 
had the honor of entertaining Bishop Asbury and his 
excellent attendant, Brother Boehm, who passed a 
Sabbath in Wilmington*. These were our first guests 
in our first dwelling-place, the parsonage, which I 
might call either a two-story dwelling-house or a 
shanty, according to my humor. It was a two-story 
house, actually erected in that form, and no mistake, 
with its first story eight feet high, and the second be- 
tween six and seven; quite high enough for a man to 
stand in it with his hat off, as men always ought to 
stand when in a house. The stories, to be sure were 
not excessive as to length and breadth any more than 
height, each story constituting a room of some eight- 
een feet by twelve or fourteen, and the upper one 
having the benefit of a sort of step-ladder on the out- 



414 History of Methodism 

side of the edifice, to render it accessible when it 
might not rain too hard, or with an umbrella when it 
did rain, if the wind did not blow too hard. And be- 
sides this, there was a room constructed by a shed at 
one side of the main building, which, as madam might 
not relish going out-of-doors and up a step-ladder on 
her way to bed, especially in rainy weather, was ap- 
propriated to her use as a bed-chamber. But we were 
content. A palace might scarcely have been appre- 
ciated by us, who, by the grace of God, had in our- 
selves and each other a sufficiency for happiness. 
This house, the church (a coarse wooden structure, of 
some sixty feet by forty), the lots they stood on, and 
several adjoining lots rented to free negroes, had be- 
longed to Mr. Meredith, an(f had been procured, for 
the most part, by means of penny collections among 
the negroes, who almost exclusively had composed his 
congregation. He had been a Wesleyan missionary 
to the negroes of one of the West India Islands, I think 
Jamaica or St. Kit's. And after Mr. Hammett came 
over to Charleston, and had got under way in his en- 
terprise of establishing a pure Wesleyan Church, in 
opposition to the Asburyan, as he called it, he induced 
Mr. Meredith to come over also and join him. But 
he was not long satisfied with Mr. Hammett, whose 
influence over him was sufficient to prevent him from 
joining the Methodist Episcopal Church, but could 
not retain him among the ' Primitive Methodists,' as 
Mr. Hammett called his followers. And so, parting 
with Mr. Hammett, he came to Wilmington, and be- 
gan preaching to the negroes. Here his history was 
very like that of the colored man, Henry Evans, at 
Fayetteville. He was subjected to all manner of an- 
noyances, and even injuries, which he bore with un- 



In South Carolina. 415 

resisting meekness till he had worn his persecutors 
out. At one time he was put in jail, and he obliged 
them to let him out by preaching through the grates 
of his window to whoever might be in the street be- 
low. And when, after several years, things becoming 
more quiet, he ventured to build a meeting-house, it 
was burned to the ground. At last, however, Mr. 
Meredith gained the public confidence, and at his 
death willed in fee simple to Bishop Asbury a second 
meeting-house, built on the site of the first, the par- 
sonage-house above described, and the lands belong- 
ing to them, all which, of course, the Bishop turned 
over to the Church, which, along with the property, 
acquired also the congregation and communicant 
members. 

" The negro church, or meeting-house, was a com- 
mon appellative for this Methodist church long after 
it had been occupied by whites on the lower floor, 
with the negroes in the galleries. And it was so in 
my day. But notwithstanding all this, gentlemen and 
ladies, of high position in society, were to be found 
from Sabbath to Sabbath attending our preaching. 
Could it have been that they wanted to participate in 
the Methodist religion of passion without principle ? 
Or was it that their superior sort of religion having 
taught them to condescend to men of low estate, they 
were only practicing the principle of humility? How- 
ever it may have been with them, the sermons they 
heard for the whole year from my pulpit were taken 
up in stating, proving, and urging justification by 
faith, and its cognate doctrines of original depravity, 
regeneration, and the witness of the Spirit. These 
themes appeared inexhaustible to the preacher, and 
this portion of his hearers never grew less for his 



416 History of Methodism 

dwelling on them, though they wondered how such 
things could possibly be true. 

" For support, as far as any was to ■ be had, I was 
dependent mainly on my colored charge, whose class- 
collections, added to the collection which was made in 
the congregation weekly, may have produced six or 
seven dollars a week for all purposes. I had not ex- 
pected such a deficiency, and was not provided against 
it; and before I could command means from home, 
my very last penny was expended. What small things 
may prove important to us, and incidents of little 
moment in themselves interest us deeply by their 
connections. Here was one. It happened that I had 
carried to market and expended for a fish (because it 
was the cheapest food) the last penny I possessed. 
And this was on the morning of the day when I should 
expect the presiding elder on his first quarterly round; 
and that presiding elder was Daniel Asbury, who had 
sustained the same relation to. me during my first two 
years, and was beloved and honored next to Brother 
Gassaway. And there was no place for him but the 
parsonage; or if there was for himself, there was not 
for his horse. In such circumstances nothing might 
seem easier than to meet the emergency by borrowing. 
But should I go to a bank to borrow so little as a dol- 
lar or two ? And of my flock I feared to ask a loan 
of so much, lest it should be more than my brother 
could spare, and for the pain it should give him should 
he not be able to oblige me in so small a matter and 
so great a need; and as the least of the evils before 
me, I concluded to await my friend's coming, and 
borrow from himself what might be needed during 
his stay. He came in time for a share of the fish at 
dinner, but before it had been produced, paid me two 



In South Carolina. 417 

hundred dollars which had been sent, very unexpect- 
edly, by him for my use. If it had been but two dol- 
lars, I cannot tell the value I should have put upon it; 
but to receive two hundred dollars just at that junct- 
ure made me rich indeed. 

" I had great satisfaction in my labors among this 
class of my people (the negroes). The Church plant- 
ed among them by Mr. Meredith in troublous times 
had been well disciplined, and furnished our leaders 
and principal members at present, who exerted a salu- 
tary influence on the younger, both by their good ex- 
ample in all things and their zealous exhortations. 
The preacher they regarded as their best friend, whose 
counsel they should follow as from God. Trials were 
rare; and there was a constant increase of numbers. 
And I say, in sincerity, that I believe I have never 
served a more Christian-hearted people, unless those 
were so with whom I was associated at the same time 
among the whites. Among these (the whites) I have 
no recollection of a single trial, nor cause for one, 
during the year. And whilst offenses were avoided, 
our seasons of Christian fellowship, in the prayer- 
meetings, the class-meetings, the love-feast, were ap- 
preciated as they should be by the whole society, and 
were very refreshing. Of the people of the communi- 
ty I received nothing Avorse than marks of respect. 
Detraction had lost its tongue. The negro meeting- 
house was become the Methodist Church, and the 
stories about what the Methodists believed, and how 
they managed their secret meetings, seemed to be for- 
gotten. But what was more interesting to me, my 
earnest reasonings from Scripture began to be followed 
with fruit among the upper circle, of whom several 
were fully convinced of the truth, and were seeking 
27 



418 History of Methodism 

to be justified by faith without the works of the law. 
The way was thus prepared for my successor (the 
Kev. Samuel K. Hodges), who reaped more than a 
golden harvest." 

His appointment for 1814 was the Santee Circuit. 
He labored through the year, struggling with mani- 
fold hardships for the want of the necessary means of 
support for his family; and lie finally thought it his 
duty to relieve himself by asking for a location in De- 
cember, 1814. He removed now to a farm which had 
been given him by his father, and set himself industri- 
ously to work to cultivate and to improve it. Though 
he preached regularly every Sabbath, he was conscious 
that his secular engagements were working evil to his 
spiritual interests ; and had begun to feel that he was 
out of his proper element. Thus it was with him, 
when, on the 30th of December, 1815, " the idol of his 
heart" expired. He saw Bishop Asbury in January, 
]816, as he passed through Rembert's neighborhood, 
aiming for Baltimore, with but little hope of eking 
out life till the session of the General Conference in 
that city; and with bleeding heart asked him for a cir- 
cuit. "I am a dying man," replied the Bishop, "or I 
would give you one. I shall never see another Con- 
ference in Carolina. You had better wait for your 
Quarterly Conference to recommend you to a presid- 
ing elder." During the year 1815 he had the charge 
of two of the sons of his friend William Johnson, Esq., 
of Santee, who treated him with the most considerate 
generosity; and in June, 1816, he entered into a simi- 
lar engagement with a brother-in-law of Mr. Johnson, 
Robert F. Withers, Esq., and until October following 
devoted a considerable part -of the time to the in- 
struction of his daughters. At the expiration of his 



In South Carolina. 419 

engagement with Mr. Withers, on the 31st of October, 
In- was married to Miss Susan McGill, in Kershaw 
District, and at the commencement of the year 1817 
opened a school in Georgetown. His school was well 
attended, and yielded him an income adequate to the 
support of his family. He preached every Sabbath 
in his own " hired house, and had reason to believe 
that his" labors were not in vain: and yet he was not 
happy, for he was constantly impressed with the con- 
viction that it was his duty to reenter the itinerancy. 
Accordingly, he applied for the privilege of reitdmis- 
sion into the Conference, and was again at his work 
as a traveling preacher in January, 1818, being ap- 
pointed to Columbia, South Carolina. He says: 

" My friends in Columbia will excuse the liberty I 
take in what I here say of the accommodations fur- 
nished the preacher in 1818, and may even take a 
pleasure in contrasting the present with the past in 
that respect. They will hardly dream of any reflection 
on them by a statement of facts, any more than that 
pattern society of Methodists in Wilmington might at 
the present time by the facts of the time of my service 
in that place. The cases were different, to be sure, 
for in 1818, in Columbia, we had some five or six 
brethren, any one of whom was worth more than an 
equivalent of all the property of all the Methodists of 
Wilmington in 1813 put together. And it is also true 
that these richer brethren were the stewards. I men- 
tion it to show what was the general state of things 
among us at that time as regarded the support of the 
preachers; and shall be faithful, without the slightest 
feeling of any possible unkindness. 

" The parsonage-honse was of one story, about forty 
feet long, eighteen or twenty wide, and consisted of 



420 History of Methodism 

three rooms, of which one, at the west end of the 
house, had the breadth of the house for its length, by 
some seventeen feet for its breadth. It had a fire- 
place and a first coat of rough plastering, to make it 
comfortable in winter. Across the middle of the house 
was a passage, communicating with this principal room 
on one side, and two small rooms which took up the 
remainder of the house on the other side of it. These 
two small rooms also were made comfortable, as the 
principal one was, by a first coat of rough plastering, 
but without any fire-place. There was no shed nor 
piazza to the house, and the story was low, so that in 
summer it was very hot. There was in one of the 
small rooms a bed, a comfortable one, but I think 
there was neither bureau nor table, and I have for- 
gotten whether there was a chair appropriated to it, 
besides the four belonging to the parlor, or not. Per- 
haps, as four chairs were enough for our use at any 
one time, it was thought as well to have them taken 
from parlor to chamber and back again. The parlor 
(as I call the room which was appropriated to all pur- 
poses except sleeping) was furnished with a table of 
pine-wood, which, for having been some time in a 
school-house, was variously hacked and marked with 
deep and broad notches, heads of men, and the like, 
which, however, could not be seen after we got a cloth 
t( > cover them ; a slab, of a broad piece of pine plank, 
painted Spanish-brown, on which were a pitcher, five 
cups and saucers, and three tumblers; a well-made 
bench, for sitting, nine feet long, of pine also, and 
three Windsor chairs. I am not sure whether we 
found a pair of andirons in the parlor or not, so that 
I cannot add such a convenience to the list with cer- 
tainty. With this doubtful addition, the above fur- 



In South Carolina. 421 

Irishes an entire list of the furniture. In the yard was 
a small shanty of one room for a kitchen, and another 
still smaller for a store-room, or meat-house, or I know 
not what. We used it, small as it was, for an omnium 
gather um. And I repeat, so far was I from complain- 
ing, that I even exulted in this poverty. For a man 
to be inferior to his circumstances, I thought, might 
be a humiliation indeed, but I could see no reason to 
be mortified at what others had imposed on a pure 
conscience. And I have a vivid recollection of receiv- 
ing company and seating them on that long bench 
with as perfect ease of manner as I might have done 
if they had called on me at a tent at a camp-meeting, 
where nothing better was to be expected. In particu- 
lar, I remember to have felt something more than 
bare self-possession when, being waited on by a joint 
committee of the two houses of the Legislature, with 
a request to preach to that honorable body, and per- 
ceiving that my bench might hold their honors, I in- 
vited them to be seated on it, while I took a chair be- 
fore that presence, feeling to look as if I did not lack 
good-breeding. And I had a feeling, too, as if not a 
man of them need be mortified by a seat so humble as 
was that pine bench. What was the bench to them ? 
and what was the bench to me? They could occupy 
it with dignity, and so might I, either that or my half- 
backed chair. 

" The general position of the Methodists as a denomi- 
nation was exceedingly humble. They were the poorei 
of the people. The preachers had been raised up from 
among that people, and, in worldly respects, were still 
as they were. Every thing about the denomination 
partook somewhat, perhaps much, of the cast of pov- 
erty. The preachers generally wore very common 



422 History of Methodism 

clothing, mostly of homespun, cut in the style of a 
clown of a century past. The meeting-houses, even in 
the towns, were inferior wooden buildings. The as- 
pects of poverty, if not poverty itself, seemed to be 
Methodistic, if not saintly; and Methodism in rags 
might be none the worse, since its homespun was es- 
teemed better than the broadcloth of other sects. And 
there had been an everlasting preaching, too, against 
preaching for money: that is, against the preachers 
being supported by the people. It had been reiter- 
ated from the beginning that we were eighty-dollar 
men (not money-lovers, as some others were suspect- 
ed of being), till it got to be considered that for 
Methodist preachers to be made comfortable would 
deprive them of their glorying, and tarnish the luster 
of their Methodistic reputation. It was all nonsense, 
perfect nonsense, but it was not then so considered. 
A strong case it was of the force of association, ap- 
propriating to immaterial and indifferent circum- 
stances a value wholly independent of them, and be- 
longing to a very different thing, which, by chance, 
had been found in connection with such circumstances. 
But who did not know that it was not the preacher's 
coat that made him preach with power, and that fur- 
nished him with strength for the battles of the Lord ? 
But that power, in that preacher, reflected honor on 
his homespun coat, and caused the coat itself to be 
admired. Could broadcloth do more? It had never 
done as much for the persons concerned, and they 
were hearty for the homespun, homespun forever. 
And then, who would experiment a change when things 
were well enough? 'Let well enough alone.' The 
preacher was just as he ought to be, and the preaching 
just as it ought to be, and why interfere? " The best 



In South Carolina. 423 

of men were but men at the best,' and who could 
vouch that to change his circumstances might not 
change the man, so that the same man in a better coat 
should not preach a worse sermon ? And then when 
such points were not presented as for an equal discus- 
sion of both sides of the question, but with the full 
tide and current of opinion setting one way, what 
might it avail for this or that individual, or even this 
or that society, to oppose it? Might they not expose 
themselves to the imputation of being unmethodistical 
and worldly-minded, lowering the standard of Method- 
ism to suit their own carnal tastes? 

" I remember that not long ago, when the present 
Trinity Church in Charleston had just been completed, 
happening to step into it with two or three gentlemen 
of friendly feelings, who were not Methodists, one of 
them said, as in tones of regret, shaking his head as 
he spoke: 'Ah, this does not look like Methodism. 
Too fine, too fine! Give me the old Cumberland 
Street blue-meeting.' And this was a gentleman of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, and a pretty decided 
Churchman besides. He seemed to think that even 
a High-churchman coming to a Methodist meeting 
might hardly get the good of it unless he found there 
low, dusky walls and seats with open backs, and such 
like assistances of godly worship. 

"But to return to my brethren of the board of 
stewards. It could not have been without a struggle 
that such men as they were, as to worldly position 
and circumstances, had identified themselves with the 
Methodists in that community at the time when they 
had done so. In doing this, they must have felt 
strongly the poverty of the world without the riches 
of grace, and the riches of poverty ennobled by 



424 History of Methodism 

this heavenly bestowment. They had come into the 
Church, therefore, to take it as it was, and not to re- 
form it; the rich thus consenting, perhaps rejoicing, 
to be made low, as the most desirable form of exalta- 
tion. And they, finding the Church to be pleased 
with its poverty, as if that poverty might be indis- 
pensable to its spirituality, adopted the prevailing 
sentiment, and were content with the poverty for the 
sake of the spirituality. They had not turned Meth- 
odists to spoil Methodism, but only for a share of its 
spiritual power. They were probably in fault, and as 
far as they may have been so, I too was to blame, for 
why did I not complain? Or if not, why did I not, 
for myself, put away that table and that bench, and 
those ungainly chairs? But the whole economy of 
1818 was of a piece with this, so that the entire cost 
to the Church of keeping the parsonage that year was 
but a fraction over two hundred dollars. I might ex- 
plain how it was so, if it were worth the trouble, but 
it is not. Of this, however, I am satisfied, that I 
have since occupied a parsonage in Columbia, when 
the table was mahogony, and the bench belonged to 
the piazza, and the parlor, and the dining-room, and 
two bed-rooms were suitably furnished for decency 
and comfort; and neither was I more useful, nor did 
I love the people nor did they love me more, than in 
that year of 1818. Changes of this sort require time; 
and woe to the man who should be so inconsiderate 
of the force of prejudice and the weaknesses of men as 
to attempt them by main strength! He shall find his 
end accomplished, if at all, at a fearful cost. 

"Methodism was never poverty and rags, nor a 
clown's coat and blundering sj)eech, nor an unfur- 
nished, half -provisioned house, nor no house at all, 



In South Carolina. 425 

for the preacher; but it was the gospel simply be- 
lieved, and faithfully followed, and earnestly (even 
vehemently) insisted on. It was powerful, not be- 
cause it was poor, but because it was the living, breath- 
ing, active, urgent testimony of the gospel of the Son 
of God. It apprehended Christ's presence, and took 
hold on his authority to perform its work. Its every 
utterance was a ' Thus saith the Lord.' The Bible, 
the Bible was ever on its lips. Nothing but the 
Bible, and just as the Bible holds it, was its testimony 
of truth. It was all spiritual, experimental, practical, 
not speculative, abstracted, or metaphysical. When 
it preached, it was to testify of 'repentance toward 
God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ;' and 
to both, and to every degree of both, for the time 
then present. When it exhorted, it was to enforce its 
preaching, as it ever saw sinners sporting on the 
brink of a precipice, and believers in clanger of being 
seduced from their safety. And preaching or exhort- 
ing, its inexhaustible argument was, eternity — eter- 
nity at hand: — an eternity of heaven or hell for every 
soul of man. Its great element was spirituality — a 
spirituality not to be reached by a sublimating mental 
process, but by a hearty entertaining of the truths of the 
gospel as they challenged the conscience and appealed 
to the heart for credence in the name of Christ cruci- 
fied, whenever and wherever the gospel was preached. 
And this, together Avith a moral discipline answering 
to it, I understand to be Methodism still, and God 
forbid there should come any other in its name. 

"We had a prosperous year, on the whole, with 
crowded congregations; and meetings for 'the fellow- 
ship of saints,' whether in class or the love-feast, 
were well attended." 



426 History of Methodism 

The year following (1819) he was stationed at Sa- 
vannah, Georgia. He made no objections to the ap- 
pointment, but went to it not without serious appre- 
hension on account of the sickliness of the climate. 
His apprehension, however, quite subsided as the 
sickly season approached, and he found himself in a 
field of labor in many respects congenial with his tastes 
and feelings. He very soon formed an intimate friend- 
ship with the Kev: Dr. Kollock, of the Presbyterian 
Church, which was continued until it was terminated 
by the death of the latter. He writes: 

" From the beginning, my congregations in Savan- 
nah were very large; and after a short time, the 
church might have been filled had it been half again 
as large as it was. Strikingly in contrast with the 
church in Wilmington in 1813, there were very few 
negroes who attended Methodist preaching; the pol- 
icy of the place allowing them separate churches, and 
the economy and doctrines of the Baptist Church 
pleasing them better than ours. There was but one 
side of the gallery appropriated to their use, and it 
was always the most thinly seated part of the church; 
while there were two respectably large colored 
churches in the city, with their pastors, and deacons, 
and sacraments, and discipline, all of their own. I 
had, therefore, little access to this portion of the peoj)le, 
and could do but little for them. Nevertheless, our 
few members were zealous for their Church, and often 
had controversies with their Baptist brethren in the 
neighborhood. Fine specimens of controversy, to be 
sure, they must have been; and I am tempted to give 
a sample for the benefit of controversialists in general. 

"I was holding a love -feast for them, and Caesar, 
an elderly African, spoke with great animation of a 



In South Carolina. 427 

good meeting he had had across the river, at which 
somebody had agreed to join the Church, and was 
now present for that purpose. And when he had sat 
down, it being time to conclude the service, I asked 
him if I had understood him rightly, as saying that 
he had brought some one to join the Church. 

" ' Yes, sir,' answered he, briskly, ' dat da him.' 

" ' But did you not say, old man, that she was a 
Baptist?' 

" ' Yes, sir, e Bapty.' 

" 'But why does n't she stay with her own people? ' 

" Here he arose, and putting himself in an oratori- 
cal posture, he proceeded thus : 

"'You see, sir, ober we side de riber (river), some 
Bapty and some Metody. An' de Bapty, dem say 
de ting tan (stand) so (motioning to the left), and 
the Metody, we say e tan so (motioning to the right). 
An' so me and Brother Tom, we bin hab meetin'; and 
one Bapty broder bin da, and dis sister bin da. An' 
me talk pon um, and de Bapty broder talk pon um; 
and him talk and me talk long time. An' arter (after) 
dis sister set down da long time, an' yeddy (hear) we 
good fasin (fashion), e tell me say, Brother Caesar, 
me tink you right. Me say, Ki, sister, you say you 
tink me right? Me know me right. So, sir, you see 
me bring um to you fuh (for) join Church. An' you 
know, sir, de Scripter say, de strongis dog, let um 
hole (hold) fas.' 

"And who might have been the weaker dog where 
Csesar was the stronger one? Homely work must 
they have made of it, but I dare say they were honest, 
which is more than I would say for some better-bred 
controvertists, who, with a fair show of speech and 
becoming figures, make their controversies like a dog- 



d28 History of Methodism 

fight, with a bone (or a book) for the prize, and all 
under warrant of Scripture, as they hold it. 

"We had scarcely been made comfortable in our 
new quarters before I found that our infant Church 
was heavily in debt. And as I thought it better to 
clear away the rubbish at first, I immediately under- 
took a journey by the way of our liberal friends on 
Black Swamp, in Beaufort District, to Charleston, for 
the purpose of removing this incubus. I was gone 
about three weeks, when I returned with eighteen 
hundred dollars, which, together with an arrangement 
for renting part of the parsonage-house for a few 
years (which had been constructed with a view to 
something of the sort), canceled the debt, and set us 
at .liberty. The class and public collections were 
ample for all our wants, and, as regarded temporal 
things, there was no lack. I might not say that we 
' fared sumptuously every day,' but we had a cornf ort- 
able sufficiency of all good things. And this was that 
'forlorn-hope' which had been considered so very 
trying that my good Bishop would not send me to it 
till he had first got my consent to go. 

"With respect to the more important matters of 
ministerial success, it was manifest that in neither of 
the towns where I had been was there so fair a pros- 
pect of establishing our Church as here. Dr. Kol- 
lock was right in judging that there was a large and 
respectable portion of the community for whom the 
Methodist ministry promised the most likely means 
of conversion. And it was this judgment of that 
noble-minded man which induced him to befriend us. 
As time passed on, it was seen that we had gained a 
permanent congregation, who worshiped nowhere else, 
but morning, afternoon, and evening were to be found 



In South C audi an a. 429 

at the Methodist Church. And a more decorous con- 
gregation I have never preached to. 

"An affectionate people, a kind and respectful com- 
munity, crowded congregations, and our meetings for 
Christian fellowship well attended and profitable, 
made this year one to be remembered. What was 
thought to be the hardest appointment I could have 
received proved the best I ever had had. And a bet- 
ter no one need desire, of my pretensions and with 
my aims in view. Every thing went well." 

He was returned to Savannah for the year 1820, 
and was also chosen a delegate to the General Con- 
ference to be held in Baltimore in May of that year. 
He attended the General Conference, and introduced 
the resolution, which was carried with very little op- 
position, instituting District Conferences for the local 
preachers — a measure which he subsequently re- 
gretted. 

In 1821 he was appointed missionary in the South 
Carolina Conference, and to the Indians; and during 
the three following years he served as superintendent 
of the mission to the Creek Indians, and in addition 
did the work of a stationed preacher at Milledgeville, 
Georgia, in 1823 and 1824. In 1825 he was removed 
to Charleston, where, in addition to his manifold other 
labors, he undertook the editing of a paper called the 
Wesleyan Journal, which was, however, at the close of 
the next year, merged in the Christian Advocate, pub- 
lished in New York. The four succeeding years he 
spent on the Charleston District, in the office of pre- 
siding elder. In May, 1828, he was chosen by the 
General Conference held at Pittsburg as a represent- 
ative of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America 
to that of Great Britain. In due time he met the 



430 History of Methodism 

British Conference, and was received by them with 
the most marked expressions of respect and good-will. 
After his return from England, he immediately re- 
sumed his duties as presiding elder, and was soon 
strongly solicited to enter the Baltimore Conference; 
but believing that both his happiness *and usefulness 
would be greater in South Carolina than in Maryland, 
he declined the proposal. 

In 1829 three missions to the plantation slaves were 
originated in the South Carolina Conference; and 
Mr. Capers was appointed superintendent of them— 
an office which devolved upon him no small amount 
of labor, in addition to the duties of presiding elder. 
He had always felt a deep interest in the welfare of 
these people, and until the close of his life he was 
ever on the alert to improve and elevate their condi- 
tion. In 1831 he was stationed in Columbia, where 
his eloquent preaching soon created the necessity for 
a larger church. The two following years he spent 
in Charleston, 

The degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon 
him in 1818 by the South Carolina College; and the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity, in 1829, by Augusta Col- 
lege, Kentucky. In November, 1829, he was elected 
Professor of Moral Philosophy and Belles-lettres in 
Franklin College, Georgia. In September, 1832, he 
was urged to accept the presidency of La Grange Col- 
lege, Alabama; and subsequently that of the Uni- 
versity of Louisiana, and also of Randolph-Macon 
College, Virginia; but he felt constrained to decline 
them all, from a conviction that his literary and scien- 
tific attainments were not adeqiiate to such a position. 

At the close of the year 1833, a serious difficulty 
arose in the Church at Charleston, of which Dr. 



In South Carolina. 431 

Capers had the pastoral charge, which brought the 
members into such fierce antagonism with each other 
that no efforts for an adjustment which he could put 
forth proved successful. Being more than willing to 
escape from this painful agitation, he was transferred, 
early in the year 1834, to the Georgia Conference, 
and stationed in Savannah; and in connection with 
this appointment he was made superintendent of the 
missions to the colored people, near Savannah, and on 
the neighboring islands. After remaining here a 
year, he was transferred to the South Carolina Con- 
ference, and connected with the station at Columbia, 
with a view especially to his taking a post in the 
State College, the fortunes of which had greatly 
waned under the administration of Dr. Cooper; but 
after his removal there circumstances occurred which 
led him to decline the professorship to which he had 
been appointed — namely, that of the Evidences of 
Christianity and Sacred Literature. In May, 1836, 
resolutions were passed by the General Conference 
held at Cincinnati authorizing the publication of a 
weekly religious journal at Charleston called the So/it ii- 
ern Christian Advocate, and Dr. Capers was elected 
editor. He accepted the place, and the first number 
of the paper was published in June, 1837. The fol- 
lowing paper relates to this subject: 

Prospectus of the Southern Christian Advocate. 

At the late General Conference of the Methodist Espiscopal 
Church, resolutions were passed authorizing the publication of 
weekly religious papers on the same footing with the Christian Ad- 
vocate and Journal (of New York) and the Western Christian Advocate 
(Cincinnati), at Richmond, Nashville, and Charleston. At Nash- 
ville, the paper thus authorized has already been issued. The one 
intended for Richmond will, we doubt not, soon be put forth. And 



432 History of Methodism 

the Georgia and South Carolina Annual Conferences, for whose dis- 
tricts the paper at Charleston is especially intended, have each 
taken measures for its early publication. 

The act of the General Conference authorizing these publications 
was called for by the Southern delegates, on the ground of its 
being necessary to an equal distribution of the benefits of the 
Church's press to all parts of her communion, and especially in 
view of the peculiar political aspects of the times. Within the range 
contemplated for the paper at Charleston, leaving equal scope for 
those at Richmond and Nashville, there are about fifty thousand 
whites in the membership of the Church. Here, then, ai*e probably 
ten thousand Methodist families, and a much greater number at- 
tached to the Methodists, who have no weekly paper published 
among them. This, under any circumstances, might be held a suffi- 
cient reason for the publication we propose ; but considered in con- 
nection with the feeling which is known to pervade all classes of 
men on the subject of our domestic institutions, it not only justifies 
our undertaking as one that is expedient, but strongly urges it as 
necessary to the Church. 

We propose, therefore, to publish at the city of Charleston, as 
soon as the subscription-lists Avill warrant, a weekly religious paper, 
to be entitled the Southern Christian Advocate, which shall be zeal- 
ously devoted to the promotion of good morals and religion — to 
give expression to the views and feelings of our people, kindly but 
firmly, on all subjects bearing on the Church — and, in particular, to 
set forward the cause of Christian benevolence as embodied in the 
Bible, Missionary, Sunday-school, Tract, and Temperance Societies. 

This paper shall be printed on an imperial sheet, of the same 
size and quality with that of the Christian Advocate, of New York, 
with new type (long primer), and the typography, in all respects, 
shall closely resemble the New York paper. 

The price will be three dollars, to be paid in advance. Subscrip- 
tions paid within one month after receiving the first number, either 
to the publishers or an authorized agent, will be considered as in 
advance. 

In any case of discontinuance during the year, the subscription 
for the year must be paid, and postage of the order to discontinue. 

All communications, whether of business or matter for publica- 
tion, unless remitting money or subscriptions to the amount of ten 
dollars, must be post-paid. 

Cdmmunications involving facts or respecting persons — as, ac- 



In South Carolina. 433 

counts of revivals or religious meetings, obituary notices, biogra- 
phies, etc. — must be accompanied with the writer's name. 

Communications may be addressed to the Rev. William Capers, 
Charleston, or to either of the pastoral ministers of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in this city, who are members of the Publishing 
Committee. 

The itinerant ministers and preachers of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church are all authorized agents of the Southern Christian Advocate, 
to whom payments may be made. 

The proceeds of this paper, as a part of the general Book Con- 
cern, will be equally divided among all the Annual Conferences, to 
be applied in spreading the gospel, and aiding distressed and super- 
annuated ministers, and the widows and orphans of those who have 
died in the work. 

William Capers, Editor. 
Nicholas Talley, 
George F. Pierce, 
Bond English. 
Whitefoord Smith, Jr., 
James Sewell, 
John N. Davis, 
James W. Welborn, 

Publishing Committee. 

In April, 1838, a very disastrous fire occurred at 
Charleston, which destroyed several churches, 'and 
among them one large Methodist church, and another 
that was in process of building. Dr. Capers, having 
temporarily resigned his editorial chair, set off on 
a mission through the middle and upper districts of 
South Carolina, to solicit aid in rebuilding the two 
churches; and returned in about three months with 
the noble sum of upward of thirteen thousand dollars. 

In 1840 the territory of the Church was divided by 
the General Conference held at Baltimore into three 
missionary departments; and Dr. Capers was ap- 
pointed secretary to the Southern division. The gen- 
eral interests of the missionary work within this dis- 
trict were intrusted to his oversight; and the duties 
28 



434 History of Methodism 

now devolved upon hirn were exceedingly arduous, re- 
quiring his presence at a great number of meetings, 
protracted absences from home, and fatiguing routes 
of travel. In this work he continued unremittingly 
for four years. 

In May, 1844, the great anti-slavery agitation in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church came to its crisis, 
in the division of that body. Dr. Capers, who had 
taken a deep interest in the controversy from the be- 
ginning, made a speech before the General Confer- 
ence, in vindication of the Southern view of the ques- 
tion, which showed a degree of tact and power rarely 
evinced in a deliberative body. From this time till 
the close of his life, he is identified with the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South. 

At the close of the year 1845, Dr. Capers was sta- 
tioned at Columbia; and while here, by request of 
the South Carolina Conference, he revised a Cate- 
chism for the use of the negro missions which he had 
prepared some years before. In the spring of 1846 
he attended the session of the first General Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and on 
the 7th of May he and the Eev. Dr. Robert Paine 
were elected bishox^s, and on the 14th were conse- 
crated to their office. 

Bishop Capers was indefatigable in the discharge 
of the various duties pertaining to the episcopal office. 
He performed eight successive tours of visitation, 
traversing, in different directions, most of the South- 
ern and South-western States, and leaving every- 
where an impression that he was eminently qualified 
for the office to which he had been elevated. 

On the 24th of January, 1855, he reached his home 
in Anderson, South Carolina, 'after a journey to Flor- 



In South Carolina. 435 

ida, to attend the Florida Conference. On the 25th, 
he completed his sixty-fifth year; and at midnight 
the final attack came. Seeing alarm depicted in the 
countenances of those around him, he said: "I am 
already cold; and now, my precious children, give me 
up to God. O that more of you were here! but I 
bless God that I have so lately seen you all." Then 
turning to one of his daughters, he said, "I want you 
to finish my minutes (of Conference) to-morrow, and 
send them off." After another paroxysm of pain, he 
asked the hour; and when the answer was given, he 
said: "What, only three hours since I have been suf- 
fering such torture! Only three hours! What, then, 
must be the voice of the bird that cries, 'Eternity! 
eternity! ' Three hours have taken away all but my 
religion." The next day he suffered much, but on 
Sunday seemed better, and sat up nearly the whole 
day. Monday morning, at daylight, he said, " I feel 
decidedly better." Some medicine was then admin- 
istered to him, and as Mrs. Capers turned away from 
his bed to put aside the tumbler from which he had 
taken a swallow of water, he breathed his last. Thus 
quickly had disease of the heart done its work. He 
died on the 29th of January, 1855. 

(Autobiography of Bishop Capers and Sprague's Annals.) 



CHAPTER XVI. 



The servile progeny of Ham 

Seize as the purchase of thy blood ; 

Let all the heathen know thy name : 
From idols to the living God 

The wand'ring Indian tribes convert, 

And shine in every pagan heart. 

(Charles Wesley.) 

ON the second day of September, in 1784, Thomas 
Coke, doctor of civil law, was ordained by Mr. 
Wesley as a missionary bishop for the work in Amer- 
ica. At the Christmas Conference of the same year, 
when the Methodist Episcopal Church was organized, 
three of the thirteen preachers elected and ordained 
to the order of elders were set apart for mission- 
ary labors, viz.: Freeborn Garrettson and James O. 
Cromwell for the work in Nova Scotia, and Jeremiah 
Lambert for the work in Antigua. When the inde- 
pendence of the United States was established by the 
peace of 1783, the loyalists who had borne arms in the 
American war, being proscribed, took refuge in 
Nova Scotia and other parts of British America, and 
received lands at the head of the coves on the coasts. 
During Dr. Coke's first visit to America, he was in- 
troduced to several of those who were about to emi- 
grate to Nova Scotia, and he then made a public col- 
lection for their benefit in Baltimore; the American 
friends contributing fifty pounds currency, or about 
thirty pounds sterling, besides sixty pounds currency 
(436) 



History of Methodism. 437 

for missionary purposes. On his return to England, 
in September, 1785, he warmly interested himself in 
making further collections for this and other mission- 
ary fields. After the Conference of 1786, he sailed 
from Gravesend in company with Messrs. Hammett 
and Clarke, who were sent out to cooperate with 
Messrs. Garrettson and Cromwell, at Halifax, in 
Nova Scotia, and Mr. Warrener, who was appointed by 
Mr. Wesley, to the work in Antigua. It was his in- 
tention first to take Messrs. Hammett and Clarke to 
their station, and afterward to proceed to the Balti- 
more Conference, and send forward Mr. Warrener 
to Antigua; but adverse winds drove the vessel to 
Antigua, where the whole party landed and were most 
cordially received by Mr. Baxter and other friends. 
About the year 1762, Nathaniel Gilbert, Speaker of 
the House of Assembly, in Antigua, and possessor of 
two sugar plantations, went to England and attended 
the ministry of Mr. Wesley. The first time he heard 
him preach was on Kensington Common, and the 
sermon was made instrumental of his conviction and 
sound conversion. On his return from England, he 
relinquished his position as Speaker of the House of 
Assembly, and immediately fitting up a large upper 
room in the building where his plantation stores were 
kept, began to preach to the blacks. His brother, 
Francis Gilbert, was soon made partaker of the grace 
of God. He, too, began to preach, and was a work- 
man that needed not to be ashamed. The two broth- 
ers rented a house in St. Johns, and there freely and 
faithfully published the glad tidings of salvation to 
both blacks and whites. The Lord owned his serv- 
ants and greatly blessed their labors. They were 
not, however, long permitted to exercise their talents 



438 History of Methodism 

in the ministry, for^ soon both were taken from labor 
to reward. The little society which they had raised 
W6re now as sheep scattered in the wilderness, bnt 
the great Shepherd and Bishop of souls did not long 
leave unprotected the lambs • of his fold. Among a 
number of carpenters from Chatham dock-yards, sent 
out by the British Government to English Harbor, in 
Antigua, Mr. John Baxter, an acceptable local preach- 
er in the London District, consented to go. On the 
first Sunday after his arrival, he went to St. Johns, a 
distance of twelve miles, and in the open air, under 
the shade of a large tree, he preached to the few de- 
spised disciples of Christ and to a mixed multitude of 
blacks and whites. Finding the work of God extend- 
ing on all sides, he left his situation under the king 
and gave himself up wholly to the service of the 
sanctuary. It was not long before he required 
another laborer in the vineyard, and Jeremiah Lam- 
bert entered from America. 

" In the year 1785," says Mr. Warrener, " I told 
Mr. Wesley that I was at his and the Lord's disposal, 
to go to America or wherever I might be wanted. At 
the Conference held in Bristol, the following year, I 
was appointed to go to Antigua, as an assistant to 
Mr. Baxter. ' My appointment was the first that had 
been made by the Methodist Conference to the West 
Indies." 

Dr. Coke was intrusted by Mr. Wesley, during his 
life, with the chief management of the missions, in 
the establishment of which he had been the principal 
agent. After the death of Mr. Wesley, the Confer- 
ence appointed him the general superintendent of 
their missions, and in the year 1793 for the first time 
permitted a general collection to be made through the 



In South Carolina. 430 

whole connection for their support. Before this the 
difficult task of supplying money for their use had 
been performed principally by his own personal and 
unaided endeavors. A second collection was granted 
by the Conference in 1796, and was afterward annu- 
ally appointed till the regular organization of " The 
General Wesley an Methodist Missionary Society," in 
1818, of which Messrs. Bunting, Taylor, and Watson 
w^ere the first secretaries. In emulation of the exam- 
ple of the British brethren, the preachers stationed 
in New York and the book agents held a meeting and 
resolved to form a Bible and Missionary Society of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in America. In 
pursuance of a call made by them, a public meeting 
of all the members and friends of the Church who 
might choose to attend was held in the Forsyth 
Street Church, on the evening of April 5, 1819, when 
a constitution was adopted and officers and managers 
were elected. The Domestic Missionary Society of 
Columbia, in South Carolina, was formed the same 
year, and was one of the first that became auxiliary 
to this original society in New York. At the forma- 
tion of this society, it was intended to print and circu- 
late Bibles and Testaments gratuitously in connection 
with spreading the gospel by means of missionary 
labors, and hence its name was called the " Mission- 
ary and Bible Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church;" but being convinced, upon more mature re- 
flection, that the American Bible Society, which was 
in successful operation, was fully adequate to the 
task of supplying the community with the sacred 
Scriptures, the board of managers recommended to 
the General Conference of 1820, whose cooperation 
was contemplated from the beginning, to strike the 



440 History of Methodism 

word Bible from the title, that it might confine itself 
exclusively to missionary labors; and also gave au- 
thority in the constitution itself to establish the soci- 
ety wherever the Book Concern might be located. 
The subject was duly considered by the General Con- 
ference, and their action was embodied in the follow- 
ing resolutions: 

1. Resolved, That this Conference do highly approve of the insti- 
tution of the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in the city of New York, and, on the recommendation of the mana- 
gers thereof, do agree to and adopt its constitution. 

2. Resolved, That it be, and hereby is, earnestly recommended to 
all the Annual Conferences to take such measures as they may deem 
most advisable for the establishment of branch societies auxiliary 
to the parent Methodist Missionary Society at New York, in all 
convenient and practicable places within their bounds ; and that it 
be the duty of the general superintendents to communicate this 
recommendation to said Conferences, and to use their best endeav- 
ors and influence to have it carried into speedy and general effect. 

3. Resolved, That this Conference do fully approve of education for 
the civilization of the Indians, required by a circular, in conformity 
with an act of Congress, issued from the Department of War by the 
Honorable John C. Calhoun, on the 3d of September, 1819, and by 
a supplement thereto, issued from the same department on the 29th 
of February last, and that they do hereby authorize the general 
superintendents of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and any others 
who, under their direction, may be engaged in establishing, organ- 
izing, or conducting such school or schools, to act in conformity 
therewith. 

4. Resolved, That the superintendents be, and hereby are, re- 
quested to keep in view the selection of a suitable missionary sta- 
tion — westwardly or southwardly, where a person may be appointed 
as soon as they may deem it expedient, to have charge of the mis- 
sions which are or may be in that direction, in the absence of the 
general superintendents. 

5. Resolved, That a more particular and regular attention ought 
to be paid to the instruction of the destitute souls in our cities, 
towns, and country-places ; and that the same be, and is hereby, 
earnestly urged on all our preachers wlio may be appointed to such 



In South Carolina. 441 

places respectively ; and more especially in stations where such in- 
structions may be given with the greatest regularity and effect ; in 
which good cause the said preachers are advised and requested by 
all prudent and affectionate means to engage, as far as possible, the 
aid of our brethren, the local preachers. 

In pursuance of the second resolution above recited, 
the South Carolina Conference at its next session, 
held in Columbia, January 11, 1821, formed the Mis- 
sionary Society of the South Carolina Conference, 
auxiliary to the Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and at an early period gave in- 
formation of the fact, through the Rev. William 
Capers, the Corresponding Secretary, to the parent 
society at New York. 

The following is the original constitution adopted, 
the names of the officers elected at the organization 
of the society, and the annual report made at the 
first anniversary-meeting, held in Augusta, Georgia, 
February 20, 1822: 

The Constitution of the Missionary Society of the South Carolina Con 
ference, Auxiliary to the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. 

Article 1. This Society shall be denominated "The Missionary 
Society of the South Carolina Conference, auxiliary to the Mission- 
ary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church." 

Art. 2. The object of this Society is to assist the several Annual 
Conferences more effectually to extend their missionary labors 
throughout the United States and elsewhere. 

Art. 3. The business of this Society shall be conducted by a 
President, two Vice-presidents, a Kecording Secretary, a Corre- 
ponding Secretary, Treasurer, and nine Managers, who shallbe 
annually elected by the Society — all of whom shall be members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Art. 4. At all meetings of the Board of Managers it shall re- 
quire five members to form a quorum. 

Art. 5. The Board shall have authority to make by-laws fo« 



442 History of Methodism 

regulating its own proceedings; and shall annually submit a report 
of its transactions and funds to the Society; and inform the Con- 
ference of the state of its funds. 

Abt. 6. The funds of this Society, after deducting the necessary 
incidental expenses, shall be transmitted to the Treasurer of the 
parent institution, for the purpose expressed in the second article of 
this Constitution. 

Art. 7. Each subscriber, paying one dollar yearly, shall be a 
member of this Society, and the payment of ten dollars shall con- 
stitute a member for life. 

Art. 8. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held on the 
day preceding the sitting of Conference, at the place appointed by 
the Conference. 

Art. 9. The President, Vice-president, Secretaries, and Treas- 
urer, shall be ex officio members of the Board of Managers. 

Art. 10. At all meetings of the Society, the President, or in his 
absence one of the Vice-presidents, or in the absence of both Vice- 
presidents such member as shall be appointed by the meeting, 
shall preside. 

Art. 11. The minutes of each meeting of the Society shall be 
signed by the President and the Recording Secretary. 

Art. 12. This Constitution shall not be altered but by the vote 
ol two-thirds of the Annual Conference, at the recommendation of 
the Board of Managers. 

Officers. — Eev. Lewis Myers, President ; W. M. Kennedy, First 
Vice-president; James Norton, Second Vice-president; William 
Capers, Corresponding Secretary ; John Howard, Recording Secre- 
tary ; W. C. Hill, Treasurer. 

Managers. — Rev. Isaac Smith, James O. Andrew, Joseph Travis, 
Samuel K. Hodges, Henry Bass, Thomas Darley, Tilman Sneed. 



The South Carolina Conference Missionary Society, Auxiliary to 
the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in 
account with Whitman C. Hill, Treasurer: 

Total receipts from Life and Annual Subscribers $458 73} 

Expenditures for printing the Constitution 15 00 

$443 73} 



Ix South Carolina. 443 

First Annual Report of the South Carolina Missionary Society, Auxil- 
iary to the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
In conformity to a requisition in the Constitution of the Mission- 
ary Society of the South Carolina Conference, Auxiliary to the 
Mis>ionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Board 
of Managers beg leave to present their first Annual Report. 

In making this report, however, they have much cause to regret 
that so little has been done within the bounds of our Conference, 
during the past year, in aid of the Society's funds; yet they are not 
discouraged, but that the Society will meet with such patronage as 
will give it a distinguished rank among other missionary societies 
of our country; especially when we consider the glorious cause in 
which we have embarked. 

Several branch societies have been formed in different parts of 
our Conference, viz. : 

1. The Waynesborough Branch Society. 

2. The Saluda Branch Society. 

3. The Augusta Branch Society. 

4. The Broad River, at Pope's Chapel, Branch Society. 

5. The Abbeville Branch Society. 

6. The Charleston Branch Society. 

7. The Edisto District Branch Society. 

"When we look through the vale of years, our hopes are bright- 
ened with the cheering prospect of seeing many more, whose benev- 
olent purpose shall coalesce with ours, in providing means to send 
the gospel to the destitute parts of our widely extended continent. 
To effect purposes thus noble, let no heart be cold or indifferent, 
but, with united efforts, use our best exertions to bring about the 
salvation of immortal souls, who without our aid may possibly de- 
scend to the grave unprepared for future happiness. And by way 
of stimulating our zeal, let us look around and see the multitudes 
of children which are growing up in vice, whilst their parents fail 
to give them necessary instruction. From these, let us turn our 
eyes to the savage tribes that roam the desert, and while we look, 
let us remember that we may be instrumental in converting their 
habitations of cruelty into the abodes of peace and security. 

It is with no small pleasure that we have noticed the prosperity 
of the mission which has been established by the Ohio Conference, 
among the Wyandottes and other adjoining tribes ; as also the infant 
establishment made by this Conference among the Creek Nation 



444 History of Methodism 

In these two establishments, we have no doubt but the Methodist 
Church will realize her fondest hopes. And here the Board cannot 
forbear expressing their highest approbation of the conduct of 
our worthy brother, the Kev. William Capers, who has acted as 
our Conference Missionary. But, brethren, whilst we are viewing 
with anxious concern the aborigines of our country, let us not for- 
get the thousands of colored people who live among us and are 
without the means of religious instruction. To this class of people 
we should look with the tenderest sympathies, and not pass them by 
on account of their peculiar situation. 

Here the Board will take leave of those remarks which go to re- 
mind us of our duty, and proceed to give a brief statement of their 
proceedings. 

In May last, they met in the city of Charleston, and adopted such 
by-laws as were deemed necessary for their government ; which by- 
laws, with the constitution, were published, and are now before 
the public. Our Corresponding Secretary, at an early period, gave 
information to the parent society, at New York, of the formation of 
this society as one of her auxiliaries, and from its second annual 
report we perceive ourselves acknowledged as such. 

On the 19th instant, the Board held its second meeting in 
A ugusta, when the Treasurer made his annual report, to which we 
refer you. They then proceeded to examine the condition of the 
society, and are persuaded that some amendments are expedient, 
which were proposed and adopted. The Board, in recommending 
these alterations, have had a view to that of moving in unison with 
the system originally organized by the General Conference. And 
we are also persuaded that the good intended will thereby be as 
effectually promoted. We likewise suggest to all the branch socie- 
ties the importance of conforming their constitutions to the plan 
laid down by the parent institution. We can but hail with emo- 
tions of joy and gratitude the establishment of the parent society. 
This was an hour of mercy perhaps to thousands of the benighted 
inhabitants of this Western World. A ray of hope now beams 
upon the regions of want and misery, where no gospel was heard, 
and where men were sunk in ignorance and carried away by the 
extremes of moral degradation. Happy are we to unite with our 
fathers in missionary exertions; exertions on which Heaven smiles 
with pleasure and delight. Among the distinguished friends of the 
missionary cause, we gratefully remember the venerable Asbury, 
whose ardent and pious zeal in the missionary cause should endear 



In South Carolina. 445 

liim to every lover of Jesus. He now rests in silent slumbers from 
those toils which we, his sons, are called upon to endure. May we, 
like him, pass on from conquering to conquer; and like him, in 
death, leave the field triumphant. 

The measures earnestly recommended by the Gen- 
eral Conference in the remaining resolutions were 
adopted without delay by the South Carolina Con- 
ference, and at its session next following, in 1821, the 
Rev. William Capers was appointed missionary in the 
South Carolina Conference, and to the Indians, and 
Zachariah Williams and Barnabas Pipkin missionaries 
in the Mississippi Conference. Mr. Capers visited 
and preached in the most populous towns and villages 
in South Carolina and Georgia, and made collections 
for the establishment of the contemplated mission 
among the Creek Indians, who inhabited a tract of 
country lying within the limits of the States of Geor- 
gia and Alabama. He was received with favor by the 
people generally, and the proposed mission was viewed 
everywhere with a friendly eye. Accordingly, Mr. 
Capers was appointed by Bishop McKendree, in 1822, 
Superintendent of Indian Missions, with the charge 
of the collections, and Isaac Smith and Andrew Ham- 
mill were sent to Asbury and McKendree, the name 
given to the chosen missionary station. At the same 
time, Coleman Carlisle was appointed missionary to 
Laurens District, in South Carolina; Gideon Mason 
missionary to the upper counties in Georgia; and John 
I. Triggs missionary to Early county and the adjoin- 
ing settlements. 

In the month o£ August of this year, Mr. Capers, 
in company with Colonel Richard Blount, a pious and 
intelligent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
arrived at the Creek Agency, on Flint River. After 



44G History of Methodism 

witnessing some debasing scenes of amusement among 
the females and one of those Indian plays, which was 
conducted with a rude exhibition of (Indian) dexterity, 
he obtained an introduction to General Mcintosh, the 
celebrated half-breed warrior, and principal man of 
the nation. This chief prided himself on having 
fought the battles of his country, as an officer in the 
ranks of the Indian allies, under the command of 
General Jackson, at New Orleans, and assuming all 
the etiquette of a stately prince in the reception of an 
embassador, refused to converse with Mr. Capers, al- 
though he perfectly understood the English language, 
except through the medium of an interpreter. The 
interview, however, resulted in an agreement between 
the parties for the establishment of the mission, with 
liberty to use so much land as should be found nec- 
essary to raise provision for the mission family, and 
for building the needful houses. But, notwithstand- 
ing this favorable beginning, difficulties of a formida- 
ble character soon made their appearance. Some of 
the chiefs, who were not present at the council when 
the above agreement was ratified, raised objections, 
and created so many jarring sentiments in the nation 
that the enterprise for a time was seriously imperiled. 
The school was allowed to be opened, but the mis- 
sionary was forbidden, through the influence of the 
opposing chiefs, to preach the gospel to the adult 
Indians. It was strongly suspected that the United 
States agent lent the weight of his influence against 
the mission, though an investigation of his conduct 
resulted in his justification by the government. The 
officers generally took a lively interest in the objects 
of the mission. The Secretary of War, the Honorable 
John C. Calhoun, in letters of - instruction to Colonel 



Ix South Carolina. 4A1 

Crowell, the Indian agent, says: " The President takes 
a deep interest in the success of every effort the object 
of which is to improve the condition of the Indians, 
and desires that every aid be furnished by the Indian 
agents in advancing so important an object; and he 
trusts your conduct will be such as to avoid the pos- 
sibility of complaint on the part of those who are 
engaged in this benevolent work. You will give a 
decided countenance and support to the Methodist 
mission as well as to any other society that may choose 
to direct its efforts to improve the condition of the 
Creek Indians. It is not conceived that they can have 
any just cause of apprehension against the privilege 
of preaching the gospel among them, and you will use 
a decided influence with them to reconcile them to its 
exercise on the part of the mission. The department 
feels confident that, by proper efforts on your part, 
you may secure the mission the right of preaching 
among the Indians, which is deemed to be so essen- 
tially connected with the objects of the society." 

In addition to the barriers thrown in the way of the 
missionaries by the hostile chiefs and their partisans, 
new troubles arose out of the treaty made by Mcin- 
tosh and his party, by which the lands included in the 
chartered limits of Georgia were ceded to the United 
States for the benefit of Georgia, for the consideration 
of the sum of four hundred thousand dollars. This 
gave great offense to the majority of the nation, and 
they rose against him with violence and massacred 
him and some others under circumstances of great 
barbarity. This threw the nation into great confusion, 
and exerted a most deleterious influence upon the in- 
terests of the mission. The school, however, was 
continued under all these discouragements, and by 



448 History of Methodism 

judicious management acquired the confidence and 
respect of all who made it an object of inquiry. And 
the restraints against preaching being removed in 
1826, chiefly through the intervention of the United 
States Government, the mission presented a more 
flattering prospect, so that in 1829 there were reported 
seventy-one members at the Asbury station, and the 
school consisted of fifty scholars. Under this state of 
things the friends of the cause began to grow hopeful, 
but such were the increasing difficulties thrown in the 
way, and so earnest was the call for help in other 
fields, that, in 1830, it was thought best to discontinue 
the mission. The labor in this field, however, was 
not lost, since many of the Indians, who, after their 
removal beyond the Mississippi River, were gathered 
into the fold of Christ, traced their religious impres- 
sions to the faithful instructions of Father Smith and 
his pious associates and successors, Messrs. Andrew 
Hammill, Daniel G. McDaniel, Matthew Raiford, 
Whitman C. Hill, Nathaniel A. Rhodes, and Robert 
Rogers. 

In 1820 the territory of Florida was ceded to the 
United States as an indemnity for the spoliations 
committed by Spanish cruisers, and in 1823 Joshua 
N. Glenn was sent as a missionary to St. Augustine, 
the oldest town in North America, and raised in one 
year, amidst the opposing influence of the Spanish 
Catholics, a society of twelve whites and forty colored. 
The Chattahoochee mission, in the bounds of the 
Florida territory, was served the same year by John 
I. Triggs and John Slade, who, by zealous and per- 
severing labor, notwithstanding the newness of the 
country and the scattered state of the population, 
were able to report a membership of two hundred and 



Ix South Carolina. 465 

the " trial of affliction" and "the deep poverty" of the Southern 
Methodist Church be the opportunity in which the highest com- 
mendation for liberality may be secured for us and our children ? 
In reviewing the efforts of the year, who feels that he has done his 
duty fully? Has the flock of Christ been faithfully taught to fol- 
low his example of love to man ? or have we allowed the financial 
depression of the country to seal our lips and cool our ardor for 
souls? Let a faithful answer be given, and if delinquency be noted 
by conscience, let honest repentance stand up with its confession, 
and say, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?" 

While the list of missions in our Conference is small, there is an 
increasing demand for effort in this department of our work. Two 
new missions have been recommended by the Board, while we fear 
there will not be means at our own command to establish either one 
or the other. Here in the territory of the South Carolina Conference 
are fields now white to the harvest. Shall we pray the Lord of the 
harvest to send forth more laborers into the harvest, and not prepare 
to sustain them in toil ? Let every member of the Conference take 
these facts to the people of his charge; repeat this from the mount- 
ain to the sea-board; teach its meaning to the children at home and 
in the Sunday-school ; let it swell above the din of the work-shop 
and noise of the mill ; shout it to the plowman in the field and 
student in the library; sound it along the highway of trade, until 
child, and artisan, and plowman, and student, and merchant, shall 
make their later profits and hoarded treasures yield a full supply 
for holy work. Can the Church pause in this work any longer? 
Will the fields be let alone by licentiousness and infidelity? Will 
not the storms waste the harvest if not early gathered? The corn 
is breast-high, and waits the reaper's sickle. A crown is at stake, 
and the victor only shall wear it. 

In the Christian's field of battle, 

In the bivouac of life, 
Be not like dumb, driven cattle; 

Be a hero in the strife. 
Then be ready, up and doing, 

With a heart for any fate, 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 

Learn to labor and to wait. 

The Conference the same year adopted the follow- 
ing resolutions on the religious interests of the col- 
ored people: 
30 



466 History of Methodism. 

1. Resolved, That we will continue to serve, as heretofore, the col- 
ored people who have remained under our care, and those who may 
return to their former Church relations. 

2. That where they so desire, and the numbers justify it, we will 
serve them separately in place or time. 

3. That in accordance with the regulations of the last General 
Conference, we will license suitable colored persons to preach and 
serve colored charges by appointing preachers, white or colored, as 
may be judged proper by the appointing power. 

4. That we are ready to render them any service, even in their 
new Church relations, which may be desired, and which may con- 
sist with other claims upon us. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



We are defrauded of great numbers by tbe pains that are taken to 

keep the blacks from us; their masters are afraid of the influence 

of our principles. Would not an amelioration in the condition and 

treatment of slaves have produced more practical good to the poor 

Africans than any attempt at their emancipation f The state of 

society, unhappily, does not admit of this; besides, the blacks are 

deprived of the means of instruction ; who will take the pains to 

lead them into the way of salvation, and watch over them that they 

may not stray, but the Methodists ? Well, now their masters will 

not let them come to hear us. What is the personal liberty of the 

African, which he may abuse, to the salvation of his soul ; how may 

it be compared ? 

(Francis Asbury.) 

TT1HE beginning of slavery may be dated from the 
1 remotest period of which we have any account 
in history. It prevailed particularly among the Jews, 
the Greeks, the Romans, and the ancient Germans, 
and was transmitted by them to the various kingdoms 
and states which arose out of the Eoman Empire. 
African slavery took its rise from the Portuguese, 
who, to supply the Spaniards with men to cultivate 
their new possessions in America, procured negroes 
from Africa whom they sold for slaves to the Ameri- 
can Spaniards. This began in the year 1508, when 
they imported the first negroes into Hispaniola. It 
was about 1551 that the English began trading to 
Guinea; at first for gold and elephants' teeth, but 

(467) 



468 History of Methodism 

soon after for men. In 1556 Sir John Hawkins sailed 
with two ships to Africa, and having captured a suffi- 
cient number of negroes, proceeded to the West Indies 
and sold them. From Barbadoes, Sir John Yeamans, 
in 1671, introduced African slaves into South Caro- 
lina. Thus the institution of negro slavery is coeval 
with the first plantations on Ashley River, and so 
rapidly was the race multiplied by importations that 
in a few years the blacks were to the whites in the 
proportion of twenty-two to twelve. Every one of the 
colonies received slaves from Africa within its borders, 
but South Carolina alone was from its cradle essen- 
tially a planting State with slave labor. The Ameri- 
can Methodists, as early as 1780, began to legislate on 
the subject of negro slavery by the adoption of the 
following minute : 

Question 16. Ought this Conference to require those traveling 
preachers who hold slaves to give promises to set them free? 

Answer. Yes. 

Ques. 17. Does this Conference acknowledge that slavery is con- 
trary to the laws of God, man, and nature, and hurtful to society; 
contrary to the dictates of conscience and pure religion, and doing 
that which we would not others should do to us and ours? Do we 
pass our disapprobation on all our friends who keep slaves and 
advise their freedom? 

Ans. Yes. 

Ques. 25. Ought not the assistant to meet the colored people him- 
self, and appoint as helpers in his absence proper white persons, and 
not suffer them to stay late and meet by themselves? 

Ans. Yes. 

In 1783 the following: 

Ques. 10. What shall be done with our local preachers who hold 
slaves contrary to the laws which authorize their freedom in any 
of the United States? 

Ans. We will try them another year. In the mean time let every 
assistant deal faithfully and plainly with every one and report to the 
next Conference. It may then be necessary to suspend them. 



In South Carolina. 469 

In 1784 the following: 

Ques. 12. What shall we do with our friends that will buy and 
sell slaves ? 

Ans. If they buy with no other design than to hold them as 
slaves, and have been previously warned, they shall be expelled 
and permitted to sell on no consideration. 

Ques. 13. What shall we do with our local preachers who av i 1 1 
not emancipate their slaves in the States where the laws admit it? 

Ans. Try those in Virginia another year, and suspend the 
preachers in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. 

The following rules were adopted at the Christmas 
Conference in 1784: 

Ques. 41. Are there any directions to be given concerning the 
negroes ? 

Ans. Let every preacher, as often as possible, meet them in class. 
And let the assistant always appoint a proper white person as their 
leader. Let the assistants also make a regular return to the Con- 
ference of the number of negroes in society in their respective 
circuits. 

Ques. 42. What methods can we take to extirpate slavery? 

Ans. We are deeply conscious of the impropriety of making new 
terms of communion for a religious society already established, ex- 
cepting on the most pressing occasion; and such we esteem the 
practice of holding our fellow-creatures in slavery. We view it as 
contrary to the golden law of God on which hang all the law and 
the prophets, and the unalienable rights of mankind, as well as 
every principle of the revolution, to hold in the deepest debase- 
ment, in a more abject slavery than is perhaps to be found in any 
part of the world except America, so many souls that are all capa- 
ble of the image of God. 

We therefore think it our most bounden duty to take immediate- 
ly some effectual method to extirpate this abomination from among 
us, and for that purpose we add the following to the rules of our 
society, viz.: 

1. Every member of our society who has slaves in his possession, 
shall, within twelve months after notice given to him by the assist- 
ant (which notice the assistants are required immediately, and with- 
out any delay, to give in their respective circuits), legally execute 
and record an instrument, whereby he emancipates and sets free 



470 History of Methodism 

every slave in his possession who is between the ages of forty and 
forty-rive immediately, or at farthest when they arrive at the age 
of forty-five. 

And every slave who is between the ages of twenty-five and forty 
immediately, or at farthest at the expiration of live years from the 
date of the said instrument. 

And every slave who is between the ages of twenty and twenty- 
five immediately, or at farthest when they arrive at the age of 
thirty. 

And every slave under the age of twenty, as soon as they arrive 
at the age of twenty-five at farthest. 

And every infant born in slavery after the above-mentioned rules 
are complied with, immediately on its birth. 

2. Every assistant shall keep a journal, in which he shall regu- 
larly minute down the names and ages of all the slaves belonging 
to all the masters in his respective circuit, and also the date of 
every instrument executed and recorded for the manumission of 
the slaves, with the name of the court, book, and folio, in which 
the said instruments respectively shall have been recorded; which 
journal shall be handed down in each circuit to the succeeding 
assistants. 

3. In consideration that these rules form a new term of commun- 
ion, every person concerned, who will not comply with them, shall 
have liberty quietly to withdraw himself from our society within 
the twelve months succeeding the notice given as aforesaid ; other- 
wise the assistant shall exclude him from the society. 

4. No person so voluntarily withdrawn, or so excluded, shall ever 
partake of the Supper of the Lord with the Methodists, till he 
complies with the above requisitions. 

5. No person holding slaves shall, in future, be admitted into 
society, or to the Lord's Supper, till he previously complies with 
these rules concerning slavery. 

N. B. — These rules are to affect the members of our society no 
farther than as they are consistent with the laws of the States in 
which they reside. 

And respecting our brethren in Virginia that are concerned, and 
after due consideration of their peculiar circumstances, we allow 
them two years from the notice given, to consider the expedience 
of compliance or non-compliance with these rules. 

Ques. 43. What shall be done with those who buy or sell slaves, 
or give them away ? 



In South Carolina. 471 

Ans. They are immediately to be expelled — unless they buy them 
on purpose to free them. 

Not more than six months had elapsed after the 
adoption of these last rules before it was thought nec- 
essary to suspend them. Accordingly, in the Annual 
Minutes for 1785, the following notice was inserted: 

It is recommended to all our brethren to suspend the execution 
of the minute on slavery till the deliberation of a future Conference, 
and that an equal space of time be allowed all our members for con- 
sideration, when the minute shall be put in force. 

N. B. — We do hold in the deepest abhorrence the practice of 
slavery, and shall not cease to seek its destruction by all wise and 
prudent means. 

This note does not seem to refer to Question 43 
(1784), as it, with the same answer, was retained in the 
Discipline of 1786. In the Annual Minutes for 1787 
we find the following: 

Ques. 17. What directions shall we give for the promotion of the 
spiritual welfare of the colored people? 

Ans. We conjure all our ministers and preachers by the lov T e of 
God and the salvation of souls, and do require them by all the au- 
thority that is invested in us to leave nothing undone for the spiritual 
benefit and salvation of them within their respective circuits and 
districts, and for this purpose to embrace every opportunity of inquir- 
ing into the state of their souls, and to unite in society those who 
appear to have a real desire of fleeing from the wrath to come; to 
meet such in class, and to exercise the whole Methodist discipline 
among them. 

From this till 1796 no mention was made of the 
subject except in the General Rules. There is noth- 
ing on the subject of slavery in the General Rules of 
Mr. Wesley, but we find the following in 1789: 

The buying or selling the bodies and souls of men, women, or 
children, with an intention to enslave them. 

In 1792 it reads: 

The buying or selling of men, women, or children, with an inten- 
tion to enslave them. 



472 History of Methodism 

In 1808 it takes this final form: 

The buying and selling of men, women, and children, with an in- 
tention to enslave them. 

"Articles of Agreement amongst the preachers" 
were signed at the several Conferences held for 1795, 
of which no account was published in the Minutes, 
since the action was not regarded as Conference busi- 
ness, and was only binding on those who signed, but 
of which Bishop Asbury makes the following record: 

The preachers almost unanimously entered into an agreement 
and resolution not to hold slaves in any State where the law will 
allow them to manumit them, on pain of forfeiture of their honor 
and their place in the itinerant connection, and in any State where 
the law will not admit of manumission they agreed to pay them the 
worth of their labor, and when they die to leave them to some per- 
son or persons, or the society in trust, to bring about their liberty. 

1796. The following section was introduced on the subject: 

Ques. What regulations shall be made for the extirpation of the 
crying evil of African slavery ? 

Ans. 1. We declare that we are more than ever convinced of the 
great evil of the African slavery which still exists in these United 
States, and do most earnestly recommend to the yearly Conferences, 
quarterly-meetings, and to those who have the oversight of districts 
and circuits, to be exceedingly cautious what persons they admit to 
official stations in our Church, and in the case of future admission 
to official stations to require such security of those who hold slaves, 
for the emancipation of them, immediately or gradually, as the 
laws of the States respectively and the circumstances of the ease 
will admit; and Ave do fully authorize all the yearly Conferences to 
make whatever regulations they judge proper, in the present case, 
respecting the admission of persons to official stations in our Church. 

2. No slave-holder shall be received into society till the preacher 
who has the oversight of the circuit has spoken to him freely and 
faithfully on the subject of slavery. 

3. Every member of the society who sells a slave shall imme- 
diately, after full proof, be excluded the society. And if any mem- 
ber of our society purchase a slave, the ensuing quarterly-meeting 
shall determine on the number of years in which the slave so pur- 



In South Carolina. 473 

chased would work out the price of his purchase. And the person 
so purchasing shall, immediately after such determination, execute 
a legal instrument for the manumission of such slave, at the expira- 
tion of the term determined by the quarterly-meeting. And in 
default of his executing such instrument of manumission, or on his 
refusal to submit his case to the judgment of the quarterly-meeting, 
such member shall be excluded the society. Provided, also, that in 
the case of a female slave, it shall be inserted in the aforesaid in- 
strument of manumission that all her children who shall be born 
during the years of her servitude shall be free at the following 
times, namely: Every female child at the age of twenty-one. and 
every male child at the age of twenty-five. Nevertheless, if the 
member of our society, executing the said instrument of manumis- 
sion, judge it proper, he may fix the times of manumission of the 
children of the female slaves before mentioned at an earlier age 
than that which is prescribed above. 

4. The preachers and other members of our society are requested 
to consider the subject of negro slavery with deep attention till the 
ensuing General Conference, and that they impart to the General 
^Conference, through the medium of the yearly Conferences, or oth- 
erwise, any important thoughts upon the subject, that the Conference 
may have full light in order to take further steps toward the eradi- 
cating this enormous evil from that part of the Church of God to 
which they are united. [It may be worthy of remark that this is 
almost the only section upon which the bishops make no notes.] 

1800. The following new paragraphs were inserted: 

2. When any traveling preacher becomes an owner of a slave or 
slaves, by any means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character in our 
Church, unless he execute, if it be practicable, a legal emancipation 
of such slaves, conformably to the law r s of the State in which he 
lives. 

6. The Annual Conferences are directed to draw up addresses for 
the gradual emancipation of the slaves to the Legislatures of those 
States in which no general laws have been passed for that purpose. 
These addresses shall urge, in the most respectful but pointed man- 
ner, the necessity of a law for the gradual emancipation of the 
slaves; proper committees shall be appointed by the Annual Con- 
ferences, out of the most respectable of our friends, for the con- 
ducting of the business; and the presiding elders, elders, deacons, 
and traveling preachers, shall procure as many proper signatures as 
possible to the addresses, and »ive all the assistance in their power 



474 History of Methodism 

in every respect to aid the committees, and to further this blessed 
undertaking. Let this be continued from year to year, till the 
desired end be accomplished. 

1804. The following alterations were made : 

The question reads : "What shall be done for the extirpation of 
the evil of slavery ? 

In paragraph 1 (1796) instead of "more than ever convinced," 
we have, " as much as ever convinced ; " and instead of "the African 
slavery which still exists in these United States," we have " slavery." 

In paragraph 4 (3 of 1796), respecting the selling of a slave, be- 
fore the words "shall immediately," the following clause is inserted: 
" except at the request of the slave, in cases of mercy and humanity, 
agreeably to the judgment of a committee of the male members of 
the. society, appointed by the preacher who has the charge of the 
circuit." 

The following new proviso was inserted in this paragraph: "Pro- 
vided, also, that if a member of our society shall buy a slave with a 
certificate of future emancipation, the terms of emancipation shall, 
notwithstanding, be subject to the decision of the quarterly-meeting 
Conference." All after "nevertheless" was struck out and the follow- 1 
ing substituted : " The members of our societies in the States of 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, shall be 
exempted from the operation of the above rules." The paragraphs 
about considering the subject of slavery and petitions to Legisla- 
tures (namely, No. 4 of 1796, and No. 6 of 1800), were struck out, 
and the following added : 

" 5. Let our preacher?, from time to time, as occasion serves, ad- 
monish and exhort all slaves to render due respect and obedience to 
the commands and interests of their respective masters." 

1808. All that related to slave-holding among private members 
(see 2 and 3 of 1796) struck out, and the following substituted : 

" 3. The General Conference authorizes each Annual Conference 
to form their own regulations relative to buying and selling slaves." 

Paragraph 5 of 1804 was also struck out. 

Moved from the chair (Bishop Asbury or Bishop McKe.ndree) 
that there be one thousand forms of Discipline prepared for the use 
of the South Carolina Conference in which the section and rule on 
slavery be left out. Carried. 

1812. Paragraph 3 of 1808 was altered so as to read : 

"3. Whereas the laws of some of the States do not admit of 
rmancipating of slaves without a special act of the Legislature, the 



In South Carolina. 475 

General Conference authorizes each Annual Conference to form 
their own regulations relative to buying and selling slaves." 

1816. Paragraph 1 (see 179G) was altered so as to read: 

"1. "We declare that we are as much as ever convinced of the 
great evil of slavery ; therefore, no slave-holder shall be eligible to 
any official station in our Church hereafter, where the laws of the 
State in which he lives will admit of emancipation, and permit the 
liberated slave to enjoy freedom." 

1820. Paragraph 3 (see 1812), leaving it to the Annual Confer- 
ences "to form their own regulations about buying and selling 
slaves," was struck out. 

1824. The following paragraphs added : 

"3. All our preachers shall prudently enforce upon our members 
the necessity of teaching their slaves to read the word of God, and 
to allow them time to attend upon the public worship of God on 
our regular days of divine service. 

"4. Our colored preachers and official members shall have all the 
privileges which are usual to others in the District and Quarterly 
Conferences, where the usages of the country do not forbid it. And 
the presiding elder may hold for them a separate District Confer- 
ence, where the number of colored local preachers will justify it. 

" 5. The Annual Conferences may employ colored preachers to 
travel and preach where their services are judged necessary, pro- 
vided that no one shall be so employed without having been rec- 
ommended according to the form of Discipline." 

In 1836 the following preamble and resolutions on 
the subject of Abolitionism were adopted: 

Whereas great excitement has prevailed in this country on the 
subject of modern Abolitionism, which is reported to have been in- 
creased in this city (Cincinnati) recently by the unjustifiable conduct 
of two members of the General Conference, in lecturing upon and in 
favor of that agitating topic; and whereas such a course on the part 
of any of its members is calculated to bring upon this body the sus- 
picions and distrust of the community, and misrepresent its senti- 
ments in regard to the point at issue ; and Avhereas in this aspect of 
the case, a due regard for its own character, as well as a just concern 
for the interests of the Church confided to its care, demand a full, 
decided, and unequivocal expression of the views of the General 
Conference in the premises. Therefore, 

1. Resolved, by the delegates of the Annual Conferences in General 



47G History of Methodism 

Conference assembled, That they disapprove in the most unqualified 
sense the conduct of two members of the General Conference whe 
are reported to have lectured in this city recently upon and in favoi 
of modern Abolitionism. 

2. Resolved, That they are decidedly opposed to modern Abo- 
litionism, and wholly disclaim any right, wish, or intention to inter- 
fere in the civil and political relation between master and slave a.s 
it exists in the slave-holding States of thi3 Union. 

o. Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be pub- 
lished in our periodicals. 

The same General Conference (1836) adopted the 
report o£ the Committee on Slavery as follows : 

The committee to whom were referred sundry memorials from the 
North, praying that certain rules on the subject of slavery which 
formerly existed in our book of Discipline should be restored, and 
that the General Conference take such measures as they may deem 
proper to free the Church from the evil of slavery, beg leave to 
report that they have had the subject under serious consideration, 
and are of opinion that the prayers of the memorialists cannot be 
granted, believing that it would be highly improper for the General 
Conference to take any action that would alter or change our rules 
on the subject of slavery. Your committee, therefore, respectfully 
submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, by the delegates of the Annual Conferences in General Con- 
ference assembled, That it is inexpedient to make any change in our 
book of Discipline respecting slavery, and that Ave deem it improper 
further to agitate the subject in the General Conference at present. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

Accordingly, at the end of a tortuous and incon- 
sistent legislation, we find in 1840 in the book of Dis- 
cipline, Part II., Section X. : 

Of Slavery. 

Question. What shall be done for the extirpation of the evil of 
slavery ? 

Answer 1 . We declare that we are as much as ever convinced of the 
great evil of slavery ; therefore, no slave-holder shall be eligible to 
any official station in our Church hereafter, where the laws of the 



In South Carolina. 4H1 

State in which he lives will admit of emancipation, and permit the 
liberated slave to enjoy freedom. 

2. When any traveling preacher becomes an owner of a slave or 
slaves, by any means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character in 
our Church, unless he execute, if it be practicable, a legal emanci- 
pation of such slaves, conformably to the laws of the State in which 
he lives. 

3. All our preachers shall prudently enforce upon our members 
the necessity of teaching their slaves to read the word of God, and 
to allow them time to attend upon the public worship of God on our 
regular days of divine service. 

4. Our colored preachers and official members shall have all the 
privileges which are usual to others in the District and Quarterly 
Conferences, where the usages of the country do not forbid it. And 
the presiding elder may hold for them a separate District Confer- 
ence, where the number of colored local preachers will justify it. 

5. The Annual Conferences may employ colored preachers to 
travel and preach where their services are judged necessary ; pro- 
vided that no one shall be so employed without having been rec- 
ommended according to the form of Discipline. 

In formal interpretation of this section the same 
General Conference (1840) adopted the following reso- 
lution, viz.: 

Resolved, by the delegates of the several Annual Conferences in Gen- 
eral Conference assembled, That under the provisional exception of 
the general rule of the Church on the subject of slavery, the simple 
holding of slaves, or mere ownership of slave property, in States or 
Territories where the laws do not admit of emancipation and permit 
the liberated slave to enjoy freedom, constitutes no legal barrier to 
the election or ordination of ministers to the various grades of of- 
fice known in the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
cannot, therefore, be considered as operating any forfeiture of right 
in view of such election and ordination. 

The address of this same General Conference (1840) 
in response to the address of the British Conference 
says: 

Of these United States (to the government and laws of which, 



478 History of Methodism 

according to the division of power made to them by the Constitution 
of the Union and the constitutions of the several States, we owe and 
delight to render a sincere and patriotic loyalty) there are several 
which do not allow of slavery. There are others in which it is al- 
lowed, and there are slaves; but the tendency of the laws and the 
minds of the majority of the people are in favor of emancipation. 
But there are others in which slavery exists so universally, and is so 
closely interwoven with their civil institutions, that both do the laws 
disallow of emancipation and the great body of the people (the 
source of law with us) hold it to be treasonable to set forth any 
thing, by word or deed, tending that way. Each one of all these 
States is independent of the rest, and sovereign with respect to its 
internal government (as much so as if there existed no confeder- 
ation among them for ends of common interest), and therefore it 
is impossible to frame a rule on slavery proper for our people in 
all the States alike. But our Church is extended through all the 
States, and as it would be wrong and unscriptural to enact a rule of 
discipline in opposition to the constitution and laws of the State, so 
also would it not be equitable or scriptural to confound the positions 
of our ministers and people (so different as they are in different 
States) with respect to the moral question which slavery involves. 
Under the administration of the venerable Dr. Coke, this plain dis- 
tinction was once overlooked, and it was attempted to urge emanci- 
pation in all the States; but the attempt proved almost ruinous, and 
was soon abandoned by the Doctor himself. While therefore the 
Church has encouraged emancipation in those States where the laws 
permit it, and allowed the freedman to enjoy freedom, we have re- 
frained, for conscience' sake, from all intermeddling with the subject 
in those other States where the laws make it criminal. And such a 
course we think agreeable to the Scriptures, and indicated by St. 
Paul's inspired instructions to servants in his First Epistle to the 
Corinthians, chapter vii., verses 20, 21. For if servants were not to care 
for their servitude when they might not be free, though if they might 
be free they should use it rather; so neither should masters be con- 
demned for not setting them free when they might not do so, though 
if they might they should do so rather. The question of the evil of 
slavery, abstractly considered, you will readily perceive, brethren, 
is a very different matter from a principle or rule of Church disci- 
pline, to be executed contrary to, and in defiance of, the law of the 
land. Methodism has always been (except perhaps in the single 
instance above) eminently loyal and promotive of good order; and 



In South Carolina, 479 

so we desire it may ever continue to be, both in Europe and America. 
With this sentiment we conclude the subject, adding the corrobo- 
rating language of your noble Missionary Society, by the revered 
and lamented Watson, in their inductions to missionaries, published 
in the report of 1833 as follows : As in the Colonies in which you 
are called to labor a great proportion of the inhabitants are in a 
state of slavery, the committee most strongly call to your remem- 
brance what was so fully stated to you when you were accepted as a 
missionary to the West Indies, that your only business is to promote 
the moral and religious improvement of the slaves to whom you 
may have access, without in the least degree, in public or private, 
interfering with their civil condition. 

Iii the General Conference of 1844 the following 
preamble and resolution were offered: 

Whereas the Discipline of our Church forbids the doing any thing 
calculated to destroy our itinerant general superintendency, and 
whereas Bishop Andrew has become connected with slavery by 
marriage and otherwise, and this act having drawn after it circum- 
stances which in the estimation of the General Conference will 
greatly embarrass the exercise of his office as an itinerant general 
superintendent, if not in some places entirely prevent it; therefore, 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this General Conference that he 
desist from the exercise of this office so long as this impediment 
remains. 

On this resolution Dr. Capers made the following 
speech : 

Mr. President : At no previous General Conference have the con- 
flicting opinions of the North and South in relation to slavery and 
abolition been soiully and strongly set before us and the community 
as at present. I wish it may prove for the better ; though I can 
hardly hope it will not for the worse. In what I have now on my 
mind to utter, I wish to call attention first to the unity of the 
Church, as it seems to me it ought to affect this question, inde- 
pendently of all sectional views in any quarter. 

Perhaps it has always been felt since the Church has been ex- 
tended over the whole country, North and South, that brethren who 
have occupied positions far North and South have been opposed to 
each other in their views of this subject. Possibly they have been 



480 History of Methodism 

too far apart, in local position, to understand well each other's prin- 
ciples ; and the action lias been as if a medical man should bestow 
all his care on a particular limb to cure a disease of the general 
system. Now, sir, if I know my heart, I approach this subject with 
an ardent and sincere desire to contribute something — if ever so 
little — to the conservation of the whole Church. However wide a 
difference there may be — and I apprehend there is indeed a wide 
difference — between my views of slavery, as it exists among the 
Methodists in South Carolina, and the views of brethren of the 
North and East, I thank God to know and to feel that this difference 
of our views has never awakened in me, for one moment, a dispo- 
sition to inflict the slightest injury on any brother. If I have ever 
said aught against any one's good name, as a Christian or Christian 
minister, on account of this difference of opinion, or have cherished 
in my heart any other than Christian feelings toward any one for a 
cause which I deem so foreign from the true ground of faith and 
fellowship, I am not conscious of it. I have considered, sir, that 
our Church is one, and our ministry one, in spite of these opinions. 
My honored brother (Dr. Durbin) deprecates involving the North 
in a connection with slavery; and assumes that such must be the 
result, if Bishop Andrew is continued in the general superintenden- 
cy. But I hold, that if the North might be involved in the evil 
they so much deprecate, for the cause alleged, they are already in- 
volved by another cause. They are involved by the unity of the 
Church and the unity of our ministry. I thank God for this unity; 
a unity Avhich stands not in the episcopacy only, but pervades the 
entire of our ecclesiastical constitution. We have not one episco- 
pacy only, but one ministry, one doctrine, one Discipline — every 
usage and every principle one for the North and the South. And 
in this view of the matter, I cannot but express my surprise that it 
should be said (and it has been said by more than one brother on 
this floor) that if the present measure should not pass it will ex- 
tend the evil of slavery over the North. It has been declared (and 
I thank brethren for the declaration) that it is not the purpose of 
any to oppress the South; but they insist much and gravely on their 
duty to protect the North. It is easy to err in the application of 
abstract principles to practice ; and I must confess that in the pres- 
ent instance the application appears to my mind to be not only 
erroneous, but preposterous. What, sir, extend the evil of slavery 
over the North by a failure to carry the resolution on your table! 
What is slavery? What new slave would such a failure make? 



In South Carolina. 465 

the "trial of affliction" and "the deep poverty" of the Southern 
Methodist Church be the opportunity in which the highest com- 
mendation for liberality may be secured for us and our children? 
In reviewing the efforts of the year, who feels that he has done his 
duty fully ? Has the flock of Christ been faithfully taught to fol- 
low his example of love to man? or have we allowed the financial 
depression of the country to seal our lips and cool our ardor for 
souls? Let a faithful answer be given, and if delinquency be noted 
by conscience, let honest repentance stand up with its confession, 
and say, "Lord, what Avilt thou have me to do?" 

While the list of missions in our Conference is small, there is an 
increasing demand for effort in this department of our work. Two 
new missions have been recommended by the Board, while we fear 
there will not be means at our own command to establish either one 
or the other. Here in the territory of the South Carolina Conference 
are fields now white to the harvest. Shall we pray the Lord of the 
harvest to send forth more laborers into the harvest, and not prepare 
to sustain them in toil ? Let every member of the Conference take 
these facts to the people of his charge; repeat this from the mount- 
ain to the sea-board; teach its meaning to the children at home and 
in the Sunday-school ; let it swell above the din of the work-shop 
and noise of the mill ; shout it to the plowman in the field and 
student in the library; sound it along the highway of trade, until 
child, and artisan, and plowman, and student, and merchant, shall 
make their later profits and hoarded treasures yield a full supply 
for holy work. Can the Church pause in this work any longer? 
Will the fields be let alone by licentiousness and infidelity? Will 
not the storms waste the harvest if not early gathered? The corn 
is breast-high, and waits the reaper's sickle. A crown is at stake, 
and the victor only shall wear it. 

In the Christian's field of battle, 

In the bivouac of life, 
Be not like dumb, driven cattle; 

Be a hero in the strife. 
Then be ready, up and doing, 

With a heart for any fate, 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 

Learn to labor and to wait. 

The Conference the same year adopted the follow- 
ing resolutions on the religious interests of the col- 
ored people: 



466 History of Methodism. 

1. Resolved, That Ave will continue to serve, as heretofore, the col- 
ored people who have remained under our care, and those who may 
return to their former Church relations. 

2. That where they so desire, and the numbers justify it, we will 
serve them separately in place or time. 

3. That in accordance with the regulations of the last General 
Conference, we will license suitable colored persons to preach and 
serve colored charges by appointing preachers, white or colored, as 
may be judged proper by the appointing power. 

4. That Ave are ready to render them any service, even in their 
new Church relations, which may be desired, and which may con- 
sist with other claims upon us. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



We are defrauded of great numbers by the pains that are taken to 
keep the blacks from us; their masters are afraid of the influence 
of our principles. Would not an amelioration in the condition and 
treatment of slaves have produced more practical good to the poor 
Africans than any attempt at their emancipation t The state of 
society, unhappily, does not admit of this; besides, the blacks are 
deprived of the means of instruction ; who will take the pains to 
lead them into the way of salvation, and watch over them that they 
may not stray, but the Methodists? Well, now their masters will 
not let them come to hear us. What is the personal liberty of the 
African, which he may abuse, to the salvation of his soul ; how may 

it be compared ? 

(Francis Asbury.) 

THE beginning of slavery may be dated from the 
remotest period of which we have any account 
in history. It prevailed particularly among the Jews, 
the Greeks, the Romans, and the ancient Germans, 
and was transmitted by them to the various kingdoms 
and states which arose out of the Roman Empire. 
African slavery took its rise from the Portuguese, 
who, to supply the Spaniards with men to cultivate 
their new possessions in America, procured negroes 
from Africa whom they sold for slaves to the Ameri- 
can Spaniards. This began in the year 1508, when 
they imported the first negroes into Hispaniola. It 
was about 1551 that the English began trading to 
Guinea; at first for gold and elephants' teeth, but 

(467) 



468 History of Methodism 

soon after for men. In 1556 Sir John Hawkins sailed 
with two ships to Africa, and having captured a suffi- 
cient number of negroes, proceeded to the West Indies 
and sold them. From Barbadoes, Sir John Yeamans, 
in 1671, introduced African slaves into South Caro- 
lina. Thus the institution of negro slavery is coeval 
with the first plantations on Ashley River, and so 
rapidly was the race multiplied by importations that 
in a few years the blacks were to the whites in the 
proportion of twenty-two to twelve. Every one of the 
colonies received slaves from Africa within its borders, 
but South Carolina alone was from its cradle essen- 
tially a planting State with slave labor. The Ameri- 
can Methodists, as early as 1780, began to legislate on 
the subject of negro slavery by the adoption of the 
following minute : 

Question 16. Ought this Conference to require those traveling 
preachers who hold slaves to give promises to set them free? 

Answer. Yes. 

Ques. 17. Does this Conference acknowledge that slavery is con- 
trary to the laws of God, man, and nature, and hurtful to society; 
contrary to the dictates of conscience and pure religion, and doing 
that which we would not others should do to us and ours? Do we 
pass our disapprobation on all our friends who keep slaves and 
advise their freedom? 

Ans. Yes. 

Ques. 25. Ought not the assistant to meet the colored people him- 
self, and appoint as helpers in his absence proper white persons, and 
not suffer them Jo stay late and meet by themselves? 

Ans. Yes. 

In 1783 the following: 

Ques. 10. What shall be done with our local preachers who hold 
slaves contrary to the laws which authorize their freedom in any 
of the United States? 

Ans. We will try them another year. In the mean time let every 
assistant deal faithfully and plainly with every one and report to the 
next Conference. It may then be necessary to suspend them. 



In South Carolina. 469 

In 1784 the following: 

Ques. 12. What shell we do with our friends that will buy and 
sell slaves ? 

Ans. If they buy with no other design than to hold them as 
slaves, and have been previously warned, they shall be expelled 
and permitted to sell on no consideration. 

Ques. 13. What shall we do with our local preachers who will 
not emancipate their slaves in the States where the laws admit it? 

Ans. Try those in Virginia another year, and suspend the 
preachers in Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. 

The following rules were adopted at the Christmas 
Conference in 1784: 

Ques. 41. Are there any directions to be given concerning the 
negroes ? 

Ans. Let every preacher, as often as possible, meet them in class. 
And let the assistant always appoint a proper white person as their 
leader. Let the assistants also make a regular return to the Con- 
ference of the number of negroes in society in their respective 
circuits. 

Ques. 42. What methods can we take to extirpate slavery ? 

Ans. We are deeply conscious of the impropriety of making new 
terms of communion for a religious society already established, ex- 
cepting on the most pressing occasion; and such we esteem the 
practice of holding our fellow-creatures in slavery. We view it as 
contrary to the golden law of God on which hang all the law and 
the prophets, and the unalienable rights of mankind, as well as 
every principle of the revolution, to hold in the deepest debase- 
ment, in a more abject slavery than is perhaps to be found in any 
part of the world except America, so many souls that are all capa- 
ble of the image of God. 

We therefore think it our most bounden duty to take immediate- 
ly some effectual method to extirpate this abomination from among 
us, and for that purpose we add the following to the rules of our 
society, viz.: • 

1. Every member of our society who has slaves in his possession, 
shall, within twelve months after notice given to him by the assist- 
ant (which notice the assistants are required immediately, and with- 
out any delay, to give in 'their respective circuits), legally execute 
and record an instrument, whereby he emancipates and sets free 



470 History of Methodism 

every slave in his possession who is between the ages of forty and 
forty-live immediately, or at farthest when they arrive at the age 
of forty-five. 

And every slave who is between the ages of twenty-five and forty 
immediately, or at farthest at the expiration of five years from the 
date of the said instrument. 

And every slave who is between the ages of twenty and twenty- 
five immediately, or at farthest when they arrive at the age of 
thirty. 

And every slave under the age of twenty, as soon as they arrive 
at the age of twenty-five at farthest. 

And every infant born in slavery after the above-mentioned rules 
are complied with, immediately on its birth. 

2. Every assistant shall keep a journal, in which he shall regu- 
larly minute down the names and ages of all the slaves belonging 
to all the masters in his respective circuit, and also the date of 
every instrument executed and recorded for the manumission of 
the slaves, with the name of the court, book, and folio, in which 
the said instruments respectively shall have been recorded; which 
journal shall be handed down in each circuit to the succeeding 
assistants. 

3. In consideration that these rules form a new term of commun- 
ion, every person concerned, who will not comply with them, shall 
have liberty quietly to withdraw himself from our society within 
the twelve months succeeding the notice given as aforesaid ; other- 
wise the assistant shall exclude him from the society. 

4. No person so voluntarily withdrawn, or so excluded, shall ever 
partake of the Supper of the Lord with the Methodists, till he 
complies with the above requisitions. 

5. No person holding slaves shall, in future, be admitted into 
society, or to the Lord's Supper, till he previously complies with 
these rules concerning slavery. 

N. B. — These rules are to affect the members of our society no 
farther than as they are consistent with the laws of the States in 
which they reside. 

And respecting our brethren in Virginia that are concerned, and 
after due consideration of their peculiar circumstances, we allow 
them two years from the notice given, to consider the expedience 
of compliance or non-compliance with these rules. 

Ques. 43. What shall be done with those who buy or sell slaves, 
or give them away ? 



In South Carolina. 471 

Ans. They are immediately to be expelled — unless they buy them 
on purpose to free them. 

Not more than six months had elapsed after the 
adoption of these last rules before it was thought nec- 
essary to suspend them. Accordingly, in the Annual 
Minutes for 1785, the following notice was inserted: 

It is recommended to all our brethren to suspend the execution 
of the minute on slavery till the deliberation of a future Conference, 
and that an equal space of time be allowed all our members for con- 
sideration, when the minute shall be put in force. 

N. B. — We do hold in the deepest abhorrence the practice of 
slavery, and shall not cease to seek its destruction by all wise and 
prudent means. 

This note does not seem to refer to Question 43 
(1784), as it, with the same answer, was retained in the 
Discipline of 1786. In the Annual Minutes for 1787 
we find the following: 

Ques. 17. What directions shall we give for the promotion of the 
spiritual welfare of the colored people? 

Ans. We conjure all our ministers and preachers by the love of 
God and the salvation of souls, and do require them by all the au- 
thority that is invested in us to leave nothing undone for the spiritual 
benefit and salvation of them within their respective circuits and 
districts, and for this purpose to embrace every opportunity of inquir- 
ing into the state of their souls, and to unite in society those who 
appear to have a real desire of fleeing from the wrath to come; to 
meet such in class, and to exercise the whole Methodist discipline 
among them. % 

From this till 1796 no mention was made of the 
subject except in the General Kules. There is noth- 
ing on the subject of slavery in the General Kules of 
Mr. Wesley, but we find the following in 1789: 

The buying or selling the bodies and souls of men, women, or 
children, with an intention to enslave them. 

In 1792 it reads: 

The buying or selling of men, women, or children, with an inten- 
tion to enslave them. 



472 History of Methodism 

In 1808 it takes this final form: 

The buying and selling of men, women, and children, with an in- 
tention to enslave them. 

"Articles of Agreement amongst the preachers" 
were signed at the several Conferences held for 1795, 
of which no account was published in the Minutes, 
since the action was not regarded as Conference busi- 
ness, and was only binding on those who signed, but 
of which Bishop Asbury makes the following record: 

The preachers almost unanimously entered into an agreement 
and resolution not to hold slaves in any State where the law will 
allow them to manumit them, on pain of forfeiture of their honor 
and their place in the itinerant connection, and in any State where 
the law will not admit of manumission they agreed to pay them the 
worth of their labor, and when they die to leave them to some per- 
son or persons, or the society in trust, to bring about their liberty. 

1796. The following section was introduced on the subject: 

Ques. What regulations shall be made for the extirpation of the 
crying evil of African slavery? 

Ans. 1. We declare that we are more than ever convinced of the 
great evil of the African slavery which still exists in these United 
States, and do most earnestly recommend to the yearly Conferences, 
quarterly-meetings, and to those who have the oversight of districts 
and circuits, to be exceedingly cautious what persons they admit to 
official stations in our Church, and in the case of future admission 
to official stations to require such security of those who hold slaves, 
for the emancipation of them, immediately or gradually, as the 
laws of the States respectively and the circumstances of the case 
will admit; and Ave do fully authorize all the yearly Conferences to 
make whatever regulations they judge proper, in the present case, 
respecting the admission of persons to official stations in our Church. 

2. No slave-holder shall be received into society till the preacher 
who has the oversight of the circuit has spoken to him freely and 
faithfully on the subject of slavery. 

3. Every member of the society who sells a slave shall imme- 
diately, after full proof, be excluded the society. And if any mem- 
ber of our society purchase a slave, the ensuing quarterly-meeting 
shall determine on the number of years in which the slave so pur- 



In South Carolina. 473 

chased would work out the price of his purchase. And the person 
so purchasing shall, immediately after such determination, execute 
a legal instrument for the manumission of such slave, at the expira- 
tion of the term determined by the quarterly-meeting. And in 
default of his executing'such instrument of manumission, or on his 
refusal to submit his case to the judgment of the quarterly-meeting, 
such member shall be excluded the society. Provided, also, that in 
. the case of a female slave, it shall be inserted in the aforesaid in- 
strument of manumission that all her children who shall be born 
during the years of her servitude shall be free at the following 
times, namely: Every female child at the age of twenty-one, and 
every male child at the age of twenty-five. Nevertheless, if t lie 
member of our society, executing the said instrument of manumis- 
sion, judge it proper, he may fix the times of manumission of the 
children of the female slaves before mentioned at an earlier age 
than that which is prescribed above. 

4. The preachers and other members of our society are requested 
to consider the subject of negro slavery with deep attention till the 
ensuing General Conference, and that they impart to the General 
Conference, through the medium of the yearly Conferences, or oth- 
erwise, any important thoughts upon the subject, that the Conference 
may have full light in order to take further steps toward the eradi- 
cating this enormous evil from that part of the Church of God to 
which they are united. [It may be worthy of remark that this is 
almost the only section upon which the bishops make no notes.] 
1800. The following new paragraphs were inserted: 
2. When any traveling preacher becomes an owner of a slave or 
slaves, by any means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character in our 
Church, unless he execute, if it be practicable, a legal emancipation 
of such slaves, conformably to the laws of the State in which he 
lives. 

6. The Annual Conferences are directed to draw up addresses for 
the gradual emancipation of the slaves to the Legislatures of those 
States in which no general laws have been passed for that purpose. 
These addresses shall urge, in the most respectful but pointed man- 
ner, the necessity of a law for the gradual emancipation of the 
slaves; proper committees shall be appointed by the Annual Con- 
ferences, out of the most respectable of our friends, for the con- 
ducting of the business; and the presiding elders, elders, deacons, 
and traveling preachers, shall procure as many proper signatures as 
possible to the addresses, and give all the assistance in their power 



474 History of Methodism 

in every respect to aid the committees, and to farther this blessed 
undertaking. Let this Le continued from year to year, till the 
desired end be accomplished. 

1804. The following alterations were made : 

The question reads : "What shall be done for the extirpation of 
the evil of slavery ? 

In paragraph 1 (1796) instead of "more than ever convinced," 
we have, " as much as ever convinced ; " and instead of "the African 
slavery which still exists in these United States," we have " slavery." 

In paragraph 4 (3 of 1796), respecting the selling of a slave, be- 
fore the words "shall immediately," the following clause is inserted: 
" except at the request of the slave, in cases of mercy and humanity, 
agreeably to the judgment of a committee of the male members of 
the society, appointed by the preacher who has the charge of the 
circuit." 

The following new proviso was inserted in this paragraph : "Pro- 
vided, also, that if a member of our society shall buy a slave with a 
certificate of future emancipation, the terms of emancipation shall, 
notwithstanding, be subject to the decision of the quarterly-meeting 
Conference." All after " nevertheless" was struck out and the follow- 
ing substituted : " The members of our societies in the States of 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, shall be 
exempted from the operation of the above rules." The paragraphs 
about considering the subject of slavery and petitions to Legisla- 
tures (namely, No. 4 of 1796, and No. 6 of 1800), were struck out, 
and the following added: 

" 5. Let our preachers, from time to time, as occasion serves, ad- 
monish and exhort all slaves to render due respect and obedience to 
the commands and interests of their respective masters." 

1808. All that related to slave-holding among private members 
(see 2 and 3 of 1796) struck out, and the following substituted : 

" 3. The General Conference authorizes each Annual Conference 
to form their own "regulations relative to buying and selling slaves." 

Paragraph 5 of 1804 was also struck out. 

Moved from the chair (Bishop Asbury or Bishop McKejidree) 
that there be one thousand forms of Discipline prepared for the use 
of the South Carolina Conference in which the section and rule on 
slavery be left out. Carried. 

1812. Paragraph 3 of 1808 was altered so as to read: 

"3. Whereas the laws of some of the States do not admit of 
emancipating of slaves without a special act of the Legislature, the 



In South Carolina. 475 

General Conference authorizes each Annual Conference to form 
their own regulations relative to buying and selling slaves." 

1816. Paragraph 1 (see 1796) Avas altered so as to read: 

"1. We declare that we are as much as ever convinced of the 
great evil of slavery ; therefore, no slave-holder shall be eligible to 
any official station in our Church hereafter, where the laws of the 
^tate in which he lives will admit of emancipation, and permit the 
liberated slave to enjoy freedom." 

1820. Paragraph 3 (see 1812), leaving it to the Annual Confer- 
ences "to form their own regulations about buying and selling 
slaves," was struck out. 

1824. The following paragraphs added : • 

"3. All our preachers shall prudently enforce upon our members 
the necessity of teaching their slaves to read the word of God, and 
to allow them time to attend upon the public worship of God on 
our regular days of divine service. 

"4. Our colored preachers and official members shall have all the 
privileges which are usual to others in the District and Quarterly 
Conferences, where the usages of the country do not forbid it. And 
the presiding elder may hold for them a separate District Confer- 
ence, where the number of colored local preachers will justify it. 

" 5. The Annual Conferences may employ colored preachers to 
travel and preach where their services are judged necessary, pro- 
vided that no one shall be so employed without having been rec- 
ommended according to the form of Discipline." 

In 1836 the following preamble and resolutions on 
the subject of Abolitionism were adopted: 

Whereas great excitement has prevailed in this country on the 
subject of modern Abolitionism, which is reported to have been in- 
creased in this city (Cincinnati) recently by the unjustifiable conduct 
of two members of the General Conference, in lecturing upon and in 
favor of that agitating topic; and Avhereas such a course on the part 
of any of its members is calculated to bring upon this body the sus- 
picions and distrust of the community, and misrepresent its senti- 
ments in regard to the point at issue ; and whereas in this aspect of 
the case, a due regard for its own character, as well as a just concern 
for the interests of the Church confided to its care, demand a full, 
decided, and unequivocal expression of the views of the General 
Conference in the premises. Therefore, 

1. Resolved, by the delegates of the Annual Conferences in General 



47G History of Methodism 

Conference assembled, That they disapprove in the most unqualified 
sense the conduct of two members of the General Conference whc 
are reported to have lectured in this city recently upon and in favoi 
of modern Abolitionism. 

2. Resolved, That they are decidedly opposed to modern Abo- 
litionism, and wholly disclaim any right, wish, or intention to inter- 
fere in the civil and political- relation between master and slave as 
it exists in the slave-holding States of this Union. 

o. Resolved, That the foregoing preamble and resolutions be pub- 
lished in our periodicals. 

The same General Conference (1836) adopted the 
report of the Committee on Slavery as follows: 

The committee to whom were referred sundry memorials from the 
North, praying that certain rules on the subject of slavery which 
formerly existed in our book of Discipline should be restored, and 
that the General Conference take such measures as they may deem 
proper to free the Church from the evil of slavery, beg leave to 
report that they have had the subject under serious consideration, 
and are of opinion that the prayers of the memorialists cannot be 
granted, believing that it would be highly improper for the General 
Conference to take any action that would alter or change our rules 
on the subject of slavery. Your committee, therefore, respectfully 
submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, by the delegates of the Annual Conferences in General Con- 
ference assembled, That it is inexpedient to make any change in our 
book of Discipline respecting slavery, and that we deem it improper 
further to agitate the subject in the General Conference at present. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

Accordingly, at the end of a tortuous and incon- 
sistent legislation, we find in 18-10 in the book of Dis- 
cipline, Part II., Section X. : 

Of Slavery. 

Question. What shall be done for the extirpation of the evil of 
slavery ? 

Answer 1 . We declare that we are as much as ever convinced of the 
great evil of slavery; therefore, no slave-holder shall be eligible to 
any official station in our Church hereafter, where the laws of the 



In South Carolina. 4H1 

State in which he lives will admit of emancipation, and permit the 
liberated slave to enjoy freedom. 

2. When any traveling preacher becomes an owner of a slave or 
slaves, by any means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character in 
our Church, unless he execute, if it be practicable, a legal emanci- 
pation of such slaves, conformably to the laws of the State in which 
he lives. 

3. All our preachers shall prudently enforce upon our members 
the necessity of teaching their slaves to read the word of God. and 
to allow them time to attend upon the public worship of God on our 
regular days of divine service. 

4. Our colored preachers and official members shall have all the 
privileges which are usual to others in the District and Quarterly 
Conferences, where the usages of the country do not forbid it. And 
the presiding telder may hold for them a separate District Confer- 
ence, where the number of colored local preachers will justify it. 

5. The Annual Conferences may employ colored preachers to 
travel and preach where their services are judged necessary ; pro- 
vided that no one shall be so employed without having been rec- 
ommended according to the form of Discipline. 

In formal interpretation of this section the same 
General Conference (1840) adopted the following reso- 
lution, viz.: 

Resolved, by the delegates of the severed Annual Conferences in Gen- 
ercd Conference assembled, That under the provisional exception of 
the general rule of the Church on the subject of slavery, the simple 
holding of slaves, or mere ownership of slave property, in States or 
Territories where the laws do not admit of emancipation and permit 
the liberated slave to enjoy freedom, constitutes no legal barrier to 
the election or ordination of ministers to the various grades of of- 
fice known in the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
cannot, therefore, be considered as operating any forfeiture of right 
in view of such election and ordination. 

The address of this same General Conference (1840) 
in response to the address of the British Conference 
says: 

Of these United States (to the government and laws of which. 



478 History of Methodism 

according to the division of power made to them by the Constitution 
of the Union and the constitutions of the several States, we owe and 
delight to render a sincere and patriotic loyalty) there are several 
which do not allow of slavery. There are others in which it is al- 
lowed, and there are slaves ; but the tendency of the laws and the 
minds of the majority of the people are in favor of emancipation. 
But there are others in which slavery exists so universally, and is so 
closely interwoven with their civil institutions, that both do the laws 
disallow of emancipation and the great body of the people (the 
source of law with us) hold it to be treasonable to set forth any 
thing, by Avord or deed, tending that way. Each one of all these 
States is independent of the rest, and sovereign with respect to its 
internal government (as much so as if there existed no confeder- 
ation among them for ends of common interest^, and therefore it 
is impossible to frame a rule on slavery proper for*our people in 
all the States alike. But our Church is extended through all the 
States, and as it would be wrong and unscriptural to enact a rule of 
discipline in opposition to the constitution and laws of the State, so 
also would it not be equitable or scriptural to confound the positions 
of our ministers and people (so different as they are in different 
States) with respect to the moral question which slavery involves. 
Under the administration of the venerable Dr. Coke, this plain dis- 
tinction was once overlooked, and it was attempted to urge emanci- 
pation in all the States; but the attempt proved almost ruinous, and 
was soon abandoned by the Doctor himself. While therefore the 
Church has encouraged emancipation in those States where the laws 
permit it, and allowed the freedman to enjoy freedom, we have re- 
frained, for conscience' sake, from all intermeddling with the subject 
in those other States where the laws make it criminal. And such a 
course we think agreeable to the Scriptures, and indicated by St. 
Paul's inspired instructions to servants in his First Epistle to the 
Corinthians, chapter vii., verses 20, 21. For if servants were not to care 
for their servitude when they might not be free, though if they might 
be free they should use it rather; so neither should masters be con- 
demned for not setting them free when they might not do so, though 
if they might they should do so rather. The question of the evil of 
slavery, abstractly cousidered, you will readily perceive, brethren, 
is a very different matter from a principle or rule of Church disci- 
pline, to be executed contrary to, and in defiance of, the law of the 
land. Methodism has always been (except perhaps in the single 
instance above) eminently loyal and promotive of good order; and 



In South Carolina, 479 

so we desire it may ever continue to be, both in Europe and America. 
With this sentiment we conclude the subject, adding the corrobo- 
rating language of your noble Missionary Society, by the revered 
and lamented Watson, in their intructions to missionaries, published 
in the report of 1833 as follows : As in the Colonies in which you 
are called to labor a great proportion of the inhabitants are in a 
state of slavery, the committee most strongly call to your remem- 
brance what was so fully stated to you when you were accepted as a 
missionary to the West Indies, that your only business is to promote 
the moral and religious improvement of the slaves to whom you 
may have access, without in the least degree, in public or private, 
interfering with their civil condition. 

Iii the General Conference of 1844 the following 
preamble and resolution were offered: 

Whereas the Discipline of our Church forbids the doing any thing 
calculated to destroy our itinerant general superin tendency, and 
whereas Bishop Andrew has become connected with slavery by 
marriage and otherwise, and this act having drawn after it circum- 
stances which in the estimation of the General Conference will 
greatly embarrass the exercise of his office as an itinerant general 
superintendent, if not in some places entirely prevent it; therefore, 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this General Conference that lie 
desist from the exercise of this office so long as this impediment 
remains. 

On this resolution Dr. Capers made the following 
speech: 

Mr. President: At no previous General Conference have the con- 
flicting opinions of the North and South in relation to slavery and 
abolition been so fully and strongly set before us and the community 
as at present. I wish it may prove for the better ; though I can 
hardly hope it will not for the worse. In what I have now on my 
mind to utter, I wish to call attention first to the unity of the 
Church, as it seems to me it ought to affect this question, inde- 
pendently of all sectional views in any quarter. 

Perhaps it has always been felt since the Church has been ex- 
tended over the whole country, North and South, that brethren who 
have occupied positions far North and South have been opposed to 
each other in their views of this subject. Possibly they have been 



480 History of Methodism 

too fur apart, in local position, to understand well each other's prin- 
ciples ; and the action has been as if a medical man should bestow 
all his care on a particular limb to cure a disease of the general 
system. Now, sir, if I know my heart, I approach this subject with 
an ardent and sincere desire to contribute something — if ever so 
little — to the conservation of the whole Church. Plowever wide a 
difference there may be — and I apprehend there is indeed a wide 
difference — between my views of slavery, as it exists among the 
Methodists in South Carolina, and the views of brethren of the 
North and East, I thank God to know and to feel that this difference 
of our views has never awakened in me, for one moment, a dispo- 
sition to inflict the slightest injury on any brother. If I have ever 
said aught against any one's good name, as a Christian or Christian 
minister, on account of this difference of opinion, or have cherished 
in my heart any other than Christian feelings toward any one for a 
cause which I deem so foreign from the true ground of faith and 
fellowship, I am not conscious of it. I have considered, sir, that 
our Church is one, and our ministry one, in spite of these opinions. 
My honored brother (Dr. Durbin) deprecates involving the North 
in a connection with slavery; and assumes that such must be the 
result, if Bishop Andrew is continued in the general superintenden- 
cy. But I hold, that if the North might be involved in the evil 
they so much deprecate, for the cause alleged, they are already in- 
volved by another cause. They are involved by the unity of the 
Church and the unity of our ministry. I thank God for this unity; 
a unity which stands not in the episcopacy only, but pervades the 
entire of our ecclesiastical constitution. We have not one episco- 
pacy only, but one ministry, one doctrine, one Discipline — every 
usage and every principle one for the North and the South. And 
in this view of the matter, I cannot but express my surprise that it 
should be said (and it has been said by more than one brother on 
this floor) that if the present measure should not pass it will ex- 
tend the evil of slavery over the North. It has been declared (and 
I thank brethren for the declaration) that it is not the purpose of 
any to oppress the South ; but they insist much and gravely on their 
duty to protect the North. It is easy to err in the application of 
abstract principles to practice ; and I must confess that in the pres- 
ent instance the application appears to my mind to be not only 
erroneous, but preposterous. What, sir, extend the evil of slavery 
over the North by a failure to carry the resolution on your table! 
What is slavery? What new slave would such a failure make? 



Lv South Carolina. 481 

What slave, now a slave, would it make more a bondman? Or who 
that is not now a slave-holder might be made a slave-holder? Not 
one more slave, nor one more slave-holder, can be made by the failure 
of the measure ; and yet brethren are bound to carry it, not that they 
may oppress the South, but merely that they may prevent an exten- 
sion of slavery over the North. It is, they say, a mere matter of 
self-preservation. As if for the cause that Bishop Andrew was made 
a slave-holder without his consent, by the will of the old lady who 
died in Augusta some years ago, all these brethren, and all they rep- 
resent, were about to be involved, or were already involved, in the 
same predicament with the bishop, whether they will or no. The 
phrase "connected with slavery" has been complained of as extremely 
indefinite; but I could not have thought that it was so indefinite as 
this hypothesis proceeds to make it. Bishop Andrew's "connection 
with slavery," brethren assure us, will carry the defilement to hun- 
dreds of thousands who are now clean, unless they prevent it by the 
passage of that resolution! I cannot trace this line of connection; 
I cannot fix its figure ; I cannot conceive of it as an actual verity. 
Mesmerism itself should not be more impalpable. But I am free to 
declare, sir, that I have no desire for the extension of slavery. I 
could wish no freeman to be made a slave. I could rather wish that 
slaves were freemen. I certainly could not wish my brethren who 
are served by freemen to be taxed with such incumbrances as some 
of us are who have slaves to serve us. 

Sir, I consider our circumstances in this debate quite too serious 
for extreme speculations on either side; but if brethren will indulge 
that way, they will allow me the benefit of inferences fairly deduci- 
ble from their own mode of reasoning. And I claim the inferences 
as fair from their argument on this point, that if they are involved, 
or likely to be involved, in the evil of slavery by their relation to 
Bishop Andrew, they are already involved, inextricably involved, 
unless they break up the Church, by the fact that they are akin to 
me. Yes, sir, they and I are brethren, whether they will or no. 
The same holy hands have been laid upon their heads and upon my 
head. The same vows which they have taken I ha\e taken. At 
the same altar where they minister do I minister; and with the 
same words mutually on our tongues. We are the same ministry, 
of the same Church. Not like, but identical. Are they elders? So 
am I. Spell the word. There is not a letter in it which they dare 
deny me. Take their measure. I am just as high as they are, and 
they as low as I am. We are not one ministry for the North, anil 
31 



482 History of Methodism 

another ministry for the South; but one, and one only, for the whole 
Church. And I cannot pass from this point without thanking 
Brother Green for his remarks, so fitly made with respect to this 
matter; the force of which, I am persuaded, cannot possibly be 
thrown off from this great question. Is the episcopacy for the 
whole Church? So is the ministry. And if the fact that a bishop 
is connected with slavery in the South, requires him to be suspended 
because he cannot, while so connected, exercise his functions accepta- 
bly at the North, the sarne must be concluded of the ministry ; 
which, as one for the whole Church, and having equal constitutional 
competency for the North or the South indifferently, must, in the 
same involvement as the bishop, become subject to like disability. 
Nor does the interference stop here, but it extends to the privileges 
of the membership of the Church, as well as the ministry. The 
wound inflicted by this thrust at the bishop goes through the entire 
Church. We are everywhere one Church — one communion. And 
may you refuse the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, or admission to 
a love-feast, to a member of the Church in Charleston, whose busi- 
ness may carry him to Boston, because in Boston you will have no 
connection with slavery? Admit, then, the principle assun»ed on 
the other side, and to what confusion will it not lead you? First, 
the bishop must surcease his functions. He may not be allowed to 
exercise them even in the slave-holding States ! Next, the ministry 
in the South must be declared incompetent to go North. Next, they 
miy not be allowed to minister at all, for fear of contaminating the 
immaculate North by their ministry as Methodists among the defile- 
ments of the South. And next (and by the easiest gradation), our 
people may be told that communicants at the South may not be com- 
municants at the North, and cannot be received as such. 

It has been said that the course of aggression from the beginning 
has been from the South toward the North, and not from the North 
toward the South. 

(Dr. Durbin interposed: "Dr. Capers misapprehends me. I said 
the course of concession, not aggression, had been from the North 
to the Southland not from the South to the North.") 

Dr. C. I understood the idea to be, that in the conflict on the 
subject of slavery, the North has been giving up to the South, and 
the South encroaching on the North. 

(Dr. D. "My words were, that the history of the legislation was 
a constant concession from the North to the South. That was all I 
said, and all I wished to say.") 



Ix South Carolina. 483 

Dr. C. I am glad to take the expression in the mildest form. 
And in what I have to answer, I must beg indulgence with respect 
to dates. I will thank any brother to supply the date for any fact 
that I may mention. 

This being a question, then, of North and South, we must first 
settle what the terms mean. What is North and what is South in 
this controversy? I now understand my brother to have said that 
the course of concession has been from the North to the South ; and 
I think he also said that these concessions have been made while 
the power in the Church was passing from the slave-holding to the 
non-slave-holding States. He carried his dates back to the beginning, 
and gave us North and South as far back as 1784. But what region 
was North, and what South, at that time? Our brother says the 
majority was South ; and where was the South in which that ma- 
jority dwelt? AVas it in the States of Louisiana, Mississippi, Ar- 
kansas, Alabama, Georgia or South Carolina? Where was the 
South of which the brother speaks, at the date he gives? A few 
years later, we find two or three missionaries sent into South Caro- 
lina and Georgia, but the very name of Methodism had not reached 
there in 1784. Our first missionary was sent into Mississippi from 
South Carolina in 1802, and into Alabama in 1808. But we had 
Maryland and Virginia for the South. Maryland and Virginia! 
What, the very center of the system South? And if Maryland and 
Virginia were the South, where was the North? AVas New York 
the North? What, a slave State North? As for New England, the 
bright morning of her birth had not yet dawned. There were no 
Methodists there. Is it not plain then that our brother found the 
power of the majority of the Church to have been in the South be- 
fore there was any South? and the North to have conceded to the 
South before there was either North or South ? W r hat concessions 
had one slave-holding State to make to another slave-holding State? 
Did ever Virginia ask concessions of Carolina, or Carolina of Vir- 
ginia? It is contrary to the nature of the case that they should. 
And until New York became a free State, what concessions had she 
to make to Maryland or Virginia? No, sir, this question of North 
and South belonged not to those days; and the " legislation" (as my 
brother calls it) of those times, and times still later (whether wise 
or unwise), is to be accounted for on very different grounds from 
what he has supposed. In those times, slavery existed by general 
consent, and even the atrocious slave-trade Mas carried on both by 
men of old England and New England, There was no jealousy in 



484 History of Methodism 

the State Legislatures of any interference of a hurtful or insur- 
rectionary tendency; and it was not deemed necessary to enact laws 
to limit the right or privilege of the master to manumit his slaves 
at will. In these circumstances our rules about slavery were com- 
menced. Rules, of the character or tendency of which it is not my 
purpose to speak; but which, whether good or bad, lax or severe, 
were not begun, or for many years continued in a struggle between 
South and North, slave States and free, but out of a common benevo- 
lence, in States similarly circumstanced, and without contravention 
of the laws. I cannot give date for the rise of our question of North 
and South, but I will say again, that it must date later than the time 
when the Northern slave-holding States were gradually and profit- 
ably disposing of their slaves; and the Southern slave-holding 
States, not yet apprehensive of the antagonistic interests that were 
to arise between Northern free States and Southern slave States, were 
comparatively indifferent about the course of things. The action of 
the Church was not a Southern or a Northern action, but such as 
was deemed admissible in the state of the laws where the Church 
existed. 

It has been urged that Mr. Wesley was an Abolitionist. 

(Dr. Durbin : " I take the liberty to say that I never said that of 
Mr. Wesley.") 

Dr. Capers: I presume you would not; and I do not think any 
one could, on mature reflection. Mr. Wesley wrote strong things 
against slavery. But he wrote equally strong things against repub- 
licanism and the revolution. And yet, when these United States 
had achieved their independence, who acted more kindly, or taught 
more loyal lessons toward our government than Mr. Wesley ? And 
I must say here that I am in possession of a piece of information 
about his anti-slavery principles which perhaps other brethren do 
not possess. The gentleman mentioned yesterday by Dr. Durbin (I 
mean Mr. Hammett) was for some time my school-master. My fa- 
ther was one of his first and firmest firiends and patrons, and a lead- 
ing member of his society, first in Charleston, and afterward in 
Georgetown, where for awhile I was his pupil. Owing to this, I 
suppose, at the death of his only son, not many years ago, I was 
given his correspondence with Mr. Wesley, during his residence as 
a Wesleyan missionary in the West Indies, and afterward in Charles- 
ton, till Mr. Wesley's death. The handwriting of Mr. Wesley is 
unquestionable, and I state on the authority of this correspondence 
that Mr. Wesley gave Mr. Hammett his decided countenance and 



In South Carolina. 485 

blessing while he was in Charleston, no less than when he was at 
St. Kitts. Here in South Carolina, then, Mr. Hammett formed a 
religious society in the South proper, and in the South exclusively, 
with Mr. Wesley's sanction, and for the avowed purpose of being 
more Wesleyan than what was called Mr. Asbury's Connection was 
thought to be ; and what rule did he adopt on slavery ? Why, no 
rule at all. My information is completely satisfactory to my own 
mind on this point; and I say, on the authority of that correspond- 
ence, and the testimony of my honored father, who lived till after I 
was myself a minister, that when Mr. Hammett, with Mr. Wesley's 
sanction, raised societies in South Carolina, neither did Mr. Ham- 
mett enjoin on those societies any rule respecting slavery, neither 
did Mr. Wesley direct or advise any such rule. And why not ? Can 
any one be at a loss to account for it? The reason plainly was the 
same which prevented Mr. Wesley, and after him the Wesleyan 
English Conference, from ever enjoining any rule respecting slavery 
for the missions in the West Indies, except that the missionaries 
should wholly refrain from intermeddling with the subject. The 
reason is found in the loyalty of Methodism and religion ; a princi- 
ple which no man knew better how to appreciate than Mr. Wesley. 
He knew not how to make rules against the law of the land ; and 
no example can be adduced in the history of British Methodism of 
disciplinary rules, on the subject of slavery, for any country, in ad- 
vance of the civil law. This is the ground on which the South now 
stands; and will the North take opposite ground? If they do, they 
may neither plead the authority of Mr. Wesley, the British Connec- 
tion, or Mr. Asbury for it. For myself, I must utterly abjure all 
right or pretension on the part of the Church to interfere with the 
State. Neither can I put myself, neither can I suffer myself to be 
put, in contact with the law of the land. 

I w r as glad to hear my brother say for the North that they have 
no intention to contravene the laws in our Southern States. I thank 
him for saying so, and I adjure them not to attempt to do that 
thing. I was glad to hear him say also that in the case of the ap- 
peal of Harding there was not a brother who voted to sustain the, 
action of the Baltimore Conference who did not do so under a full 
persuasion that he could have emancipated the slaves lawfully if 
he would. (Though I confess I cannot but fear that popular opin- 
ion was too much honored in that matter.) But this question of 
North and South, as it presents itself in the case before us, appears 
to m* to involve the Church in a peculiar way. In a case like that 



486 History of Methodism 

of Harding, lie and his triers, for all I know, may have belonged to 
the State of Maryland, whose laws were concerned, and may all 
have been reached by the officers of the law if they were deemed 
to be offenders. But in the case of Bishop Andrew, a citizen of the 
State of Georgia, whose laws are displeasing, say, to the people of 
New Hampshire or the North, is arrested by a General Conference 
composed (for two-thirds of it) of Northern men on an allegation 
that he (the citizen of Georgia) conforms himself to the laws and 
institutions of Georgia against the prejudices of the Northern peo- 
ple; and for this it is proposed to suspend him. It is as though 
you had reached forth a long arm from New Hampshire to Georgia 
to bring a citizen of the latter State to be punished by the preju- 
dices of the former for his loyalty to the State to which he be- 
longs. Such a proceeding cannot be right; and yet, I repeat, it 
appears to me that the present is very like such a proceeding. If 
our ecclesiastical jurisdiction extends to citizens of all the States, 
it must respect the laws of all alike, and oppose itself to none. 
What should it avail to admit the obligation of inferior officers and 
judicatures of the Church — such as deacons and elders, and Quar- 
terly and Annual Conferences — to respect the laws of their several 
States, while your highest officers and supreme judicature— your 
bishops and General Conference — should be withheld from their 
control, or even be allowed to censure or oppose them according to 
your prejudices? Patriotism and religion both require that we 
should bow to the supremacy of the laws, and to the supremacy of 
the laws of all the States alike. Those of the North, acting in this 
General Conference for the whole Church in all the States, have no 
more right to run counter to the constitution and laws of the State 
of Georgia than Ave of the South should have to oppose the laws of 
any of the Northern States. And can it have to come to such a pass 
with us that one is of the South because he respects the laws and 
constitutions of Southern States, and another is of the North be- 
cause he respects them not? South or North, the authority of the 
laws is the same, and the obligations of the Christian citizen to ob- 
serve the laws must be acknowledged the same. 

It has been urged that a bishop is only an officer of the General 
Conference, and that his election, and not his consecration, gives 
him his authority as bishop. And to prove this position, my re- 
spected brother (Dr. Durbin) referred for testimony to Dr. Coke, 
Mr. Asbury, and Mr. Dickens. But I could not but think there was 
one small particular wanting in the testimonv, the lack of which 



In South Carolina. 487 

spoiled it altogether for the use intended. The references of my 
brother were full enough, and to the point, if he had only meant to 
prove that a bishop is amenable to the General Conference, and that 
the General Conference has full power to put him out of office. But 
to reduce a bishop to a mere General Conference officer it was nec- 
essary to prove that that body had a right to displace him at will, 
with or without some crime alleged. And for this his authorities 
were lacking. No authority of Mr. Asbury, Dr. Coke, Mr. Dickens, 
or anybody else — before this case of Bishop Andrew caused it to be 
asserted on this floor — can be adduced for any such doctrine. If a 
bishop is no more than an officer of the General Conference, where- 
fore is he consecrated? Shall we be told also that elders and dea- 
cons are only officers of the Annual Conferences? What would be 
thought of a bishop by election, who, without consecration, should 
assume the functions of the episcopacy as if he had been ordained? 
Who could consent to such a usurpation? A bishop an officer of 
the General Conference only! And is it in such a capacity that he 
ordains and stations the preachers at the Annual Conferences? An 
officer of the General Conference only! Then were it both untrue 
and blasphemous to invest him with the office, with those holy 
words of the consecration service, "Receive the Holy Ghost for the 
office and work of a bishop in the Church of God, now committed 
to thee by the imposition of our hands, in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." But we are assured that 
a bishop must be considered as no more than an officer of the Gen- 
eral Conference, or else we shall incur the imputation of Puseyisni. 
And in a desperate effort to fulfill our purposes on Bishop Andrew, 
shall we strip the Church of every thing sacred, and reduce it to the 
level of a mere human association? Is there no position for the 
Church above that of a Free-mason's lodge, unless we hoist it on 
the stilts of the High-church conceit, to the pitch of Puseyism? 

Much has been said in this debate about the constitution as au- 
thorizing the measure which brethren propose to take with respect 
to Bishop Andrew, and I must beg to call attention to what appears 
to me the true ground with respect to that question. I am opposed 
to this measure in every aspect of it, and for many reasons, but its 
unconstitutionality forms, to my mind, its chief objection. 

But what is the constitution? and how should we interpret it? 

It is either the supreme disciplinary law of the whole Church, or 
it is that law of the Church by which the governing power is lim- 
ited. In the first sense, it is the embodiment of those principles 



488 History of Methodism 

which are deemed fundamental to the great object for which the 
Church, as a Christian community, was constituted. And in the 
second sense, it is that application of these principles to the govern- 
ing power (the General Conference in the present instance) which 
confines its action within the limits necessary to promote, and not 
hinder, the attainment of that same great object. And the inter- 
pretation of the constitution in either respect should always be such 
as conforms to the grand object of the Church's organization. This 
object is declared to be " the spreading of scriptural holiness over these 
lands,-' and whatever militates against this object must, therefore, be 
contrary to the constitution. As it respects the Church at large the 
constitution is contained in the Articles of Religion, and the Gen- 
eral Rules; as it applies to the General Conference, the Restrictive 
Rules are technically the constitution. Now, whatever else may be 
said about this constitution, it will not be denied that, 

It must be Christian — agreeing with the principles of the Old 
and New Testament. 

It must be Protestant — maintaining the Holy Scriptures as the 
only rule of faith and practice. 

And it must be consistent with the great object for which we have 
all along steadfastly held it to be our belief that God has raised us 
up. It must consist with our calling of God " to spread scriptural 
holiness over these lands." 

But in all these respects I must call in question the constitution- 
ality of the measure before us. Bishop Andrew is to be required to 
emancipate certain negroes, and to remove them from Georgia to 
some free State that he may be enabled to do so. This is not 
affirmed in so many Avords in the resolution on your table, but it is 
the deed which that resolution seeks to effect, the only contingency 
known in the resolution being the emancipation of the negroes, 
which can be effected in no other way but by their removal. No 
question is asked, or care taken, as to the age and infirmities of any 
of these negroes whom he is thus to take into a strange land and 
climate for emancipation, nor what may be the wants of childhood 
among them, nor what ties of kindred are to be sundered, but the deed 
must be done, and he must make haste to do it, for nothing else can 
restore him to his functions as a bishop. Now, this is unconstitution- 
al, for it is unchristian. Whatever odium may attach to slavery, 
many a slave would curse you for freedom thus procured, and Bishop 
Andrew, as a Christian man, not to say a Christian bishop, might 
not dare to sin against the law of love in the way you would require. 



In South Carolina. 489 

And it is unconstitutional because it is not Protestant. Our fifth 
article says: "The Holy Scriptures contain all things necessary to 
salvation, so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved 
thereby, is not to be required of any man that it should be believed 
as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salva- 
tion." And the twenty-third article says: "The president, the con- 
gress, the general assemblies, the governors, and the councils of 
state, as the delegates of the people are the rulers of the United 
States of America, according to the division of power made to them 
by the Constitution of the United States, and by the constitutions 
of their respective States." , Now, there is no injunction of the 
Holy Scriptures more positive than that which respects submission 
to the civil power; this power is recognized in our twenty-third 
article as existing in the general assemblies, etc., according to the 
constitutions of the respective States, and yet the resolution before 
us sets aside the injunction of the Scriptures, and the authority of 
the constitution and laws of Georgia, and makes your ipse dixit, 
uttered by the force of Northern prejudices, the supreme rule for the 
bishop's conduct — a rule which he must observe with or without his 
conscience, and for or against humanity and religion, or be laid 
aside from the holy duties of his sacred office because you arbitra- 
ril f demand it from your chair of ecclesiastical supremacy. I say 
this is not Protestant, and that it is unconstitutional because it is 
contrary to Protestantism. 

And it is unconstitutional, yet again, because it is inconsistent 
with the great object for which the Church has been constituted, as 
it must impede and hinder the course of our ministry in many of 
the States, and debar our access altogether to large portions of the 
colored population. 

I beseech brethren to allow clue weight to the considerations 
which have been so kindly and ably urged by others on this branch 
of the subject. I contemplate it, I confess, with a bleeding heart. 
Never, never have I suffered as in view of the evil which this 
measure threatens against the South. The agitation has already 
begun there, and I tell you that though our hearts were to be torn 
out of our bodies it could avail nothing when once you have 
awakened the feeling that we cannot be trusted among the slaves. 
Once you have done this thing, you have effectually destroyed us. 
I could wish to die sooner than live to see such a day. As sure as 
you live, brethren, there are tens of thousands, nay, hundreds of 
thousands, whose destiny may be periled by your decision on this 



490 History of Methodism 

Cease. When we tell you that we preach to a hundred thousand 
slaves in our missionary field, we only announce the beginning of 
our work — the beginning openings of the door of access to the most 
numerous masses of slaves in the South. When we add that there 
are two hundred thousand now within our reach who have no gospel 
unless we give it to them, it is still but the same announcement of 
the beginnings of the opening of that wide and effectual door which 
was so long closed and so lately has begun to be opened for the 
preaching of the gospel by our ministry to a numerous and destitute 
portion of the people. O close not this door ! Shut us not out from 
this great work, to which we have been so signally called of God. 
Consider our position. I pray you, I beseech you, by every sacred 
consideration, pause in this matter. Do not talk about concessions 
to the South. We ask for no concessions — no compromises. Do 
with us as you please, but spare the souls for whom Jesus died. If 
you deem our toils too light, and that after all there is more of 
rhetoric than cross-bearing in our labors, come down and take a 
part with us. Let this be the compromise if we have any. I could 
almost promise my vote to make the elder a bishop who should give 
such a proof as this of his devotion to — I will not say the emanci- 
pation of the negro race, but what is better — what is more constitu- 
tional and more Christian — the salvation of the souls of the negroes 
on our great Southern plantations. Concessions! We ask for none. 
So far from it, we are ready to make any in our power to you. We 
come to you not for ourselves, but for perishing souls, and we entreat 
you, for Christ's sake, not to take away from them the bread of life 
which we are just now beginning to carry them. We beg for this — 
I must repeat it — with bleeding hearts. Yes, I feel intensely on 
this subject. The stone of stumbling and rock of offense of former 
times, when George Dougherty, a Southern man and a Southern 
minister, and one of the wisest and best that ever graced our min- 
istry, was dragged to the pump in Charleston, and his life rescued 
by a sword in a Avoman's hand — the offense of the anti-slavery 
measures of that day has but lately begun to subside. I cannot, I 
say, forget past times, and the evil of them, when in those parts of 
my own State of South Carolina, where slaves are most numerous, 
there was little more charity for Methodist preachers than if they 
had been Mormons, and their access to the negroes was looked upon 
as dangerous to the public peace. Bring not back upon us the evil 
of those bitter days. I cannot forget how I felt when, thirty-three 
years ago, Riddlespurger, who kept a shop and sold rum and calico 



I^v South Carolina. 491 

on the Dorchester road, some twelve miles from Charleston, asked 
us to preach at his house, and told us of hundreds of negroes in the 
neighborhood who had never heard preaching, who would come to 
hear. And though he was a rum-seller, and I suspected his object 
— and hateful as it seemed to be associated with one whose business 
was a nuisance to the neighborhood — the man of rum — to Riddle- 
spurger's I went, and preached to the negroes at the risk of the 
duck-pond, where it was threatened to bate my zeal, till, finding 
that the preaching sold no more grog, or possibly being scared, the 
poor man begged us to desist from coming to preach — when my 
venerable colleague on this floor (Mr. Dunwody) left the city in the 
afternoon to go a distance in another direction to meet an assembly 
of negroes late at night by the light of the moon on the side of a 
swamp, to preach and administer the sacraments in the wild woods 
as if it had been a thing the daylight might not look upon, or 
Christian people countenance at their dwellings. Yes, sir, and I 
think lie was at it all night there in the woods, in the season and 
region of pestilence, and baptized and administered the holy eu- 
charist to some three hundred persons. 

Am I not correct (turning to Mr. Dunwody) — did you not bap- 
tize three hundred? 

(Mr. Dunwody: "I don't remember how many, but there were a 
great many.") 

I said, sir, that we ask for no concessions. We ask nothing for 
ourselves. We fear nothing for ourselves. But we ask, and we de- 
mand, that you embarrass not the gospel by the measure now pro- 
posed. Throw us back, if you will, to those evil times. But we 
demand that when you shall have caused us to be esteemed a sort 
of land pirates, and we have to preach again at such places as Rid- 
dlespurger's and Bantoule Swamp, you see to it that we find there 
the souls who are now confided to our care as pastors of the flock of 
Christ. Yes, throw us back again to those evil times, but see that 
you make them evil to none but ourselves. Throw us back, but 
make it possible for us to fulfill our calling, and by the grace of God 
we will endure and overcome, and still ask no concessions of you. . 
But if you cannot do this, if you cannot vex us without scattering 
the sheep and making them a prey to the wolf of hell, then do we 
sternly forbid the deed. You may not, and you dare not do it. I 
say again, if by this measure the evil to be done were only to in- 
volve the ministry, without harm or peril to the souls we serve, we 
might bow to the stroke without despair, if not in submissive 



492 History of Methodism 

silence We know the work as a cross-bearing service, and as such 
Ave love to accomplish it. It pleased God to take the life of the 
first missionary sent to the negroes, but his successor was instantly 
at hand. And in the name of the men who are now in the work, 
or ready to enter it, I pledge for a brave and unflinching persever- 
ance. This is not braggardism. No, it is an honest expression of 
a most honest feeling. Life or death, Ave will never desert that 
Christian Avork to which Ave knoAV that God has called us. We ask 
to be spared no trial, but that the Avay of trials may be kept open 
for us. We ask to be spared no labor, but that Ave may be permitted 
to labor on, and still more abundantly. Add, if you please, to the 
amount of our toils. Pile labor on labor more and more. Demand 
of us still more brick, or even the full tale of brick Avithout straAV 
or stubble, but cut us not off from the clay also. Cut us not off 
from access to the slaves of the South Avhen (to say nothing of 
"concessions to the South") you shall have finished the measure of 
your demands for the North. 

The resolution was adopted by yeas 111, nays 69. 
Dr. Capers then introduced the following resolutions, 
which opened the way to the plan of separation which 
was finally adopted: 

Be it resolved, by the delegates of all the Annual Conferences in Gen- 
eral Conference assembled, That Ave recommend to the Annual Con- 
ferences to suspend the constitutional restrictions Avhich limit the 
poAvers of the General Conference so far, and so far only, as to alloAv 
of the folloAving alterations in the government cf the Church, 
viz. : 

1. That the Methodist Episcopal Church in these United States 
and Territories, and the republic of Texas, shall constitute tAvo Gen- 
eral Conferences, to meet quadrennially, the one at some place South 
and the other North of the line Avhich noAv divides betAveen the 
States commonly designated as free States and those in Avhich slavery 
exists. 

2. That each one of the tAvo General Conferences thus constituted 
shall have full poAvers, under the limitations and restrictions Avhich 
are iioav of force and binding on the General Conference, to make 
rules and regulations for the Church Avithin their territorial limits, 
respectively, and to elect bishops for the same. 

3. That the tAvo General Conferences aforesaid shall severally 



In South Carolina. 493 

have jurisdiction as follows: The Southern General Conference 
shall comprehend the States of Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri, 
and the States and territories lying southerly thereto, and also the 
republic of Texas, to be known and designated by the title of the 
"Southern General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in the United States." And the Northern General Conference to 
comprehend all those States lying North of the States of Virginia, 
Kentucky, and Missouri, as above, to be known and designated by 
the title of the " Northern General Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the United States." 

4. And, be it further resolved, That as soon as three-fourths of all 
the members of all the Annual Conferences shall have voted on 
these resolutions, and shall approve the same, the said Southern and 
Northern General Conferences shall be deemed as having been con- 
stituted by such approval, and it shall be competent for the Southern 
Annual Conferences to elect delegates to said Southern General 
Conference, to meet in the city of Nashville, Tennessee, on the first 
of May, 1848, or sooner if a majority of two-thirds of the members 
of the Annual Conferences comprising that General Conference 
shall desire the same. 

5. And be it further resolved, as aforesaid, That the book concerns 
at New York and Cincinnati shall be held and conducted as the 
property and for the benefit of all the Annual Conferences as here- 
tofore — the editors and agents to be elected once in four years at the 
time of the session of the Northern General Conference, and the 
votes of the Southern General Conference to be cast by delegates of 
that Conference attending the Northern for that purpose. 

6. And be it further resolved, That our Church organization for 
foreign missions shall be maintained and conducted jointly between 
the two General Conferences as one Church, in such manner as 
shall be agreed upon from time to time between the two great 

" branches of the Church as represented in the said two Confer- 
ences. 

In December, 1844, the Committee on Division re- 
ported to the South Carolina Conference as follows : 

The committee to whom was referred the general subject of the 
difficulties growing out of the action of the late General Conference 
on the cases of Bishop Andrew and Brother Harding, and, in par- 
ticular, the report of the select committee on the declaration of the 
Southern and South-western delegates of the General Conference, as 



494 History of Methodism 

adopted by the Conference, and the proceedings of numerous Quar- 
terly Conferences and other meetings in all parts of our Annual 
Conference district, respectfully offer the following report: 

It appears to your committee, on the evidence of numerous docu- 
ments, and the testimony of the preachers in open Conference, that 
in all the circuits and stations of this Conference district the people 
have expressed their minds with respect to the action of the Gen- 
eral Conference, and the measures proper to be adopted in conse- 
quence of that action. Resolutions to that effect have been adopted 
by the Quarterly Conferences of all the circuits and stations with- 
out any exception, and in many, perhaps in most of them, by other 
meetings also, which have been called expressly for the purpose, and 
in some of them by meetings held at every preaching-place where 
there was a society. And on all these occasions there has been but 
one voice uttered — one opinion expressed — from the sea-board to 
the mountains, as to the unconstitutionality and injurious character 
of the action in the cases above-named ; the necessity which that 
action imposes for a separation of the Southern from the Northern 
Conferences, and the expediency and propriety of holding a conven- 
tion at Louisville, Ky., and of your sending delegates to it, agree- 
ably to the proposition of the Southern and Southwestern delegates 
of the late General Conference. 

Your committee also have made diligent inquiry both out of 
Conference and by calling openly in Conference for information 
from the preachers as to the number, if any, of local preachers or 
other official members, or members of some standing among us, who 
should have expressed, in the meetings or in private, a different 
opinion from that which the meetings have proclaimed. And the 
result of this inquiry has been that, in the whole field of our Con- 
ference district, one individual only has been heard to express him- 
self doubtfully as to the expediency of a separate jurisdiction for 
the Southern and South-western Conferences ; not even one as to 
the character of the General Conference action. Nor does it appear 
that this unanimity of the people has been brought about by popu- 
lar harangues, or any schismatic efforts of any of the preachers or 
other influential persons, but that it has been as spontaneous as uni- 
versal, and from the time that the final action of the General 
Conference became known at every place. Your committee state 
this fact thus formally that it may correct certain libelous imputa 
tions which have been cast on some of our senior ministers in the 
Christian Advocate and Journal, as well as for the evidence which it 



In South Carolina. 495 

furnishes of the necessity of the measures which are in progress for 
the relief of the Church in the South and South-west. 

Your committee also consider it due to state that it does not ap- 
pear that the action of the General Conference in the cases of the 
bishop and of Brother Harding proceeded of ill-will, as of purpose 
to oppress us, nor of any intended disregard of the authority of the 
Scriptures or of the Discipline, as if to effect the designs of a 
politico-religious faction, without warrant of the Scriptures, and 
against the Discipline and the peace of the Church. But they con- 
sider that action as having been produced out of causes which had 
their origin in the financial abolitionism of Garrison and others, 
and which being suffered to enter and agitate the Church, first in 
New England and afterward generally at the North, worked up 
such a revival of the anti-slavery spirit as had grown too strong for 
the restraints of either Scripture or Discipline, and too general 
through the Eastern, Northern, and North-western Conferences to 
be resisted any longer by the easy, good-natured prudence of the 
brethren representing those Conferences in the late General Con- 
ference. Pressed beyond their strength, whether little or much, 
they had to give way, and reduced (by the force of principles 
which, whether by their own fault or not, had obtained a controll- 
ing power) to the alternative of breaking up the Churches of their 
own Conference districts, or of adopting measures which they might 
hardly persuade themselves could be endured by the South and 
South-west, they determined on the latter. The best of men may 
have their judgments perverted, and it is not wonderful that under 
such stress of circumstances the majority should have adopted a 
new construction of both Scripture and Discipline, and persuaded 
themselves that in pacifying the abolitionists they were not unjust 
to their Southern brethren. Such, however, is unquestionably the 
character of the measures they adopted, and which the Southern 
Churches cannot possibly submit to, unless the majority who enacted 
them could also have brought us to a conviction that we ought to 
be bound by their judgment against our consciences, and calling of 
God, and the warrant of Scripture, and the provisions of the Dis- 
cipline. But while we believe that our paramount duty in our calling 
of God positively forbids our yielding the gospel in the Southern 
States to the pacification of abolitionism in the Northern, and the 
conviction is strong and clear in our own minds that we have both 
the warrant of Scripture and the plain provisions of the Discipline 
to sustain us, we see no room to entertain any pr< position for coin 



496 History of Methodism 

promise under the late action in the cases of Bishop Andrew and 
Brother Harding, and the principles avowed for the maintenance 
of that action short of what has been shadowed forth in the report 
of the select committee which we have had under consideration, and 
the measures recommended by the Southern and South-western del- 
egates at their meeting after the General Conference had closed its 
session. 

Your committee do therefore recommend the adoption of the 
following resolutions: 

1. Resolved, That it is necessary for the Annual Conferences in 
the slave-holding States and territories, and in Texas, to unite in a 
distinct ecclesiastical connection, agreeably to the provisions of the 
report of the select committee of nine of the late General Confer- 
ence, adopted on the 8th day of June last. 

2. Resolved, That we consider and esteem the adoption of the 
report of the aforesaid committee of nine by the General Confer- 
ence (and the more for the unanimity with which it was adopted) 
as involving the most solemn pledge which could have been given 
by the majority to the minority and the Churches represented by 
them, for the full and faithful execution of all the particulars speci- 
fied and intended in that report. 

3. Resolved, That we approve of the recommendation of the 
Southern delegates to hold a convention in Louisville on the 1st 
day of May next, and will elect delegates to the same on the ratio 
recommended in the address of the delegates to their constituents. 

4. Resolved, That we earnestly request the bishops, one and all, to 
attend the said convention. 

5. Resolved, That while we do not consider the proposed conven- 
tion competent to make any change or changes in the rules of dis- 
cipline, they may, nevertheless, indicate what changes, if any, are 
deemed necessary under a separate jurisdiction of the Southern and 
South-western Conferences. And that it is necessary for the conven- 
tion to resolve on and provide for a separate organization of these 
Conferences under a General Conference to be constituted and empow- 
ered in all respects for the government of these Conferences, as the General 
Conference hitherto has been with respect to all the Annual Con- 
ferences — according to the provisions and intention of the late Gen- 
eral Conference. 

6. Resolved, That as, in common with all our brethren of this 
Conference district, we have deeply sympathized with Bishop An- 
drew in his afflictions, an i believe him to have been blameless in 



In South Carolina. 497 

the matter for which he has suffered, so, with them, we affectionate- 
ly assure him of our approbation of his course, and receive him as 
not the less worthy, or less to be honored in his episcopal character 
for the action which has been had in his case. 

7. Resolved, That we recognize in the wisdom and prudence, the 
firmness and discretion exhibited in the course of Bishop Soule, 
during the General Conference — as well as in former instances 
wherein he has proved his devotion to the great principles of consti- 
tutional right in our Church — nothing more than was to be expected 
from the bosom friend of Asbury and McKendree. 

8. Resolved, That, in common with the whole body of our people, 
we approve of the conduct of our delegates, both during the Gen- 
eral Conference and subsequently. 

9. Resolved, That we concur in the recommendation of the late 
General Conference for the change of the sixth article of the Re- 
strictive Rules in the book of Discipline so as to allow an equitable 
pro rata division of the Book Concern. 

W. Capers, 
N. Talley, 

S. DlJNWODY, 

W. Smith, 

C. Betts, 

H. A. C. Walker, 

H. Bass, 

S. W. Capers, 

R. J. Boyd. 

As early as February, 1836, in view of the general 
aspect of the times and the excitement which had 
sprung up, threatening alike the public peace and the 
successful prosecution of the spiritual work of their 
faithful and laborious missionaries, the South Caro- 
lina Conference felt called upon to declare frankly 
and without reserve its opinions on the subject of 
Abolitionism : 

1. We regard the question of the abolition of slavery as a civil 
one, belonging to the State, and not at all a religious one, or appro- 
priate to tbe Church. Though we do hold that abuses, which may 
sometimes happen, such as excessive labor, extreme punishment, 
withholding necessary food and clothing, neglect in sickness or old 
32 



498 History of Methodism 

age, and the like, are immoralities to be prevented or punished by 
all proper means, both of Church discipline and the civil law — 
each in its sphere. 

2. We denounce the principles and opinions of the abolitionists 
in toto, and dp solemnly declare our conviction and belief that, 
whether they were originated, as some business men have thought, 
as a money speculation, or, as some politicians think, for party elec- 
tioneering purposes, or, as we are inclined to believe, in a false phi- 
losophy, overreaching or setting aside the Scriptures through a vain con- 
ceit of a higher moral refinement, they are utterly erroneous, and 
altogether hurtful. 

3. We consider and believe that the Holy Scriptures, so far from 
giving any countenance to this delusion, do unequivocally authorize 
the relation of master and slave: (1) By holding masters and their 
slaves alike as believers, brethren, and beloved; (2) by enjoining on 
each the duties proper toward the other; (3) by grounding their 
obligations for the fulfillment of these duties, as of all others, on 
their relation to God. Masters could never have had their duty 
enforced by the consideration, "Your MASTER also is in heaven" 
if barely the being a master involved in itself any thing immoral. 

Our missionaries inculcate the duties of servants to their masters 
as we find those duties stated in the Scriptures. They inculcate the 
performance of them as indispensably important. We hold that a 
Christian slave must be submissive, faithful, and obedient, for rea- 
sons of the same authority with those which oblige husbands, wives, 
fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, to fulfill the duties of these rela- 
tions. We would employ no one in the work who might hesitate 
to teach thus, nor can such a one be found in the whole number 
of the preachers of this Conference. 

In November, 1865, the last deliverance on this 
subject was made in the Pastoral Letter of the South 
Carolina Conference: 

Dearly Beloved Brethren: — Cherishing at all times a ten- 
der solicitude for the welfare of the flock over which the Holy Ghost 
has made us overseers, we find special reasons, as a body of Chris- 
tian ministers, to avail ourselves of the occasion of our coming to- 
gether in Annual Conference, to address to you a few words of salu- 
tary counsel and admonition. 

The close of the war, which during the last four years convulsed 
our entire country, and spread wasting and destruction within our 



In South Carolina. 499 

borders uncqnaled in the history of civilized nations, has left you 
not only politically and socially in greatly altered circumstances, 
but also, as members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 
several new and untried relations, out of which must grow corre- 
sponding obligations and duties of the gravest import. 

It is proper, first, to remind you, although the fact is too obvious 
to be readily overlooked, that for the adjudication of all questions 
relating to faith and morals, you are to look solely to the revealed 
will of God as contained in the canonical books of the Old and New 
Testament Scriptures. Hence, it is contained in the fifth article 
of our religion that "the Holy Scriptures contain all things nec- 
essary to salvation, so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may 
be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man that it should 
be believed as an article of faith, or be thought requisite or neces- 
sary for salvation." 

Notwithstanding this recognized standard of doctrine and of duty, 
there is a strange proclivity in the human mind to judge of the 
soundness of religious faith and practice, not by viewing them in the 
light of God's word, but in relation to his providences. Thus, in 
patriarchal times, Job was adjudged by his condoling friends to be 
guilty of enormous crimes, because extraordinary calamities were 
permitted to befall him. But God rebuked the presumption and 
corrected the error of this Arabian theology. " The Lord said to 
Eliphaz the Temanite, My wrath is kindled against thee and against 
thy two friends ; for ye have not spoken of me the thing that is 
right as my servant Job hath." Thus, when the blessed Saviour 
sojourned upon earth, and went about doing good, his disciples, on 
the occasion of his imparting sight to a man who was blind from his 
birth, "asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man or his par- 
ents, that he was born blind?" Detecting the false causes to which 
men are apt to refer the judgments of God, and repudiating the opin- 
ion on which the inquiry of his disciples was obviously founded, 
viz., that God's love and hatred are written upon his providential 
dealings, "Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, nor his 
parents, but that the works of God should be made manifest in him." 
Thus, also, in the Middle Ages whole nations sought the judgment 
of God through an appeal to the ordeal of fire and water, the trial 
by single combat, or walking blindfold over red-hot shovels or bars 
of iron. But the innocent were found to suffer equally with the 
guilty, and men were confounded and began at length to abandon 
their folly. Now the appeal to Heaven is taken by nations upon 



500 His toe y of Methodism 

some great principle, and multitudes suppose that the question at 
issue is divinely settled by the events of war. 

They who arrogate to themselves an apostolic spirit, and claim the 
right to dictate in religion, and think they see through the intrica- 
cies of Divine Providence, but who nevertheless have the same in- 
firmities and weakness of understanding with other men, and are 
blessed with no greater supernatural helps and revelations, should 
beware, lest joining confidence with weakness they pervert God's 
dealings with man, and distribute blessings and curses at random — 
often blessing whom God curses, and cursing whom he blesses, thus 
repeating the error of the barbarians mentioned in the Acts of the 
Apostles, who, when they saw the venomous beast hang on Paul's 
hand after he had escaped shipwreck, said among themselves, with 
the air of men who looked upon themselves as no ordinary persons 
in judging of such things, " No doubt this man is a murderer, whom, 
though he hath escaped the sea, yet vengeance suffereth not to live." 
Howbeit, when he shook oft* the beast into the fire and felt no harm, 
they changed their minds, and said he was a god. if prosperity or 
adversity, if success or failure in enterprise, constitute the rule by 
which you are to decide what is true or erroneous in faith, and right 
or wrong in practice, then you are lost in an endless labyrinth of 
perplexity and confusion, since there is no shade of religious be- 
lief, and no variety of human conduct which has not been accredited 
by some success, and discredited also by some reverse in the his- 
tory of God's permissive providence. Non eventu rerum, sed fide 
verborum stamus — " You are to stand to the truth of God's word, not 
to the event of things" — is therefore a wise theological maxim. The 
history of every age and nation has furnished an example of an af- 
flicted truth, or a prevailing sin. To be innocent and to be op- 
pressed are the body and soul of Christianity. For, although in the 
law of Moses, God made with his people a covenant of temporal 
prosperity , and "his saints did bind the kings of the Amorites and 
the Philistines in chains, and their nobles with links of iron, and 
then that was the honor which all his saints had;" yet in Christ 
Jesus he has made a covenant of suffering. All his doctrines and 
precepts expressly and by consequence enjoin and support sufferings. 
His very promises are sufferings; his beatitudes are sufferings; his 
rewards and his arguments to invite men to follow him are only 
taken from sufferings in this life, and the rewards of sufferings in the 
life to come. So that if you will serve, the King of sufferings, whose 
crown was of thorns, whose scepter was a reed of scorn, whose im- 



In South Carolina. 501 

perial robe was a scarlet of mockery, and whose throne was the 
cross, you must serve him in sufferings, in poverty of spirit, in hu-. 
mility and mortification, and for your reward have persecution and 
all its blessed consequences. 

Of all his apostles not one died a natural death but St. John 
only, and he escaped by a miracle the caldron of scalding lead and 
oil before the Port Latin, in Rome, only to live long in banishment, 
and to die at length an exile in Patmos, full of days and full of 
suffering. When St. Paul was taken into the apostolate, his com- 
mission was signed in these words of suffering : "I will show unto 
him how great things he must suffer for my name;" and ''I die 
daily," was the motto of his ever-afflicted life. For three hundred 
years together the Church was nourished by the blood of her own 
children. Thirty-three bishops of Rome in succession were put to 
violent and unnatural deaths, and all the Churches in the East and 
West were "baptized into the death of Christ." Their very pro- 
fession and institution was to live like him, and when he required 
it to die for him — this was the very formality and essence of Chris- 
tianity, insomuch that when Ignatius was newly tied in a chain to be 
led forth to his martyrdom he cried out, Nunc incipio esse Chris- 
tianus — "Now I begin to be a Christian." Of prosperous vice, on 
the other hand, the record is voluminous. The thirty-seventh and 
the seventy-third Psalms give a large description of the success and 
pride of bad men, many of whom spend their lives and end their 
days prosperously. "The prosperity of bad men, and the miseries 
and afflictions of the good were in those days a great difficulty in 
providence, and were so to the psalmist himself, and therefore it is 
certain that whatever he says of the righteousness of God, and his 
care of righteous men, and his abhorrence of all wickedness and 
injustice, cannot signify that God will always defend men in their 
just rights — that he will always prosper a righteous cause and 
righteous men — for this was against plain matter of fact, and we 
cannot suppose the psalmist so inconsistent with himself as in the 
same breath to complain that wicked men were prosperous and good 
men afflicted, and to affirm that the just and righteous Judge of the 
world would always punish unjust oppressors and protect the inno- 
cent. Nay, indeed, the very nature of the thing proves the con- 
trary, for there can be no unjust oppressors if nobody can be 
oppressed in their just rights; and therefore it is certain the Divine 
Providence docs, at least for a time, suffer some men to be very 
prosperous in their oppressions, and does not always defend a just 



502 History of Methodism 

and innocent cause, for if he did there could be no innocent op- 
pressed man to be relieved, nor any oppressor to be punished. And 
if it be consistent with the justice and righteousness of Providence 
to permit such things for some time, we must conclude that it is at 
the discretion of Providence how long good men shall be oppressed 
and the oppressor go unpunished." And there are very many cases 
of war, concerning which God may declare nothing; and although 
in such cases they that yield and quit their title, rather than their 
charity and the care of so many lives, are the wisest and best men, 
yet if neither party will do this, let none decree judgments from 
Heaven and thunder from their tribunals where no voice from God 
has declared the sentence. But in cases of evident tyranny and 
injustice do like the good Samaritan, who dressed the wounded man 
but never pursued the thief; do works of charity to the afflicted, 
and bear your wrongs with nobleness of soul, looking up to Jesus, 
who endured the cross, despising the shame; and never take upon 
you the office of God, who will judge the nations righteously, and 
when he has delivered up your bodies will rescue your souls from 
the hands of unrighteous oppressors. If he raises up the Assyrians 
to punish the Israelites, and the Egyptians to destroy the Assyrians, 
and the Ethiopians to scourge the Egyptians — at the last his own 
hand shall sever the good from the bad in the day when he makes 
up his jewels. 

Let no Christian man, therefore, make any judgment concerning 
his condition or his cause by the external event of things, but by 
the word of God. Let none distrust the Almighty or charge God 
foolishly because in the on-goings of his plan for the government 
of the world results are often evolved which fail to harmonize with 
the suggestions of finite wisdom: rather let all render a loving 
obedience to the will of Him who is just, and wise, and holy, and 
good, and cheerfully acquiesce in every dispensation of His provi- 
dence as constituting a part of that great disciplinary process by 
which the just are taught to live by faith and not by sight, and by 
which they are purified and strengthened for final victory. "Look 
not back upon him that strikes thee, but upward to God who sup- 
ports thee; and then consider if the loss of thy estate hath taught 
thee to despise the world ; whether thy poor fortune hath made thee 
poor in spirit, and if thy uneasy prison sets thy soul at liberty and 
knocks off the fetters of a worse captivity. For then the rod of 
suffering turns into crowns and scepters, when every suffering is a 
precept, and every change of condition produces a holy resolution; 



In South Carolina. 503 

and the state of sorrows makes the resolution actual and habitual, 
permanent and persevering. For as the silk-worm eateth itself out 
of a seed to become a little worm, and then feeding on the leaves 
of mulberries, it grows till its coat be off, and then works itself into 
a house of silk, then casting its pearly seeds for the young to breed, 
it leaveth its silk for man, and dies all white and winged in the 
shape of a flying creature — so is the progress of souls. When they 
are regenerated and have cast off their first stains and the skein of 
worldly vanities by feeding on the leaves of Scripture and the fruits 
of the vine and the joys of the sacrament, they encircle themselves 
in the rich garments of holy and virtuous habits, then by leaving 
their blood, which is the Church's seed to raise up a new generation 
to God, they leave a blessed memory and fair example, and are 
themselves turned into angels, whose felicity is to do the will of 
God, as their employment was in this world to suffer." 

But while the fifth article of our religion fixes for you an infal- 
lible standard of Christian doctrine and morals, the twenty-third 
article defines with great accuracy the political duties which you 
owe to the government which under the providence of God has 
been established over you. "The President, the Congress, the Gen- 
eral Assemblies, the Governors, and the Councils of State, as the 
delegates of the people, are the rulers of the United States of 
America, according to the division of power made to them by the 
Constitution of the United States and by the constitutions of their re- 
spective States. And the said States are a sovereign and independ- 
ent nation, and ought not to be subject to any foreign jurisdiction. 

"As far as it respects civil affairs, we believe it the duty of Chris- 
tians, and especially of all Christian ministers, to be subject to the 
supreme authority of the country where they may reside, and to 
use all laudable means to enjoin obedience to the powers that be, 
and therefore it is expected that all our preachers and people who 
may be under the British or any other government will behave 
themselves as peaceable and orderly subjects." 

Nowhere do we learn the qualifications of civil rulers or the du- 
ties of subjects as we learn them from the Bible; nor should we 
find these instructions there embodied if civil government were not 
ordained of God. The doctrine of the New Testament is, that 
"there is no power but of God;" that "the powers that be are or- 
dained of God." God announces in his word: "By me kings reign, 
and princes decree justice." All government in all the varied 
social relations rests upon the same basis. It is of divine right, 



504 History of Methodism 

Nor is it difficult to perceive that the only safe principle for a con- 
scientious man to adopt in order to acknowledge the supremacy of 
the laws is that they are the laws of the existing government. The 
perplexity would be endless if, in order to secure his allegiance, he 
must institute and decide the inquiry, Who possesses de jure the 
civil power? The fact is that almost all the governments that now 
exist, or of which there remains any record in history, were origi- 
nally founded in usurpation or conquest. There never was in any 
one family any long, regular succession in the Roman Empire. Their 
line of princes was continually broken, either by private assassi- 
nations or public rebellions. John the Baptist recognized the au- 
thority of a usurper when he said to the soldiers of Augustus : 
" Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely, and be content 
with your wages." The Saviour recognized the authority of a 
usurper when he said of the tribute-money of Tiberius: " Render 
unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto God the things 
that are God's." The Apostle Paul, in writing to the Christians at 
Rome, and then under the government of one of the most arbitrary 
and cruel tyrants, uses such language as the following : " Let every 
soul be subject to the higher powers; whoso resisteth the power, 
resisteth the ordinance of God. Therefore, ye must needs be 
subject, not only for truth, but for conscience' sake." The lan- 
guage of the Bible to Christians everywhere is, "Submit your- 
selves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake, whether it be 
to the king as supreme or unto governors." The Bible, however, 
nowhere advocates the doctrine of " passive obedience and non- 
resistance" to such an extent as to forbid all hope of relief from a 
wicked and tyrannical government, or to condemn the efforts of an 
intelligent and oppressed people in rising in their majesty to shake 
off a tyrannical yoke. The fact that the Bible establishes the au- 
thority of a government when thus revolutionized recognizes the 
right of revolution. There are rights of the people which are 
superior to the rights of their rulers, and which, when abused, jus- 
tify the people in throwing themselves back upon those principles 
of self-preservation which underlie all human laws, which are writ- 
ten deep and indelibly on the fleshly tables of the human heart, and 
are inseparably intertwined with the bone and sinew of an oppressed 
and injured community. Yet this unquestionable right of the peo- 
ple ought to be exercised with great prudence and discretion. It was 
a weighty remark of Fox, then the first nobleman of the British 
Empire, that "the doctrine of resistance is a principle which we 



In South Carolina. 505 

should wish kings never to forget, and their subjects seldom to re- 
member." The gratuitous charge that the division of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church in 1844 was designed by the Southern mem- 
bers to impair the integrity of the American Union by inviting to 
a corresponding political division, fabricated by designing persons" 
to render the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, an object of dis- 
trust to the General Government, never obtained credit propor- 
tionate to the zeal with which it was circulated, and signally failed 
of accomplishing its object. The Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, was from the beginning, and is now, loyal to the existing 
government, in conformity with her twenty-third article of religion. 
The solemn declaration of the Louisville Convention at the organi- 
zation of the Church must be taken as an honest statement of polit- 
ical sentiment and motive as far as they had influence in that im- 
portant movement. After pointing out the way in which such 
effect had been produced, it is declared that " the assumed conser- 
vative power of the Methodist Episcopal Church with regard to 
the civil union of the States is, to a great extent, destroyed, and we 
are compelled to believe that it is to the interest and becomes the 
duty of the Church in the South to seek to exert such conservative 
influence in some other form; and after the most mature deliber- 
ation and careful examination of the Avhole subject, Ave know of 
nothing so likely to effect the object as the jurisdictional separation 
of the great Church parties unfortunately involved in a religious 
and ecclesiastical controversy about an affair of State, a question of 
civil policy over which the Church has no control, and with which 
it is believed she has no right to interfere. Among the nearly five 
hundred thousand ministers and members of the Conferences repre- 
sented in this convention, we do not know one not deeply and in- 
tensely interested in the safety and perpetuity of the National 
Union, nor can we for a moment hesitate to pledge them all against 
any course of action or policy not calculated, in their judgment, to 
render that Union as immortal as the hopes of patriotism would 
have it to be. 

The question of a reunion of the Southern and Northern Method- 
ist Churches, which has been obtruded on your notice since the close 
of the war, can be most readily and satisfactorily determined, in the 
light of a history, of course, of the prominent facts relating to the 
separation, abridged from the records of the Church, and taken in 
connection at the same time with the spirit that has declared the 
policy regularly pursued by the Methodist Episcopal Church, North, 



506 History of Methodism 

against the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, since the period of 
division. The struggle that led to the separation was brought on by 
Southern defense against Northern invasion of the Discipline. 

By a law of the Church, made in 1840, it was 'declared that "the 
simple holding of slaves or mere ownership of slave property in 
States or Territories where the laws do not admit of emancipation 
and permit the liberated slave to enjoy freedom, constitutes no 
legal barrier to the election or ordination of ministers to the various 
grades of office known in the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and cannot, therefore, be considered as operating any for- 
feiture of right in view of such election and ordination." Although 
under the direct protection of this law, which in substance has been 
in existence in the Discipline of the Church since 1816, Bishop 
Andrew, of unimpeachable name, was deposed from the episcopacy, 
and the Rev. F. A. Harding, of unblemished character, was divested 
of his credentials by a majority of the General Conference of 1844. 
In review of this extraordinary transaction, it was remarked by- 
one of the ablest jurists of our country that "in the whole history 
of jurisprudence, in its actual administration throughout the civil- 
ized world, where duty is inculcated by law and rights are pro- 
tected by law, this is as clear and palpable an infraction of law as 
is to be found disgracing any of the pages of the books which 
illustrate the utter regardlessness of law in the early and dark and 
tyrannous ages of English jurisprudence." This palpable violation 
of the Discipline and consequent invasion of the rights of the min- 
istry guaranteed to them by the law of the Church Avas a prom- 
inent cause which impelled the Southern Conferences to the sepa- 
ration. The institution of slavery was the occasion, not the cause, 
of this unfortunate event, by developing a dangerous principle of 
action on the part of the majority of the General Conference of 
1844, which might as well have manifested itself in connection witli 
some other affair of State about which the Church essayed to legis- 
late in opposition to the law of the land, but which, as carried out 
in the case actually occurring, did, in fact, place the Southern Con- 
ferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church in a position directly 
antagonistic, on a question of civil policy, to the authorities of State 
in contravention of the twenty-third article of religion, and of the 
New Testament Scriptures. 

Among the many weighty reasons, also, which influenced the 
Southern Conferences in seeking to be released from the jurisdiction 
of the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as 



In South Carolina. 507 

then constituted, were the novel and dangerous doctrines practically 
avowed and indorsed by that body, and the Northern portion of the 
Church generally, with regard to the Constitution of the Church, 
and the constitutional rights and powers respectively of the episco- 
pacy and the General Conference. In relation to the first, it was 
confidently, although most unaccountably, maintained that the six 
short restrictive rules which were adopted in 1808, and first became 
obligatory as an amendment to the Constitution in 1812, were in fact 
the true and only Constitution of the Church. This theory assumes 
the self-refuted absurdity that the General Conference is, in fact, the 
government of the Church, if not the Church itself. With no other 
constitution than these mere restrictions upon the powers and rights 
of the General Conference, the government and discipline of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, as a system of organized laws and well- 
adjusted instrumentalities for the spread of the gospel and the dif- 
fusion of piety, and whose strong principles of energy and action 
have so long commanded the admiration of the world, would soon 
cease even to exist. The startling assumption that a bishop of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, instead of holding office under the 
constitution and by tenure of law, and the faithful performance of 
duty, is nothing in his character of bishop, but a mere officer at will 
of the General Conference, and may accordingly be deposed at any 
time with or without cause, accusation, proof, or form of trial, as a 
dominant majority may capriciously elect, or party interest suggest, 
and that the General Conference may do by right whatever is not 
prohibited by the restrictive rules, and with this single exception 
possess power supreme and all-controlling; and this in all possible 
forms of its manifestation, legislative, judicial, and executive, the 
same men claiming to be at the same time both the fountain and 
functionaries of all the powers of government, which powers, thus 
merged and concentrated into a common force, may at any time be 
employed at the prompting of their own interest, caprice, or ambi- 
tion. Such wild and revolutionary assumptions, so unlike the faith 
and discipline of Methodism, as they had been taught them, the 
Southern Conferences were compelled to regard as fraught with 
mischief and ruin to the best interests of the Church, and as fur- 
nishing a strong additional reason why they should avail them- 
selves of the warrant they then had, but might never again obtain 
from the General Conference, to establish an ecclesiastical connec- 
tion, embracing only the Annual Conferences in the slave-holding 
States. The whole constitutional argument, and indeed all the rea- 



508 History of Methodism 

sons impelling to the separation, are equally potent against the re- 
union of the Church. No possible advantages to be gained by a 
jurisdictional union in one General Conference can compensate for 
the evils that must necessarily result to the Southern Conferences 
from the action of a Northern majority clothed with the extraor- 
dinary powers still claimed for that body on questions in which the 
vital interests of the Southern Church are still directly involved. 
The spirit, moreover, that dictated the policy regularly pursued by 
the Northern Church against the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, since the period of separation, is not such as irresistibly to 
invite the Southern Conferences to return to the arms of an eccle 
siastical body with which, twenty years ago, they so anxiously strug- 
gled to make terms, and from which they at length obtained, under 
Providence, an honorable and happy release. When the struggle: 
came, in 1844, the Southern delegates, as they had often done before, 
manifested a most earnest desire, and did all in their power, to 
maintain jurisdictional union with the North, without sacrificing 
the interests of the South ; when this was found impracticable, a 
connectional union was proposed, and the rejection of this by the 
North led to the projection and adoption of the General Conference 
plan of separation. Every overture of compromise, every plan of 
reconciliation and adjustment regarded as at all eligible or likely to 
succeed, was offered by the South, and rejected by the North. All 
subsequent attempts at compromise failed in like manner, and when 
thus compelled to take their position upon the ground assigned them 
by the General Conference of 1844, as a distinct ecclesiastical con- 
nection, the Annual Conferences in the South, in view of still ad- 
justing the difficulties of this controversy upon terms and princi- 
ples that might be safe and satisfactory to both parties, passed, in 
convention, this parting resolution : 

Resolved, That while we cannot abandon or compromise the prin- 
ciples of action upon which we proceed to a separate organization 
in the South, nevertheless, cherishing a sincere desire to maintain 
Christian union and fraternal intercourse with the Church, North, 
Ave shall always be ready kindly and respectfully to entertain, and 
duly and carefully consider, any proposition or plan having for its 
object the union of the two great bodies in the North and South, 
whether such proposed union be jurisdictional or connectional. 

This valedictory overture of adjustment was met by an abrogation 
of the plan of separation, and writing us down in their books as 
schismatics. This parting invitation to open up fraternal intercourse 



In South Carolina, 509 

with us was met by a rejection of our messenger, and proclaiming 
us heretics. This last call to look upon us at least as Christians, and 
the subsequent request to deal with us in commutative justice, and 
to restore to us our own, was met by a more tenacious grasp of our 
property, and treating us as outlaws. They have waged an unceas- 
ing ecclesiastical war against us, all the more relentless as they have 
wronged us so deeply. They have followed in the rear of military 
expeditions and taken possession of our churches. They have made 
haste and delayed not to organize Annual Conferences within the 
limits of our jurisdiction. But the authorized judicatories of our 
country have erased from the records the charge of schism and 
heresy against us ; recognized us as under the protection of law, and 
restored to us our property. And now, after a twenty years eccle- 
siastical war upon us, the suggestion of reunion with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, North, urged by assurances of advantage to the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, coevil with her, and in all 
respects coequal, falls on cautious ears. TLmeo Danao.% et dona fe- 
rentes — "We fear the Greeks, even when they offer presents." 

As a distinct and separate organization, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, has a great mission to fulfill, and if faithful to her 
trust under God is secure for all time to come. Like one of those 
rocking stones reared by the Druids, which the finger of a child 
might vibrate to its center, yet the might of an army could not 
move from its place, our system is so nicely poised and balanced 
that it seems to sway with every breath of opinion, yet so firmly 
rooted in the heart and affections of our people that the wildest 
storms of opposing fanaticism must break over it in vain. 

The peculiar circumstances of the times render it necessary to 
urge upon your attention the claims of the ministry upon your 
sympathy and support. The results of the late war have deprived 
many of them of the means which they formerly possessed, and 
which they cheerfully employed in the great and godly work to 
which they had devoted themselves. Some of those who for many 
years have labored in your service, and helped you greatly in your 
heavenward pilgrimage, are now left utterly destitute and wholly 
dependent upon God and the sympathies of the Church, while the 
widows and orphans of those who have lived and died in the 
Master's vineyard turn their eyes to you in this hour of their sorest 
need. The present affords, perhaps, the noblest opportunity you 
have ever had of illustrating the Christian law of love and benevo- 
lence, and laying up for yourselves treasure in heaven. The provi 



510 History of Methodism 

dence of God has recently shown yon how insecure and uncertain 
are all earthly riches, and admonished you to use the goods intrusted 
to you as stewards of our Lord, making "to yourselves friends of 
the mammon of unrighteousness, that when ye fail they may receive 
you into everlasting habitations." 

It is in seasons of trial like the present, and when our own 
necessities seem to demand all our efforts and our care, that Faith 
enacts its brightest deeds and records its sublimest triumphs. So 
was it with the widow of Sarepta when she used her last handful 
of meal to make the prophet's bread. So was it when another 
widow cast her mites into the treasury of the Lord and gave all the 
living which she had. So was it with the disciples at Antioch dur- 
ing the famine in the days of Claudius Csesar, when every man, ac- 
cording to his ability, sent relief to the brethren which dwelt in 
Judea. So was it with the Churches of Macedonia, of whom St. 
Paul bore witness " how that in a great trial of affliction the abun- 
dance of their joy and their deep poverty abounded unto the riches 
of their liberality." So was it with the Philippians, whose generous 
remembrance of St. Paul prompted them to send to the relief of his 
necessities once and again at Thessaloniea, and afterward to Pome, 
by the hands of Epaphroditus. Surely if they have sown unto you 
spiritual things, you should gladly minister to them your carnal 
things. 

We should not fully perform our duty in this Address, beloved 
brethren, if we did not exhort you to maintain with all diligence 
the integrity and purity of your Christian character in the midst of 
the severe ordeal through which the providence of God is calling 
yoa to pass, and so to use the afflictions of these times "that they 
may work out for you a far more exceeding and eternal weight of 
glory." " We have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the 
end of the Lord, that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy." 
"Let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and 
entire, Avanting nothing." It is the old lesson of our Christianity, 
that through much tribulation we must enter into the kingdom of 
God. Poverty and sufferings have been the lot of the faithful in 
all ages, and these have developed the stern and manly virtues of 
th» Christian character. The shaking of kingdoms, the confusion 
of human plans, and the turbulent agitation of human passions, are 
only preparatory to the establishment of that kingdom which shall 
never be shaken — to the order and harmony of that system which 
shall never be changed — and to the' introduction of that perfect 



Ix South Carolina. 511 

spiritual tranquillity which shall never be disturbed. So far from 
being unsettled in our faith by all these things, we should rather 
feel that the word of God is made more sure, for the Scriptures 
have taught us that these things must needs be before the end come. 
And surely these earthly disorders and losses should excite in us 
the more ardent desire for those immutable and everlasting joys 
which await us in the life to come. "Set then your affections on 
tilings above, and not on things on the earth. For ye are dead, and 
your life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ, who is your 
life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory." 
Happy are they whose earthly losses are thus made to turn to their 
heavenly gain. 

It is in times of darkness like the present, when the ways of 
Providence are intricate and mysterious, and his designs are to hu- 
man minds utterly unaccountable, when Reason is baffled in all her 
efforts to comprehend the plans and ends of Infinite Wisdom, that 
Faith reposes in sublime composure upon tiie eternal word of truth, 
and awaits with patience the solution of the problem, under the firm 
and unalterable conviction that "the Lord God omnipotent reign- 
eth." Soon shall the elemental storm subside, and our ark, which 
has been tossed upon the waves of this deluge, shall rest in calm se- 
curity upon the celestial Ararat, and we shall walk out amid the 
glories of the new heaven and the new earth, delivered from all 
fears of future convulsion or revolution, beholding the beautiful en- 
sign of our safety in the "rainbow round about the throne." 

The duties growing out of the new relation which you are called 
to sustain to the negroes of the South, in so far as they affect their 
religious condition and spiritual welfare, are not essentially different 
from those which have always commended themselves heretofore to 
your Christian judgment, and which have received at your hands a 
faithful and zealous performance. While under your provident 
management and kind treatment, this portion of our population 
was made to surpass in the enjoyment of all the physical comforts 
of life the corresponding classes of society in every nation of the 
globe, at the same time, through the active instrumentalities which 
your Christian liberality cherished and employed for their religious 
rescue, thousands have been brought from "darkness to light," and 
transferred from the kingdom of Satan to the kingdom of God. It 
can hardly be supposed that within the limits of a Conference 
whose Church-members have furnished, in their annual contribu- 
tions, more than thirty thousand dollars to extend the privileges of 



512 History of Methodism. 

the gospel to the negroes, any Christian man can be found willing 
to forego the laudable effort to elevate the race in the scale of in- 
tellectual, moral, and religious improvement. The same system of 
instrumentalities, with slight changes to adapt it to the new circum- 
stances in which they are placed, may be employed for their spirit- 
ual welfare, and we bespeak your continued and active cooperation 
to render it effective. Continue, as heretofore, your arrangements 
for their accommodation in all the churches, that, frecuienting the 
schools of catechetical instruction, and occupying their accustomed 
places in the house of God, they may receive from the lips of a 
pure and spiritual ministry the messages of the gospel, and rejoice 
with you in the participation of the benefits of a common salvation. 

Wherefore, beloved brethren, dwelling in the communion of a 
Church enjoying, as at present constituted, great unity and peace, 
looking to the word of God as an infallible standard of Christian 
and political ethics, in conformity with the articles of our holy relig- 
ion, with a firm trust and confidence in Almighty God, and a cheer- 
ful acquiescence in all the dispensations of his providence, address 
yourselves with renewed ardor and zeal to every private, domestic, 
and public duty as Christian men and Christian patriots. Cherish 
an ardent affection for the Church of your fathers, and strive to 
make yourselves worthy members of the same by diligently reading 
God's holy word, reverently keeping all his commandments, and 
punctually attending on all the ordinances of his house, that there- 
by all our people, becoming holy in their lives and godly in their 
conversations, may be an ornament to their profession, and make 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, a praise in the land. 

"Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things 
are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, 
whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, 
if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these 
things." 

The Lord bless you, and keep you. The Lord make his face 
shine upon you, and be gracious unto ycu. The Lord lift up his 
countenance upon you, and give you peace. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



But for such proof as the nature of the thing allows, I appeal to 
ray manner of life which hath been from the beginning. Ye who 
have seen it (and not with a friendly eye), have ye ever seen any 
thing like the love of gain therein ? Ye of Savannah and Frederica, 
among whom God afterward proved me, and showed me what was 
in my heart, what gain did I seek among you ? Of whom did I 
take any thing? Or whose food or apparel did I covet (for silver 
or gold had ye none, no more than I myself for many months), even 
when I was in hunger and nakedness? Ye yourselves and the God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ know that I lie not. But sup- 
pose the balance on the other side — let me ask you one plain ques- 
tion : For what gain (setting conscience aside) will you be obliged 
to act thus? to live exactly as I do? For what price will you 
preach (and that with all your might — not in an easy, indolent, fash- 
ionable way) eighteen or nineteen times every week ; and this 
throughout the year? What shall I give you to travel seven or 
eight hundred miles, in all weathers, every two or three months? 
For what salary will you abstain from all other diversions than the 
doing good and the praising God ? I am mistaken if you would not 
prefer strangling to such a life, even with thousands of gold and 

Silver? (John Wesley.) 

THE second American Conference, in 1774, agreed 
to the following particulars : 

1. Every preacher who is received into full connection is to have 
the use and property of his horse, which any of the circuits may 
furnish him with. 

2. Every preacher to be allowed six pounds Pennsylvania cur- 
rency (sixteen dollars) per quarter, and his traveling charges be- 
sides (sixty-four dollars per year). 

3. For every assistant to make a general collection at Easter, in 

33 (513) 



514 History of Methodism 

the circuits where they labor, to be applied to the sinking of the 
debis on the houses, and relieving the preachers in want. 

4. "Wherever Thomas Rankin (general assistant) spends his 
time, he is to be assisted by those circuits. 

In 1779: 

Question 7. Shall any preacher receive quarterage who is able to 
travel and does not? 

Answer. No. 

Question 8. In what light shall we view those preachers who re- 
ceive money by subscription ? 

Answer. As excluded from the Methodist Connection. 

Iii 1780: 

Question 14. What provision shall Ave make for the wives of mar- 
ried preachers ? 

Answer. They shall receive an equivalent with their husbands 
in quarterage, if they stand in need. [The allowance made abso- 
lute in 1796.] 

Iii 1782: 

Question 12. What shall be done to get a regular and impartial 
supply for the maintenance of the preachers ? 

Answer. Let every thing they receive, either in money or cloth- 
ing, be valued by the preachers and stewards at quarterly-meeting, 
and an account of the deficiency given in to the Conference, that 
they may be supplied by the profits arising from the books and the 
Conference collections. 

In 1784: 

Question 39. How is this (amount necessary for the salaries of 
preachers and their waves) to be provided ? 

Answer. By the circuits proportionally. 

Question 40. What shall be allowed the married preachers for 
the support of their children ? 

Answer. For each of their children under the age of six years 
let them be allowed six pounds Pennsylvania currency [sixteen 
dollars] ; and for each child of the age of six and under the age of 
eleven, eight pounds [twenty-one and one-third dollars]. 

In 1787: 

Question. Are not many of our' preachers and people dissatis- 



Lv South Carolina. 515 

fied with the salaries allowed our married preachers who have 
children? 

Answer. They are. Therefore, for the future, no married preacher 
shall demand more than forty-eight pounds Pennsylvania currency. 
[One hundred and twenty-eight dollars.] 

In 1789 was added the following: 

Nota Bene: That no ministers or preachers, traveling or local, 
shall receive any support, either in money or other provision, for 
their services, without the knowledge of the stewards of the circuits, 
and its being properly entered quarterly on the books. 

In 1792: 

Question 3. What plan shall we pursue in appropriating the 
money received by our traveling ministers for marriage-fees ? 

Answer. In all the circuits where the preachers do not receive 
their full quarterage, let all such money be given into the hands of 
the stewards, and be equally divided between the traveling preach- 
ers of the circuit. In all other cases, the money shall be disposed 
of at the discretion of the District Conference. 

The Nota Bene (1789) was also modified so as to read: 

No minister or preacher whatsoever shall receive any money for 
deficiencies, or on any other account, out of any of our funds or col- 
lections, without first giving an exact account of all the money, 
clothes, and other presents of every kind, which he has received the 
preceding year. 

In 1800: 

1. The annual salary of the traveling preachers shall be eighty 
dollars and their traveling expenses. 

2. The annual allowance of the wives of traveling preachers shall 
be eighty dollars. 

3. Each child of a traveling preacher shall be allowed sixteen 
dollars annually to the age of seven years, and twenty-four dollars 
annually from the age of seven to fourteen years; nevertheless, this 
rule shall not apply to the children of preachers whose families are 
provided for by other means in their circuits respectively. 

4. The salary of the superannuated, worn-out, and supernumer- 
ary preachers shall be eighty dollars annually. 

5. The annual allowance of the wives of superannuated, worn- 
out, and supernumerary preachers shall be eighty dollars. 



516 History of Methodism 

G. The annual allowance of the widows of traveling, superannu- 
ated, worn-out, and supernumerary preachers shall be eighty dollars. 

7. The orphans of traveling, superannuated, worn-out, and su- 
pernumerary preachers shall be allowed by the Annual Conferences, 
if possible, by such means as they can devise, sixteen dollars an- 
nually. 

In 1804 the following was inserted in clause 3 
(1800) before nevertheless: 

And those preachers whose wives are dead shall be allowed for 
each child annually a sum sufficient to pay the board of such child 
or children during the above term of years. 

In 1816 the allowance of all preachers and their 
wives was raised to one hundred dollars. 
In 1824, under clause 2 (1800), it was added 

But this provision shall not apply to the wives of those preach- 
ers who were single when they were received on trial, and marry 
under four years, until the expiration of said four years. 

In 1828, clause 7 (1800) was altered so as to read as 
follows : 

The orphans of traveling, supernumerary, superannuated, and 
worn-out preachers shall be allowed by the Annual Conferences the 
same sums respectively which are allowed to the children of living 
preachers. And on the death of a preacher leaving a child or chil- 
dren without so much of worldly goods as should be necessary to 
his, her, or their support, the Annual Conference of which he was a 
member shall raise, in such manner as may be deemed best, a yearly 
sum for the subsistence and education of such orphan child or chil- 
dren, until he, she, or they shall have arrived at fourteen years of 
age ; the amount of which yearly sum shall be fixed by a committee 
of the Conference at each session in advance. 

In 1832 the following new clause was inserted: 

8. The more effectually to raise the amount necessary to meet the 
above-mentioned allowances, let there be made weekly class collec- 
tions in all our societies where it is practicable ; and also for the 
support of missions and missionary schools under our care. 

In 1836 the regulation respecting " those who marry 



In South Caeolixa. 517 

under four years " was stricken out, and the bishops 
mentioned by name as standing on the same footing 
with other traveling preachers. The clauses 1, 2, 4, 
and 5 (1800), were thrown into two, as follows: 

1. The annual allowance of the married traveling, supernumer- 
ary, and superannuated preachers, and the bishops, shall be two 
hundred dollars and their traveling expenses. 

2. The annual allowance of the unmarried traveling, supernu- 
merary, and superannuated preachers, and bishops, shall be one 
hundred dollars and their traveling expenses. 



South Carolina Conference Institutions. 
The Minutes of 1831 say: 

Much has been said of late respecting the support of the itiner- 
ant ministers. Some have seemed to be alarmed at their " Funds," 
and with as little information as brotherly kindness have labored to 
expose them to the world as a set of mercenary men. Others better 
informed, and whose feelings were as kind as their information was 
accurate, have both vindicated their character and proved that there 
was need of " Funds " to secure them, in many cases, from extreme 
distress. Without argument on the subject either way in the pres- 
ent place, we submit the constitutions of the several societies and 
trusts instituted by the South. Carolina Conference. On any subject 
facts form the best ground of appeal ; and by reference to these it 
may be seen that, for the support of itinerant ministers regularly in 
the work, we ask no more, and would have no more, than the 
amounts stipulated by the Discipline, viz.: To each preacher, one 
hundred dollars; to each wife of a preacher, one hundred dollars; 
to each child over seven and under fourteen years old, twenty-four 
dollars; to each child under seven years old, sixteen dollars. And 
where there is a family, such an additional allowance for table ex- 
penses and fuel as may be judged necessary by a committee of the 
Quarterly Conference (not ministers) of the circuit or station where 
the minister belongs. 

This last-mentioned allowance has not been extended to the su- 
perannuated or worn-out preachers and their families. And when 
it is considered that they have worn out their strength in the service 
of the Church, under circumstances utterlv forbidding of their la3 r - 



518 History of Methodism 

ing up money for their after support, who would forbid the little 
(alas, too little!) pains we take to procure them some assistance? 
And especially in the view of the notorious fact that, insufficient as 
the allowance of one hundred dollars must be to furnish them with 
such things as are absolutely needful, the moneys at the disposal of 
the Conference for this use, from year to year, have always fallen 
short of making up even that small amount. 

We reckon the widows and orphans of preachers who have died 
in the work as deserving a place in this first class of beneficiaries. 
And to support this claim we need only refer to that peculiarity of 
the Methodist economy which requires unconditionally of every 
preacher to go wherever he may be sent — whether among the healthy 
mountains or the sickly swamps. Let the reader pause and answer 
whether the Church ought not to provide at least a moiety toward 
the subsistence of the widows and orphans of those who have thus 
both lived and died for the work's sake. 

Beyond these objects there is a third, and no more (as far as the 
members of the Conference are concerned), for which we judge 
some provision ought to be made — namely, the education of the 
children of the preachers. The expense of this we are unable to 
meet by any means derived from the Church ; and few of us are 
able to meet it by other means. Judge ye, brethren, from what you 
know of us, whether a society for such a purpose formed within the 
Conference, ought not to receive your kind encouragement. 

Besides " the trust for the relief of the superannuated or worn- 
out preachers, and the widows and orphans of preachers," and " the 
society of the South Carolina Conference for the relief of the chil- 
dren of its members," there is under the control of the Conference 
a trust for the relief of cases of extraordinary distress of the widows 
and orphans of either traveling or local preachers ; and of preach- 
ers themselves, whether itinerant or local, who may be in pressing 
want from " long family sickness, loss of crops, burning of houses," 
etc. This is usually denominated " the fund of special relief," and 
was instituted, at the recommendation of Bishop Asbury, in the 
year 1807. The amount now vested in this fund, since the late divis- 
ion of the Conference district, is three thousand and six hundred 
dollars — the interest of which is annually applied to such objects 
as are contemplated by its constitution. The two former institutions 
are of late origin. Some steps were taken toward the formation of 
the society for the education of our children, at the Conference of 
1823 ; and subsequently to that period the preachers have conti ib- 



In South Carolina. 519 

uted among themselves to this object from year to year, but with 
little or no assistance from other persons. At our late Conference 
the society received its present organization. And at the same time 
the trust for the relief of the superannuated or worn-out preachers 
was instituted. 

The Trust for the relief of the superannuated or worn-out preachers and 
the widows and orphans of preachers. 

Constitution. 

Whereas there is no certain provision made for the support of 
the superannuated or worn-out preachers and their families, or for 
the widows and orphans of preachers who have died in the work, 
beyond the annual allowance of one hundred dollars to each super- 
annuated preacher, or wife or widow of a preacher, and sixteen or 
twenty-four dollars, as the case may be, to each one of their chil- 
dren — and this insufficient annuity is not usually made up to them — 
the South Carolina Conference deems it proper to constitute within 
itself a society for the purpose exclusively of raising moneys and 
applying them toward the relief of persons of the descriptions above 
mentioned, belonging to this Conference ; provided, that in all cases 
the sums appropriated to an individual or family shall not be more 
than so much as, in addition to the sum or sums received by him, 
her, or them from the Conference, shall raise his, her, or their whole 
allowance to the amount of a fair average of the whole allowance 
of the members of the Conference, and their families, on the circuits 
and stations generally. 

And in order to the accomplishment of these objects, the follow- 
ing regulations are adopted : 

1. The Conference shall elect seven of its members, who, under 
the title of Trustees of the Superannuated Preachers' Fund, shall 
receive the contributions of the preachers and ot]ier benevolent per- 
sons aiding this interest; and shall have the management of all 
moneys and other effects given or bequeathed to the Conference for 
the relief of such persons as are herein contemplated ; provided, 
that no superannuated preacher shall be a trustee; and that as often 
as there shall be a vacancy in the board, by death or otherwise, the 
Conference shall fill such vacancy by election, as at first. 

2. The Board of Trustees shall have regular meetings, either on 
a day shortly previous to the session of Conference, or early in the 
session; and shall report to Conference fully every year the amount 
of money or other means in its possession; how such moneys shali 



520 History of Methodism 

have been employed, and on what security; and what appropria- 
tions, agreeably to the purport of this trust, shall have been made. 

3. A part of all moneys given to this trust (not forbidden by the 
giver), and a part of the interest of all moneys at interest, shall be 
annually divided among the superannuated or worn-out preachers 
and their families, and the widows and orphans of deceased preach- 
ers. But the whole amount, either of moneys contributed or of the 
annual interest of the trust, shall not be so divided and applied 
unless, in the judgment of the Conference expressed by vote, the 
capital of the trust shall have been increased to a sufficient amount 
to secure to the persons intended to be served an allowance equal 
to that of the efficient members of the Conference generally, and 
their wives and children. Beyond which amount the Conference is 
pledged not to suffer it to be increased. 

The Society of the South Carolina Conference for the relief of the chil- 
dren of its members. 

Constitution. 
The sole objects of the institution of this society, the designation 
ol which shall be "The Society of the South Carolina Conference 
for the relief of the children of its members," are the education and 
comfortable subsistence of the children of living or deceased minis- 
ters of the South Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. Which objects the society hopes to accomplish, to some 
considerable extent, not only by the yearly or life subscriptions of 
its members, but also by the contributions of pious friends; there 
being provided in this society, as we trust, a suitable medium for 
the communication of their charities. 

And for the preservation inviolate of the design of the society, 
and the exact appropriation of all its means in conformity to this 
design as above expressed, the good faith of the members of the 
society and its Board of Managers stands solemnly pledged, by their 
individually signing this instrument, with the Articles following: 

Article 1. There shall be an annual meeting of the society, co- 
incident with the meeting of the Conference, and on a day not later 
than the fourth after its commencement (the particular day to be 
fixed previously, and made known by the Board of Managers), at 
which annual meeting the board shall present a minute account of 
its transactions, and especially the receipts and expenditures of the 
past year. 

Aiit. 2. The Board of Managers shall consist of the President, 



Lv South Carolina. 521 

Vice-president, Secretary, Treasurer, and not fewer than three nor 
more than seven other members of the society, to be elected at each 
annual meeting. Which board shall be intrusted with the entire 
management of the affairs of the society during its recess, and be 
charged with making such regulations, subject to inspection and 
amendment by the society, as shall secure the faithful performance 
of the duties and trusts of its officers, particularly the Treasurer. 

Art. 3. Two-thirds of the yearly interest of the funds of the 
society, and a part of all donations or legacies in money, at the dis; 
cretion of the Board of Managers, shall be applied to the immediate 
relief of such children as shall be selected by the board, except as 
provided in Article 5. 

Art. 4. Any person subscribing the preamble and articles form- 
ing this instrument (which is intended and received as the Consti- 
tution of the society), and paying two dollars yearly, or twenty dol- 
lars at one time, shall be a member of the society. 

Art. 5. Any person making a donation or bequest to this society 
with the intention of benefiting some particular child or children of 
the description it proposes to serve, and designating such child or 
children, shall have the amount of such donation or bequest strictly 
appropriated to such child or children only. 

Art. 6. These Articles shall not be liable to alteration or change 
unless on the recommendation of the Board of Managers at an 
annual meeting of the society, and by a vote of two-thirds of the 
members composing such meeting. 

By-laws. 

1. The President of the society (or in his absence the Vice-pres- 
ident) when present in the board shall act as its President. And in 
like manner the Secretary of the society shall be ex officio Secretary 
of the Board of Managers. 

2. The Treasurer shall have the care of all moneys, papers, or 
other available effects of the society; shall be the organ of the 
board in putting out the moneys of the society on interest, and col- 
lecting the same ; and shall keep a regular account, in a book pro- 
vided for that purpose, of all contracts, receipts, and expenditures 
of the board. 

3. The Board of Managers may meet at any time during the 
recess of the Conference, either at the call of the President or by 
previous adjournment; but the annual meeting of the board, pre- 
paratory to the annual meeting of the society, shall be on the even- 



h 



522 History of Methodism 

ing of the first day of the session of Conference, and at the place of 
its session. 

4. The board shall make an annual exhibit, both to the society 
and to the Conference, of the full amount of its funds; in what they 
are invested and on what securities; and of the amount of interest 
and of donations or legacies obtained during the year. 

5. The board shall present annually to the society and to the 
Conference a list of the children who shall have been assisted, and 
the sums granted for each child during the year, and shall cause the 
same to be published previously to the adjournment of the Conference. 

The Fund of Special Relief. 
( 'ONSTITUTIOX. 

Whereas there are a number of widows and orphans, both of itin- 
erant and local ministers, in very indigent circumstances ; and among 
both these classes of ministers there do also often occur cases of 
pressing pecuniary need ; and whereas there has been no provision 
made by the General Conference for the relief of such cases; now, 
therefore, it has seemed advisable to the South Carolina Conference, 
with the advice of the venerable Bishop Asbury, to institute, and it 
does hereby institute, a trust for that special purpose, under the reg- 
ulations following, to wit: 

1. The Conference shall elect seven of its members for this trust, 
who shall be designated by the title of the Board of Trustees of the 
Fund of Special Belief ; and as often as there shall occur a vacancy 
in the board, by death, resignation, or otherwise, such vacancy shall 
be filled by the Conference, so as to keep up the number of seven 
trustees perpetually. 

2. The Board of Trustees shall have authorityto receive contri- 
butions of any kind for this trust, and to invest, under full security, 
on interest whatever they receive. 

3. The board shall not appropriate any thing from this fund till 
it shall have amounted to a sum yielding an interest of one hundred 
dollars or more annually. It shall then be its duty to call for infor- 
mation in the Conference yearly concerning the most necessitous 
widows and orphans of either traveling or local preachers within 
the Conference district; and such preachers, of either class, as shall 
have fallen into circumstances calling specially for relief, as by sick- 
ness, loss of crops, burning of houses, arrest for debt, and such like ; 
and according to the interest of the fund, excepting two per cent, to 
increase the caphal, smh cases shall be relieved. The board may 



In South Carolina. . 523 

also extend relief to needy parents of preachers ; and, on the rec- 
ommendation of a bishop, may make a donation to the necessitous 
of other Conferences; provided, nevertheless, that no appropriation 
or gift by the board shall be made without the consent of the An- 
nual Conference. 

4. The Board of Trustees shall report to the Conference, from 
year to year, the amounts received for this fund, the amount of the 
interest it affords, the amount appropriated, and the persons to whom 
appropriations shall have been made, and on what accounts they 
each have been assisted, all which shall be published under its di- 
rection. 

Report of the board to the Conference February 1, 1831 : 
The Board of Trustees of the Fund of Special Relief respectfully 
report that the whole amount of interest arising from the fund for 
the year past, after deducting two per cent, to be added to the capi- 
tal, is $153.80. This amount the board has concluded to distribute 
among the following persons, and in the proportion of the sums an- 
nexed. 

Here follow the names of five widows — three of 
traveling and two of local preachers — and of two 
superannuated and two local preachers. 

These constitutions were regularly published in the 
Minutes till 1838, when the following resolutions were 
adopted by the Conference without any dissent : 

Whereas it is manifest that unless the members of this Confer- 
ence do all take a deep interest in the establishment of the institu- 
tions of the Church within our bounds they must fail of support, 
and it is most desirable for us to act harmoniously, promptly, and 
zealously for their maintenance ; therefore, 

1. Resolved, That by the publication of the constitutions and by- 
laws of the fund of special relief, the trust for the superannuated 
preachers, and the society of the South Carolina Conference for the 
education and subsistence of children of its members, in connection^ 
with the Minutes of Conference, it is not intended, and they ought 
not to be used, to make direct applications to our people for contri- 
butions to these objects; but the intention solely is to keep our 
friends informed of the "existence of these charities, their character 
and objects, that as they may deem good they may contribute for' 
their support. 



524 History of Methodism 

2. Resolved, That, at the present juncture, it is of the greatest 
consequence to procure a house and lot in Charleston by purchase 
for the use of the Southern Christian Advocate and the book-store to 
be established with it; and we pledge ourselves to use our best "en- 
deavors in our circuits and stations this year to raise money for the 
same, and particularly to speak favorably of the object in every 
society in our circuits, showing how important it is, and inviting 
subscriptions. 

3. Resolved, That on being furnished with a circular by the pub- 
lishing committee, Ave will each use the same as a subscription paper, 
and offer it as extensively as we can. 

In 1849 a Joint Board of Finance was organized, and 
at the session of the Conference for 1850 a new finan- 
cial plan was adopted as follows: 

A Joint Board of Finance having been organized by the last An- 
nual Conference, they have, after due deliberation, agreed to present 
to this Conference the following Plan to raise the amount necessary 
to meet the current claims of the Conference : 

1. It shall be the duty of the board, after ascertaining the whole 
amount of claim against them, annually to apportion the same to 
the several circuits and stations in the Conference district, and each 
preacher having charge of a circuit or station shall furnish his suc- 
cessor with the amount apportioned to his charge. 

2. Each preacher shall make all necessary efforts to collect the 
amount apportioned to his charge by the board. 

3. The preacher in charge of each circuit shall (at the close of 
the Conference-year) fix the first appointment for his successor at 
the church nearest the parsonage (or place of boarding), and shall 
allow him thereafter at least one week to arrange for the year, dur- 
ing which time (the day to be fixed the preceding year by the 
preacher and stewards) the stewards shall hold the first meeting at 
the parsonage or place of boarding, at which it shall be the duty of 
each steward to attend. 

4. Each board of stewards, respectively, shall ascertain the whole 
claim against the circuit for the current year, both for quarterage 
and. traveling expenses, as definitely as possible; they shall then 
make an estimate of the family expenses of the preacher or preach- 
ers of the circuit, including servant's hire and house rent (if a 
house be rented), and the entire claim against the circuit for the cur- 



In South Carolina. 525 

rent year shall be apportioned to the several congregations compos- 
ing the circuit fortlrwith — each congregation being notified imme- 
diately of the amount it is expected to collect. 

5. The stewards shall divide the congregations composing the 
circuit among themselves, and shall make all necessary efibrts to 
collect the amounts apportioned to them. 

6. It shall be the duty of the stewards to open subscription books 
in each congregation to meet the current claims — and shall also 
cause public collections to be taken up, if they deem it necessary, 
for the same purpose. 

7. The stewards shall settle icith the preachers quarterly, and to this 
end the subscriptions shall be taken in quarterly installments. 

8. The Conference collections for the support of our bishops and 
superannuated preachers, widows and orphans of preachers — and to 
meet deficiencies in quarterage claims — shall be taken up in each 
congregation as early in the year as practicable. 

9. The board of district stewards shall be a standing board for 
four years ; provided, nevertheless, should any vacancy occur in the 
board, such vacancy shall be supplied by the Quarterly Conference, 
and the district steward shall be charged with collecting the amount 
apportioned to the circuit or station where he resides. 

10. The board of district stewards shall be charged with the 
work of supplying the district parsonage with suitable furniture, and 
shall be authorized to take up collections in their respective charges 
for that object. 

11. Each member of this joint board, and more especially the 
chairman thereof, shall feel it his duty to be active in endeavoring 
to improve the financial condition of the Church by written corre- 
spondence, or otherwise, with the stewards and other leading brethren 
of the several circuits and stations — and by public addresses to the 
Church at suitable times and occasions. 

12. That the circuit stewards shall make arrangements early in 
the year, if they deem it necessary, to receive from the congrega- 
tions assigned to them respectively such provisions as they may be 
able to give for the support of the preacher's family, which shall be 
delivered at the parsonage, at market prices, and shall be placed to 
the credit of the circuit as family expenses. 

Iii 1869, by order of the Conference, this financial 
plan was subjected to revision, and the committee ap- 
pointed for that purpose made the following report: 



526 History of Methodism 

The committee charged with the revision of the financial plan 
of the Conference have given the whole subject mature deliberation, 
feeling profoundly impressed with a sense of its vital, if not para- 
mount, importance to the sacred and immortal interests of the 
Church, for the time to come. 

With impressions such as these, entertained, it is hoped, in the 
fear of God, changes have been made to accommodate the plan, as 
far as possible, to the conflicting opinions which are found to exist 
in the body of the Conference. And these changes have been made 
in a spirit of Christian conciliation, with the fact abundantly de- 
monstrated by the practical results, as embodied in the returns of 
collections from about one-fourth of the charges, of the entire prac- 
ticability, we might say the easy practicability, of the plan. In 
some of the charges it has been executed to the letter — every claim 
having been fully met with comparative ease, and greatly to the 
relief and satisfaction of the stewardship and all members of the 
Church who feel an interest in the matter. 

These changes, then, having been thus made, and your committee 
being also impressed with a conception of the difficulty which is 
found in bringing any plan into general and harmonious operation, 
and feeling at the same time that this is essentially necessary to 
success, urgently and affectionately entreat unity of sentiment and 
concurrence of action upon the plan which shall be herewith agreed 
upon. 

Plan of Operations. 

1. That as soon as the preacher arrives, it shall be the duty of 
the respective boards of stewards to meet and determine the whole 
amount to be raised for the support of the Church for the Confer- 
ence-year — the Conference collections excepted. That at the first 
Church-meeting, or convenient time thereafter, this matter shall be 
brought by the stewards, or steward (whether station or circuit), be- 
fore the membership, and provision made for raising the amount 
required, either by assessments upon all the members of the Church, 
previously agreed upon by the board, and reported and assented to 
at this first meeting, or by the assumption of entirely voluntary 
obligations on the part of the members, in response to the call of 
the stewards, to the full amount needed. 

2. That on the stations collections be made by the stewards 
monthly. That these collections be reported to a monthly meeting 
of the stewards, which meeting shall aggregate and order the dis- 
bursement, through the secretary and treasurer of the board, to the 



In South Carolina. 527 

pastor, presiding elder, etc. ; the financial result of each month's 
operations to be reported (the amount eacli member has paid being 
read out) to the monthly Church-meetings. 

o. That on the circuits collections shall be made by the stewards 
quarterly, the assessments or voluntary obligations having been 
made or taken to be thus paid, whether in provisions or money. 
That these collections shall be reported to quarterly-meetings of the 
boards of stewards, whi